Different Kinetics of Chicken Interferon-alpha Signalling Transduction Responses Following Immunization of Broiler Chickens with Different Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccines and Infection with Virulent Genotype VIId Strain.
This study will aid in the discovery of new approaches to control NDV. PMID: 33146541 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Hassanin O, Abdallah F, Ali HA, AlGabr N, Mohamed MHA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

New strategies to prevent and control avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC).
Abstract Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infections are associated with major economical losses and decreased animal welfare. In broiler production, APEC infections have traditionally been controlled by antibiotics resulting in an increased prevalence of antibiotic resistant E. coli. Concerns have been raised that transfer of antibiotic resistant APEC via the food chain may result in risks for extraintestinal infection of humans related to zoonotic transfer and to increased difficulties in the treatment of human infections caused APEC related E. coli types. In this review, the risks associated with APEC a...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Christensen H, Bachmeier J, Bisgaard M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A case of clubbed down syndrome in broilers.
This study presents a case of clubbed down syndrome in conventional broilers. During the first week of life, severe growth retardation was observed in approximately 25% of the flock. The growth retarded chicks weighed only 45 g and showed a typical feather disorder which was most apparent on their abdomen and was defined in literature as typical for clubbed down syndrome. Necropsies, histology, biochemical analysis of blood and liver samples, serology and different PCR tests were performed in broilers to assess the etiology of the clinical signs that were present in the affected broiler farm. Because of the suspicion of a ...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Tommy VL, Stefan R, Dominiek M, Johan VE, Jan VG, Marc V, Filip B, An G, Richard DJAD Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of host systems for efficient isolation and propagation of duck Tembusu virus.
In conclusion, our findings supported the use of BHK-21 cells as a host system for primary isolation of all circulating phylogenetic clusters of DTMUV from duck clinical samples. This study highlights the importance of selecting the most appropriate host system for efficient isolation and propagation of DTMUV from duck clinical samples. PMID: 33146547 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Tunterak W, Ninvilai P, Tuanudom R, Prakairungnamthip D, Oraveerakul K, Thontiravong AAAA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Heat stress impairs egg production in commercial laying hens infected by fowl typhoid.
Abstract Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) is a avian-restricted pathogen that causes fowl typhoid in poultry. Although it has been reported frequently over many decades in poultry flocks worldwide, the microorganism is more commonly associated with poultry in developing countries, particularly those with high ambient temperatures, where the acute form of the disease results in considerable economic losses. A more detailed investigation of environmental factors that affect the course of disease may assist in identifying effective prevention and control measures. Heat stress is known to impair the immunological response t...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 4, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Rubio MDS, Rodrigues Alves LB, Viana GB, Benevides VP, Lima TS, Santiago Ferreira T, Almeida AM, Barrow PA, Berchieri Junior A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Comparison of three filter paper-based devices for safety and stability of viral sample collection in poultry.
Abstract RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: 1. The detection limits of the FTA® card, DBS and FP for CVI988 detection were 0.5 pfu/5 µl, 0.5 pfu/5 µl and 5 pfu/5 µl, respectively. 2. All paper-based devices could preserve viral DNA for at least 30 days of post spot. 3. The DBS card and FP are not suitable for collecting NDV samples, which is one of the major economical threats for the poultry industry worldwide. PMID: 33059461 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - October 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Wannaratana S, Thontiravong A, Pakpinyo S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Efficacy of a Turkey Herpesvirus double construct vaccine (HVT-ND-IBD) against challenge with different strains of Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and Marek's disease viruses.
Abstract RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: - A double construct HVT vaccine with the NDV F and the IBDV VP2 genes was prepared, - The vaccine protects against three important diseases: MDV, NDV and IBDV, - In ovo and subcutaneous vaccination was evaluated in the field in commercial chickens. PMID: 33063529 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - October 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: van Hulten MCW, Cruz-Coy J, Gergen L, Pouwels H, Ten Dam GB, Verstegen I, de Groof A, Morsey M, Tarpey I Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Success rates of inoculation of the various compartments of embryonated chicken eggs at different incubation days.
In conclusion, the present study may serve as guide to more accurately inoculate the various chicken embryo compartments. Highlights of research Blind inoculation of embryonated egg compartments was successful, except for the amniotic cavity. MRI showed rapid position change of albumen and yolk after turning eggs upside down. In ovo vaccination against Marek's disease might be improved by using 38 mm needles. PMID: 33034512 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Manders TTM, Matthijs MGR, Veraa S, van Eck JHH, Landman WJM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Infectivity and pathobiology of H7N1 and H5N8 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses for pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica).
ez M, Perlas A, Majó N Abstract Avian influenza (AI) is one of the most important viral diseases in poultry, wildlife and humans. Available data indicates that pigeons play a minimum role in the epidemiology of AI. However, a degree of variation exists in the susceptibility of pigeons to highly pathogenic AI viruses (HPAIVs), especially since the emergence of the goose/Guangdong H5 lineage. Here, the pathogenesis of H5N8 HPAIV in comparison with a H7N1 HPAIV and the role of pigeons in the epidemiology of these viruses were evaluated. Local and urban pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica) were intranasally i...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Sánchez-González R, Ramis A, Nofrarías M, Wali N, Valle R, Pérez M, Perlas A, Majó N Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Localization of goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus in naturally infected geese using in situ hybridization.
Abstract Goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) is the etiological agent of hemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of geese (HNEG), a fatal disease that impacts geese and has been recorded only in Europe. The present study describes the first clinical cases of HNEG in Taiwan and the phylogenesis of Taiwanese GHPV, and it elucidates the pathogenesis of GHPV infection using in situ hybridization (ISH). The genomes of Taiwanese GHPV were highly similar to the previously reported strains. The diseased geese showed various degrees of vascular damage, especially in the digestive tract. The affected geese in the early stage show...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 6, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Tu YC, Li WT, Lee F, Huang CW, Chang JC, Hsu WC, Hu SC, Chiou CJ, Chen YP Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Decrease of Mycoplasma gallisepticum seroprevalence and introduction of new genotypes in Dutch commercial poultry during the years 2001 - 2018.
Abstract Almost two decades ago in addition to a compulsory M. gallisepticum (Mg) monitoring programme of breeding stock based on European Union regulations, the Dutch poultry industry added national regulations to further reduce the Mg prevalence in Dutch commercial poultry. Currently, all commercial chicken and turkey flocks except broilers are monitored for Mg. All breeding flocks on a farm where one or more flocks tested Mg positive are culled. Mg positive layer pullets are channelled and layer pullets placed on Mg positive multi-age farms are vaccinated. The monitoring data obtained were analysed covering a p...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 4, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Ter Veen C, Dijkman R, De Wit JJ, Gyuranecz M, Feberwee A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Co-infection of Salmonella enteritidis with H9N2 avian influenza virus in chickens.
In conclusion, this is the first report of co-infection of SE with H9N2-AIV in chickens, which leads to increased pathogenicity, SE faecal shedding and organ colonization, and H9N2-AIV shedding titre and duration, resulting in substantial economic losses and environmental contamination, ultimately leading to increased zoonoses. PMID: 32835500 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - August 26, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Arafat N, Abd El Rahman S, Naguib D, El-Shafei RA, Abdo W, Eladl AH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Campylobacter hepaticus specific antibodies in chicken sera - a key tool in Spotty Liver Disease screening and vaccine development.
Abstract Spotty Liver Disease (SLD) is an emerging disease of serious concern in the egg production industry, as it causes significant egg loss and mortality in layer hens. The causative agent is a newly identified Gram-negative bacterium, Campylobacter hepaticus, and knowledge about C. hepaticus pathogenesis and the potential for vaccine development is still in its infancy. Current detection methods for SLD, such as PCR and culturing, only detect an active infection and will not give any indication of a past infection from which the bacteria have been cleared. An immunological assay, on the other hand, can provid...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 23, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Muralidharan C, Anwar A, Wilson TB, Scott PC, Moore RJ, Van TTH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Variations of the Escherichia coli population in the digestive tract of broilers.
Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the between-group and temporal variations in the intestinal Escherichia coli populations of broilers under experimental conditions, taking both antimicrobial resistance and virulence into consideration. Four replicates of 45 commercial chicks were reared in four animal facilities. On their first day of life (Day 0), they were orally inoculated with two extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant (ESCR) E. coli (2.72 log10 CFU of a bla CMY-2- and 2.55 log10 CFU of a bla CTX-M-carrying E. coli). Faecal samples were then collected weekly and caecal samples were obtained fro...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 23, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Mourand G, Le Devendec L, Delannoy S, Fach P, Keita A, Amelot M, Jaunet H, Dia MEH, Kempf I Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Experimental infection of domestic geese (Anser anser var. domesticus) with H5N8 Gs/GD and H7N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.
In this study, the pathogenesis of H5N8 HPAIV in comparison with H7N1 HPAIV and the role of domestic geese in the epidemiology of these viruses were evaluated. Local and commercial geese (Anser anser var. domesticus) were intranasally inoculated with 105 ELD50 of A/goose/Spain/IA17CR02699/2017 (H5N8) or A/Chicken/Italy/5093/1999 (H7N1) and monitored daily during 15 days. H5N8 was highly virulent to domestic geese, reaching 100% mortality by day 10 post-infection. Systemic microscopic necrotizing lesions associated to widespread AIV-antigen by IHC techniques were detected, being the most severely-affected the central nervou...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Sánchez-González R, Ramis A, Nofrarías M, Wali N, Valle R, Pérez M, Perlas A, Majó N Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Spotlight on fowl adenovirus (FAdV) in chickens and beyond - an unresolved host-pathogen interplay.
Abstract Fowl adenovirus (FAdV) infections in chickens underwent substantial changes in recent decades, driven by host and pathogen factors. Based on the pathogenesis of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) and hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) modern broilers are much more inclined to have difficulties keeping the metabolic homeostasis, whereas adenoviral gizzard erosion (AGE) is noticed equally in broilers and egg layers. Defining the importance of certain serotypes for specific FAdV diseases is a major achievement of recent years but the isolation of viruses from clinically healthy birds remains unexplained, ...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Schachner A, Grafl B, Hess M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Field investigations of multidrug resistant Salmonella Infantis epidemic strain incursions into broiler flocks in England and Wales.
Abstract Salmonella Infantis is a major public health concern and has become established in the broiler sector in some European countries, as well as globally, and is frequently multidrug resistant (MDR). Three broiler farms in England and Wales which had incursions of MDR S. Infantis between 2013 and 2017 were investigated longitudinally. The company feed mill and two associated hatcheries were intensively sampled. Following each visit advice on cleaning, disinfection and other control measures for Salmonella was given to help eliminate S. Infantis from the premises. Four samples collected from inside the broiler...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Newton K, Gosling B, Rabie A, Davies R Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Genotypic characterization and molecular evolution of avian reovirus in poultry flocks from Brazil.
In conclusion, four different ARV lineages are circulating in Brazilian poultry flocks, all of them associated with clinical diseases. PMID: 32746617 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - August 3, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: De Carli S, Wolf JM, Gräf T, Lehmann FKM, Fonseca ASK, Canal CW, Lunge VR, Ikuta N Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Risks and disease aetiologies of compromised performance in commercial broilers kept at lower stocking density and limited antimicrobial use.
ss M Abstract The health status of broilers raised at lower stocking density and limited antimicrobial use but routine anticoccidials was assessed, in order to identify prevalent causes of disease, mortality and reduced performance. 'Dead-on-farm'(DOF) broilers from 145 commercial flocks were investigated at two different time points (TP1:7-14 and TP2:28-35 days of age); per sampling, 6-10 DOF broilers were selected for post-mortem investigation and gross pathomorphological changes were assessed, in total from 2,717 birds. Post-mortem findings were substantiated by bacteriological, virological and parasitological ...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 3, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Grafl B, Gaußmann B, Sulejmanovic T, Hess C, Hess M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases.
Authors: PMID: 32568595 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - June 23, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of young chickens challenged with aerosolized Salmonella Pullorum.
In this study, the effects of aerosolized S. Pullorum were investigated on young chickens. The results showed that the colonization and morbidity induced by bioaerosol infection are dose dependent. The bacteria colonized in chicken lung for more than 14 days on exposure of ≥ 1.25 × 106 cfu/m3 of aerosolized S. Pullorum. Tachypnea and depression were present in all the chickens between 5-7 days after infection, and some died, on exposure of ≥ 1.25 × 108 cfu/m3 of aerosolized S. Pullorum. RT-PCR results showed that significant expressions of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (T...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 15, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Cheng Y, Sihua Z, Lu Q, Zhang W, Wen G, Luo Q, Shao H, Zhang T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Oral immunization with an attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum encoding the H9N2 hemagglutinin and M2 ectodomain induces protective immune responses against H9N2 infection in chickens.
Abstract H9N2, a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus, causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Herein, we describe the construction of an attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) strain for expression and delivery of H9N2 hemagglutinin (HA) 1 (SG-HA1), HA2 (SG-HA2) and/or the conserved matrix protein 2 ectodomain (SG-M2e). We demonstrated that recombinant SG strains expressing HA1, HA2 and M2e antigens were immunogenic and safe in a chicken model. Chickens (N=8) were vaccinated once orally with SG alone, SG-HA1, SG-HA2, SG-M2e, or mixture of SG-HA1, SG-HA2 and SG-M2e, or vaccinate...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 1, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Hajam IA, Kirthika P, Hewawaduge C, Jawalagatti V, Park SW, Senevirathne A, Lee JH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International Meetings, WVPA Matters and Announcements.
Authors: PMID: 32270708 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - April 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Differential house finch leukocyte profiles during experimental infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates of varying virulence.
Abstract Leukocyte differentials are a useful tool for assessing systemic immunological changes during pathogen infections, particularly for non-model species. To date, no study has explored how experimental infection with a common bacterial pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), influences the course and strength of hematological changes in the natural songbird host, house finches. Here we experimentally inoculated house finches with MG isolates known to vary in virulence and quantified the proportions of circulating leukocytes over the entirety of infection. First, we found significant temporal effects of MG i...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Bale NM, Leon AE, Hawley DM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

New PA/1220/98-like variant of infectious bronchitis virus in Poland.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to report the first detection of a new IBV variant in Polish commercial flocks which is completely different to any previously known in this region. In 2018, samples from Ross 308 breeding hens aged 35 weeks were delivered for IBV diagnosis. IBV presence was detected, but all attempts to amplify the S gene fragment were negative. The field material was analysed using the Illumina MiSeq platform and a 1073-nt fragment of the S1 coding region was obtained. The gCoV/ck/Poland/516/2018 strain shared only 52.7-58.1% nucleotide identity to any known genotypes of IBV and shared t...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Domanska-Blicharz K, Sajewicz-Krukowska J, Lisowska A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Active virological surveillance in backyard ducks in Bangladesh: Detection of avian influenza and gamma-coronaviruses.
This study focused on active surveillance of several avian viral pathogens with a special reference to AIV in selected backyard duck populations in Bangladesh. A total of 500 pooled oropharyngeal and cloacal samples from individual ducks of four districts were tested by real time PCRs for the presence of AIV, avian avulavirus-1, anatid herpesvirus-1, avian parvovirus, avian bornavirus and avian coronavirus. The investigation identified 27 (5.4%) ducks positive for AIV and 12 (2.4%) for avian coronavirus. In 13 samples, RNA specific for AIV H4N6 was detected. Phylogenetic analysis of the AIV hemagglutinin H4 and neuraminida...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Parvin R, Kabiraj CK, Mumu TT, Chowdhury EH, Islam MR, Beer M, Harder T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Development of an in-house ELISA for detection of antibodies against Enterococcus cecorum in Pekin ducks.
Abstract Enterococcus cecorum (EC) is known to cause skeletal lesions in broiler chickens and also systemic infections in Pekin ducks. Despite the importance of the pathogen, there is still a lack of serological diagnostic tools for the detection of EC infections. Here we describe the development of an in-house indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of EC-specific antibodies and its application by examination of 67 sera from experimentally infected Pekin ducks, 710 field samples from 4 Pekin duck breeder flocks previously vaccinated with inactivated vaccines and 80 samples from commer...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jung A, Rautenschlein S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Protection following simultaneous vaccination with 3 or 4 different attenuated live vaccine types against infectious bronchitis virus.
In this study, we vaccinated one-day old broiler chicks by eyedrop with three or four different IBV vaccine types simultaneously. The presence and relative amount of each vaccine was examined in all of the birds by IBV type specific real time RT-PCR at 5 days post-vaccination and each vaccine was detected in all of the birds given that vaccine. The birds were challenged at 28-days of age and protection was measured by clinical signs, virus detection and by ciliostasis. Birds vaccinated with 3 different IBV types (Ark, Mass and GA98) were protected against challenge with each of those IBV types and were partially protected ...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 2, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jackwood MW, Clark R, Cheng S, Jordan BJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Identification of a common conserved neutralizing linear B-cell epitope in the VP3 protein of waterfowl parvoviruses.
In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) 5B5 against the VP3 protein of NGPV was used to identify the possible epitope in the three kinds of WPVs. The mAb 5B5 had neutralizing activities to the three viruses, and reacted with the conserved linear B-cell epitopes of 438LHNPPP443 in VP3 protein of GPV, NGPV and MDPV. To the author's best knowledge, this appears to be the first report on identification of the common conserved neutralizing linear B-cell epitope on VP3 protein of three different WPVs, which would facilitate the development of a novel immunodiagnostic assay for rapid detection of WPVs infection. PMID: 322...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Lian C, Zhang R, Lan J, Yang Y, Li H, Sui N, Xie Z, Jiang S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Spotlight on avian pathology: Untangling contradictory disease descriptions of necrotic enteritis and necro-haemorrhagic enteritis in broilers.
Abstract Necrotic enteritis (NE) is one of the most detrimental infectious diseases in modern poultry industry, characterized by necrosis in the small intestine. It is commonly accepted that NetB-producing C. perfringens type G strains are responsible for the disease. However, based on both macroscopic and histopathological observations, two distinct types of NE are observed. To date, both a haemorrhagic form of NE and the type G associated non-haemorrhagic disease entity are commonly referred to as NE and results from scientific research are interchangeably used, without distinguishing between the disease entitie...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Goossens E, Dierick E, Ducatelle R, Van Immerseel F Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Development of mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) for the rapid differentiation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum K vaccine strain from field isolates.
ky I, Olaogun OM, Gyuranecz M Abstract Mycoplasma gallisepticum causes respiratory diseases and reproduction disorders in turkeys and chickens. The infection has considerable economic impact due to reduced meat and egg production. Because elimination programs are not feasible in a large number of poultry farms, vaccination remains the only effective measure of disease control.Differentiating vaccine strains from field isolates is necessary in the control of vaccination programs and diagnostics. The aim of this study was to develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA)...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Bekő K, Kovács ÁB, Kreizinger Z, Marton S, Bányai K, Bánáti L, Catania S, Bradbury J, Lysnyansky I, Olaogun OM, Gyuranecz M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Outbreak of Avian Mycobacteriosis in a Commercial Turkey Breeder Flock.
In this report, we not only describe the epidemiological, pathological, and molecular characteristics of the outbreak in detail, but we also discuss multiple factors influencing the introduction and development of avian mycobacteriosis critically. In this case, wild feral pigeons might have been the source of infection, but further molecular-epidemiology studies are needed to understand the role of wild birds in the persistence and transmission of Mycobacterium.Research highlights First report of avian mycobacteriosis in an Iranian commercial turkey flock is described in detail.Risk factors intrinsic to the bird and mycoba...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 8, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Salamatian I, Ghaniei A, Mosavari N, Nourani H, Keshavarz R, Eslampanah M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Major difference in clinical outcome and replication of a H3N1 avian influenza strain in young pullets and adult layers.
In this study, we investigated the pathogenicity, replication and tropism of the low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strain A/chicken/Belgium/460/2019(H3N1) in adult SPF layers and young SPF males. The inoculated hens showed 58% mortality and a 100% drop in egg production in the second week post inoculation. The high viral loads in the cloacal samples coincided with the period of the positive immunohistochemistry (IHC) of the oviduct, acute peritonitis and time of mortality, suggesting that the replication of H3N1 in the oviduct was a major component of the onset of clinical disease and increased level of excretion of th...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: de Wit JJ, Fabri THF, Molenaar RJ, Dijkman R, de Bruijn N, Bouwstra R Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Complementation of the Mycoplasma synoviae MS-H vaccine strain with wild-type oppF1 influences its growth characteristics.
This study reveals that truncation of oppF1 impacts on growth characteristics of the MS-H and provides insight into the molecular pathogenesis of MS and perhaps broader mycoplasma species. PMID: 32054292 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - February 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Kordafshari S, Marenda MS, Agnew R, Shil P, Shahid MA, Marth C, Konsak BM, Noormohammadi AH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian coxiellosis in 9 psittacine birds, 1 black-browed barbet, and 1 paradise tanager.
Abstract Infection with a novel species of the genus Coxiella was first described in 3 Swainson's Blue Mountain Rainbow Lorikeets from a zoological collection, and days later in a group of seven other psittacine birds and a toucan. We provide an update on coxiellosis in 9 additional psittacines, and two non-psittacines. Psittacines originated in New England, the mid Atlantic, the Midwest, the South and the Northwest. Psittacines most commonly had lesions in the brain, spleen, liver, and lungs, consisting of meningoencephalitis, hepatosplenomegaly, and interstitial pneumonia. Lesions contained histiocytic infiltrat...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Needle DB, Agnew DW, Bradway DS, Nordhausen RB, Garner MM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pathogenicity of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in rooks (Corvus frugilegus).
Abstract Rooks (Corvus frugilegus) are considered migratory crows in Japan. Some rooks share a wintering site in the Izumi plain in Kagoshima Prefecture with hooded cranes (Grus monacha) and white-necked cranes (Grus vipio), which are designated as "endangered" in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5 subtype viruses has recently been reported in these crane species in Japan, in conjunction with a massive decrease in their population. In the present study, the pathogenicity of HPAI virus was assessed...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 3, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Soda K, Tomioka Y, Usui T, Ozaki H, Yamaguchi T, Ito T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases 63-4 Table of Contents.
Authors: PMID: 31873041 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - December 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases 63-4 Table of Contents.
Authors: PMID: 31847576 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - December 19, 2019 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Rate of false positive reactions in 11 M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae serological tests in samples obtained from SPF birds inoculated with heterologous mycoplasma species.
In this study the performance of a current available Mg and Ms RPA test, three Mg, three Ms and three Mg/Ms combination ELISAs were evaluated on SPF sera that were obtained from day (D) 0-28 after M. gallinarum, M. imitans or M. gallinaceum inoculation, after sham inoculation and without inoculation. Trachea swabs for mycoplasma culture were obtained before inoculation (D0), 7 and 28 days post inoculation (d.p.i.) in all groups except the sham inoculated group. The different mycoplasma species colonized well. In the early stage after inoculation(7-14 d.p.i.) with heterologous mycoplasma species, the specificity varied from...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 9, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Feberwee A, Dijkman R, Wiegel J, Veen CT, Bataille H, Bouwstra R, de Wit S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The transcriptional regulator PhoP mediates the tolC molecular mechanism on APEC biofilm formation and pathogenicity.
Abstract As a transcriptional regulator of the classical binary regulatory system, PhoP plays an important role in the life activities of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). In previous experiments, we found that the absence of phoP affects APEC biofilm formation and pathogenicity. To further explore the molecular mechanism of phoP regulation of these phenomena, the differentially expressed gene tolC was screened based on phoP-derived transcriptional data, and the specific sequence identity of the PhoP binding sequence was predicted by bioinformatics and verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 5, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Li Q, Yin L, Xue M, Wang Z, Song X, Shao Y, Liu H, Tu J, Qi K Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Abnormal expression of liver autophagy and apoptosis-related mRNA in fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome and improvement function of resveratrol in laying hens.
Abstract Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) is characterized by hepatic rupture and hemorrhage leading to sudden death in laying hens. Resveratrol (Res) is a natural polyphenol with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that can ameliorate chronic liver disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the improved effect of Res on the altered expression of autophagy and apoptosis-related genes in laying hens with FLHS. A total of 144 healthy 150-day-old laying hens were randomly divided into four group: control group (standard diet), HELP group (high-energy-low-protein (HELP) diet), HELP + R...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 26, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Wang X, Xing C, Yang F, Zhou S, Li G, Zhang C, Cao H, Hu G Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Spotlight on avian pathology: aspergillosis.
l;a M Abstract Aspergillosis is a disease of domestic and free-living birds caused by infection with a fraction of fungi within the genus Aspergillus. Species can be identified by colony morphology and microscopic characterization of conidia and conidiophores or by PCR, and isolates can be typed by microsatellite typing. Serodiagnostic options for testing are limited to antibody and antigen detection methods. The sensitivity of these tests can be enhanced through the use of protein electrophoresis. In many countries, no systemic antifungal drugs are registered for use in food-producing animals and resistance to an...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Hauck R, Cray C, França M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Analysis of Antibody Response to an Epitope in the Haemagglutinin Subunit 2 of Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 for Differentiation of Infected and Vaccinated Chickens.
This study demonstrates the usefulness of the HPAI H5N1 HA2 E29 epitope as a DIVA antigen in HPAI H5N1 vaccinated and infected chickens.Research Highlight E29 (HA2 position 488-516) epitope is antigenic in chickenAntibodies to E29 are elicited following live H5N1 virus infection in chickenE29 epitope is a potential DIVA antigen for use in ELISA. PMID: 31738584 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - November 17, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Putri K, Wibowo MH, Tarigan S, Wawegama N, Ignjatovic J, Noormohammadi AH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Genotypic divergence of Avibacterium paragallinarum isolates with different growth requirements for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.
Abstract In 2017, for the first time in Asia, we reported the isolation of variants of Avibacterium paragallinarum with atypical NAD dependency. The present study was conducted to characterize the genotypes of 24 isolates of Av. paragallinarum in Korea, including the four variants reported previously. Most of the typical isolates (19/20) showed a unique ERIC-PCR pattern with no ERIC-PCR patterns in common between the typical isolates and the variants. Furthermore, the variants shared no ERIC-PCR patterns among themselves. All the typical NAD-dependent isolates belonged to the same phylogenetic group based on both ...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 10, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Jeong OM, Kang MS, Blackall PJ, Jeon BW, Kim JH, Jeong J, Lee HJ, Kim DW, Kwon YK, Kim JH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular characterisation of a Marek's disease virus strain detected in tumour-bearing turkeys.
This study reports the molecular characterisation of a GaHV-2 strain detected in a flock of Italian meat-type turkeys exhibiting visceral lymphomas. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the meq gene revealed that the turkey GaHV-2 has molecular features of high virulence and genetic similarity with GaHV-2 strains recently detected in Italian commercial and backyard chickens. GaHV-2 is ubiquitous among chickens despite the vaccination, and chicken-to-turkey transmission is hypothesised due to the presence of broilers in neighbouring pens.Research highlights A GaHV-2 strain from Italian turkeys was molecularly characteris...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Mescolini G, Lupini C, Davidson I, Massi P, Tosi G, Fiorentini L, Catelli E Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

ybjX mutation regulated Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli pathogenicity though stress-resistance pathway.
In this study, we examined the bactericidal activity of chicken serum and blood, as well as bacterial survival in HD11 macrophages. We compared the transcriptome of ybjX mutations with those of the wild strain and studied the effects of ybjX on miRNA expression in the spleen. Our findings revealed that the mutant strain, ΔybjX, had a lower resistance to chicken serum and blood, as well as bacterial survival in HD11 macrophages than AE17. RNA sequencing analyses showed that the ybjX mutation reduced stress resistance by down-regulating mRNAs in metabolic pathways. Infection with the ybjX mutation caused changes in the...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 30, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Song X, Qiu M, Jiang H, Xue M, Hu J, Liu H, Zhou X, Tu J, Qi K Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Unravelling fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome: 2. Inflammation and pathophysiology.
Abstract To study the role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of the fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS), mature laying hen were treated with oestrogen (β-estradiol-17-dipropionate or E2) and challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Oestrogen injections induced FLHS, but the incidence and severity of the condition was increased with a combination of E2 & LPS. Hepatic mRNA levels of the genes encoding key regulators of inflammation such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) were evaluated. The expression of IL-6 mRNA in hepatocytes of all treated gro...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 16, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Shini S, Shini A, Bryden WL Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Monitoring of free-ranging and captive Psittacula populations in Western Europe for avian bornaviruses, circoviruses and polyomaviruses.
Abstract Avian pathogens such as bornaviruses, circoviruses and polyomaviruses are widely distributed in captive collections of psittacine birds worldwide and can cause fatal diseases. In contrast, only little is known about their presence in free-ranging psittacines and their impact on these populations. Rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) are non-native to Europe, but have established stable populations in parts of Western Europe. During 2012 to 2017, we surveyed free-ranging populations in Germany and France as well as captive Psittacula individuals from Ger...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 15, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Kessler S, Heenemann K, Krause T, Twietmeyer S, Fuchs J, Lierz M, Corman VM, Vahlenkamp TM, Rubbenstroth D Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Retrospective study on transmissible viral proventriculitis and Chicken proventricular necrosis virus (CPNV) in the UK.
jó N Abstract Chicken proventricular necrosis virus (CPNV) is a recently described birnavirus, which has been proposed to be the cause of transmissible viral proventriculitis (TVP). The understanding of the epidemiology of both the virus and the disease is very limited. A retrospective investigation on TVP and CPNV in broiler chicken submissions from the UK from between 1994 and 2015 was performed with the aims of assessing the longitudinal temporal evolution of TVP and CPNV and to review the histological proventricular lesions in the studied chickens. Ninety-nine of the 135 included submissions (73.3%) ful...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Grau-Roma L, Schock A, Nofrarías M, Ali Wali N, de Fraga AP, Garcia-Rueda C, de Brot S, Majó N Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Influences of swab types and storage temperatures on isolation and molecular detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae.
Abstract Routine diagnosis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is performed by collecting oropharyngeal swabs, followed by isolation and/or detection by molecular methods. The storage temperature, storage duration and the type of swabs could be critical factors for a successful isolation or molecular detection. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of different types of cotton tipped swabs stored at different temperatures, on detection of MG and MS. To achieve this, a combined use of traditional culture analysis (both agar and broth), with modern molecular detection methods w...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 6, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Ball C, Felice V, Ding Y, Forrester A, Catelli E, Ganapathy K Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research