Avian Diseases 63-3 Table of Contents.
Authors: PMID: 31441340 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - August 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Geese not susceptible to virulent subgroup J avian leukosis virus isolated from chickens.
Abstract To determine whether geese are infection of avian leukosis virus (ALV), 702 serum samples from domestic and foreign goose breeds were screened for p27 antigen as well as being inoculated into DF-1 cell cultures to isolate ALV. Although 5.6% of samples were positive for p27 antigen, reactivity appeared to be non-specific because no ALV was detected in the corresponding DF-1 cultures. To further determine whether geese are susceptible to ALV-J isolated from chickens, ALV-J strain JS09GY7 was artificially inoculated into 10-day-old goose embryos, with 1-day-old hatched goslings then screened for p27 antigen ...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Mu X, Xu M, Zhu S, Xiao W, Shen X, Qin A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Co-infections of chickens with Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 and Moroccan Italy 02 Infectious Bronchitis Virus: effect on pathogenesis and protection conferred by different vaccination programs.
ez MF Abstract Since the emergence of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses in Morocco in 2016, severe respiratory problems have been encountered in the field. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is often detected together with H9N2, suggesting disease exacerbation in cases of co-infections. This hypothesis was therefore tested and confirmed in laboratory conditions using specific pathogen free chickens. Most common field vaccine programs were then tested to compare their efficacies against these two co-infecting agents. IBV γCoV/chicken/Morocco/I38/2014 (Mor-IT02) and LPAI virus A/chicken/Morocco...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 15, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Belkasmi SFZ, Fellahi S, Touzani CD, Faraji FZ, Maaroufi I, Delverdier M, Guérin JL, Fihri OF, El Houadfi M, Ducatez MF Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Comparative clinico-pathological assessment of velogenic (sub-genotype VIIi) and mesogenic (sub-genotype VIm) Avian avulavirus 1 in chickens and pigeons.
Abstract Newcastle disease (ND), caused by virulent Avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV 1), affects a wide range of avian species worldwide. Recently, several AAvVs of diverse genotypes have emerged with varying genomic and residue substitutions, and subsequent clinical impact on susceptible avian species. We assessed the clinico-pathological influence of two different AAvV 1 pathotypes [wild bird originated-velogenic strain (sub-genotype VIIi, MF437287) and feral pigeon originated-mesogenic strain (sub-genotype VIm, KU885949)] in commercial broiler chickens and pigeons. The velogenic strain caused 100% mortality in both avi...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 12, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Aziz-Ul-Rahman, Rohaim MA, El Naggar RF, Mustafa G, Chaudhry U, Shabbir MZ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Histomonosis (blackhead disease): a re-emerging disease in turkeys and chickens.
Abstract Histomonosis or blackhead disease is a well-known disease in turkeys that can cause high mortality but outbreaks with lower losses are also observed. The disease is less fatal in chickens but economically important due to reduced performance and its co-appearance with colibacillosis. The lack of specific prophylactic and therapeutic interventions led to a re-emergence of the disease in recent years, mainly in turkeys, free-range layers and chicken parent stock. PMID: 31393162 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - August 8, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Liebhart D, Hess M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of Avian Reovirus Causing Tenosynovitis Outbreaks in Broiler Flocks, Iran.
In this study, ARVs from the tendon of 23 broiler flocks with marked tenosynovitis were characterized, and their genetic relationship was examined. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of Sigma C protein revealed that all ARVs detected in affected broiler flocks share genetic homogeneity and suggests that a single genotype is involved in recent outbreaks. This genotype, so-called "Ardehal strain," is grouped in cluster I with vaccine strains. The amino acid sequence similarity between Ardehal and vaccine strain, including S1133, 1733, and 2408 was less than 80%. As the outbreaks have occurred in progenies of vacci...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 8, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Mirbagheri SA, Hosseini H, Ghalyanchilangeroudi A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Effects of a feed additive blend on broilers challenged with heat stress.
In conclusion, the feed additive blend protected intestines during heat stress from the decrease in villus height and crypt depth, and from the increase in villus width. Especially in the jejunum, heat stress played an important role by modulating oxidative stress and inflammation, impairing gut integrity and nutrient transport, and such deleterious effects were alleviated by the feed additive blend. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Jejunum is the most sensitive intestinal segment during heat stress. Heat stress affects the expression of tight junctions and nutrient transporters. Feed management helps to alleviate the disturbances caus...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Santos RR, Awati A, Roubos-van den Hil PJ, van Kempen TATG, Tersteeg-Zijderveld MHG, Koolmees PA, Smits C, Fink-Gremmels J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases 63-2 Table of Contents.
Authors: PMID: 31215807 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - June 21, 2019 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Armored Exogenous Internal Control for Real-Time PCR Diagnosis of Avian Influenza.
Abstract An exogenous "armored" PCR internal control (IC) short RNA was analyzed in conjunction with real-time RT-PCR method for diagnosis of avian influenza. The resistance to nucleases and increase the physical stability of the IC was ensured branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) which was in complex with IC-RNA. The option to add the IC directly to pathological material suspensions allows to measure the nucleic acids extraction efficiency. Stability of armored RNA-IC during storage and tissue suspension preparation was shown. The advantage of exogenous "armored" IC was demonstrated in the experim...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 17, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Andreychuk DB, Andriyasov AV, Nikonova ZB, Kozlov AA, Suarez DL, Chvala IA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Glycoprotein D peptide-based diagnostic approach for the detection of avian infectious laryngotracheitis antibodies.
Abstract Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens, pheasants, and peafowl. It is caused by the alpha herpesvirus, an infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Glycoprotein D (gD) of ILTV is immunogenic and helps in its binding to the susceptible host cell receptor. In the present study, a recombinant gD protein was expressed in a prokaryotic system to develop a single serum dilution ELISA. In addition, two immunogenic peptides corresponding to regions 77-89, and 317-328 were identified in gD protein. The peptides were synthesized using solid-phase peptide synthesis...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Kumar V, Yadav K, Kumar R, Chaudhary N, Kumar S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pigeon circoviruses from feral pigeon in Australia demonstrates extensive recombination and genetic admixture with other circoviruses.
Abstract Like other avian circovirus species Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is known to be genetically diverse with a relatively small circular single stranded DNA genome of 2 kb that encodes for a capsid protein (Cap) and a replication initiator protein (Rep). Recent paleoviral evidence hints towards a probable Gondwanan origin of avian circoviruses, paralleling the evolution and dispersal of their hosts. Limited availability of PiCV genome sequence data in Australia has hindered phylogeographic studies in this species, so we screened clinically normal rock doves (Columba livia) in regional New South Wales, and demon...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Sarker S, Das S, Ghorashi SA, Forwood JK, Raidal SR Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Cross-species transmission of poultry pathogens in backyard farms: ducks as carriers of chicken viruses.
CP Abstract In backyard farms of Lao People's Democratic Republic, mixed-species rearing of poultry is a breeding-ground for cross-species transmission. Here, the epidemiology of viruses circulating among backyard poultry in Vientiane Province was assessed to guide future control strategies. Oral/tracheal and cloacal swabs, collected from 605 poultry (308 ducks, 297 chickens) between 2011 and 2015, were screened by PCR for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Coronavirus (CoV) and Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV). Chicken sera were screened for anti-NDV antibodies by ELISA. Statistical and phylogenetic analyses revealed tran...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Pauly M, Snoeck CJ, Phoutana V, Keosengthong A, Sausy A, Khenkha L, Nouanthong P, Samountry B, Jutavijittum P, Vilivong K, Hübschen JM, Black AP, Pommasichan S, Muller CP Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Experimental model of oral transmissible AA amyloidosis in quails.
In this study, we developed an oral transmission model of AA amyloidosis using quails and assessed the oral transmission efficiency of AA amyloidosis in quails and mice. Young quails, adult quails, and young mice received inflammatory stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, simultaneously homogeneous amyloid fibrils was orally or intravenously administrated. As a result of the histological examination, induction of amyloidosis by orally or intravenously administration of amyloid was confirmed in all species. Furthermore, both quail and murine AA amyloidosis were orally transmitted in a dose-dependent manner. These results sup...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Miyoshi T, Ono A, Shimada K, Murakami T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

New Introduction of a Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in New York, USA.
Abstract Bursa tissue samples from a pullet flock in New York State that was experiencing immune suppression related disease were sent to our laboratory in 2018. A very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) was identified in those samples through molecular and pathogenicity studies and designated 1/chicken/USA/1054NY/18. Phylogenetic analyses of the hypervariable VP2 nucleotide sequence region indicated that this strain belonged to genogroup 3 which comprises the vvIBDV. Partial sequence data of the VP1 gene indicated this virus also had a VP1 typical of vvIBDV. While vvIBDV have previously been identi...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 3, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Michel LO, Kimber ML, Jackwood DJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pathogenicity of Fowl Adenovirus (FAdV) Serotype 4 Strain SDJN in Taizhou Geese.
This study is the first experimental infection of FAdV-4 in geese, which will provide a basis for further understanding of the disease. PMID: 31155930 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - June 3, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Wei Z, Liu H, Diao Y, Li X, Zhang S, Gao B, Tang Y, Hu J, Diao Y Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian influenza H9N2 subtype in Ghana: virus characterization and evidence of co-infection.
Abstract Between November 2017 and February 2018, Ghanaian poultry producers reported to animal health authorities a dramatic increase in mortality rate and a relevant drop in egg production in several layer hens farms. Laboratory investigations revealed that the farms had been infected by the H9N2 influenza subtype. Virological and molecular characterization of the viruses identified in Ghana is described here for the first time. Whole genome analysis showed that the viruses belong to the G1-lineage and cluster with viruses identified in North and West Africa. The low pathogenicity of the virus was confirmed by t...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 30, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Awuni JA, Bianco A, Dogbey OJ, Fusaro A, Yingar DT, Salviato A, Ababio PT, Milani A, Bonfante F, Monne I Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The residue levels of spinosad and abamectin in eggs and tissues of laying hens following spray application.
This study aimed to determine SPN (spinosyn A + spinosyn D) and ABM residues in egg and edible tissues of laying hens following spray application. A total of 36 laying hens were divided into four groups of nine animals each, and they were kept in individual cages. Two different concentrations of SPN (2 and 4 g/L) and ABM (0.025 and 0.033 g/L) were applied in stocked and empty cages, respectively. Eggs were collected individually for 30 days. All hens were sacrificed at day 30 post-treatment, and tissue samples (liver, breast muscle, fat and skin) were collected. The residue levels in eggs and tissues were...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 27, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Gokbulut C, Ozuicli M, Aslan B, Aydin L, Cirak VY Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A combined retrospective, prospective and experimental study of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale infection in chickens.
Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the histopathological and immunohistochemical changes caused by natural and experimentally induced Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale infection in the respiratory system of chickens. To this end, three different studies were carried out. The first was a retrospective study of 82 field cases with respiratory disorders compatible with O. rhinotracheale infection. The bacterium was immunohistochemically detected in the lungs in 48 of 82 field cases, and 50 β-haemolytic (BH) and non-haemolytic (NH) strains were isolated. In the second study, an experimental model of the ...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Gornatti-Churria CD, Loukopoulos P, Prescott M, Petruccelli MA, Machuca MA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Influence of different housing systems on prevalence of keel bone lesions in laying hens.
Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the effect of three housing systems (furnished cages - FC, Barns - B and free range - FR) on the prevalence and severity of keel bone protrusion and deformations. These health and welfare indicators were measure at the slaughterhouse, using a 4-point scale (0 = absence, 1 = slight, 2 = moderate and 3 = severe). Keel bone deformation was also categorized in relation to the presence of compression over the ventral surface, deviation from a 2D straight plane and deviation from the transverse (C-shaped) or median sa...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Saraiva S, Esteves A, Stilwell G Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Investigation of suspected Newcastle disease (ND) outbreaks in Egypt uncovers a high virus velogenic ND virus burden in small-scale holdings and the presence of multiple pathogens.
In this study we aimed to verify clinical ND suspicions in poultry holdings in Egypt suffering from respiratory distress and elevated mortality, comparing two groups of ND-vaccinated poultry holdings in three governorates. Besides testing for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), samples were screened for infectious bronchits virus (IBV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) by RT-qPCR as well as by non-directed cell-culture approach on LMH-cells. Virulent NDV was confirmed only in group A (n = 16) comprising small-scale holdings. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene of 11 NDV-positive samples obtained from th...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 15, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Moharam I, Razik AAE, Sultan H, Ghezlan M, Meseko C, Franzke K, Harder T, Beer M, Grund C Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Spotlight on avian pathology: infectious bronchitis virus.
Abstract Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a highly infectious disease of the domestic chicken of all ages and type, affecting the respiratory, renal and reproductive systems. Secondary bacterial infections are common and have a serious economic and welfare impact. Many genotypic and serotypic variants of IBV exist worldwide, making diagnosis difficult and challenging control strategies. Vaccination, requiring the use of both live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines is needed to control IBV infections; to date attempts to develop vectored vaccines as effective as the traditional vaccines have been unsuccessful. P...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Sjaak de Wit JJ, Cook JKA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Effect of a background Ca2+ entry pathway mediated by TRPC1 on myocardial damage of broilers with induced ascites syndrome.
Abstract Ascites syndrome (AS) in chickens is associated with profound vascular remodeling and increased pulmonary artery pressure as well as right ventricular hypertrophy. Classical transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPCs) are key regulators of cardiac hypertrophy that act via regulation of calcium influx in mammals. We investigated whether classical transient receptor potential channels in chickens with right ventricular hypertrophy still possess this mechanism for regulating Ca2+ flux. Intravenous injection of cellulose particles was successfully used to induce AS in chickens and tissues were examin...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Qiao N, Pan J, Kang Z, Liu G, Tang Z, Li Y Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Sequence and expression analysis of cardiac ryanodine receptor 2 in broilers died from sudden death syndrome.
In conclusion, susceptibility to lethal cardiac arrhythmia in SDS may be associated with specific changes in intracellular Ca2+ cycling components such as RYR2 due to mutation and dysregulation. Finding the probable association of SDS with gene defects can be applied to select for chickens with lower susceptibility to SDS and decrease the poultry industry losses due to SDS mortality. PMID: 31081346 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - May 13, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Basaki M, Tabandeh MR, Aminlari M, Asasi K, Mohsenifard E, Abdi-Hachesoo B Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Alginate-coated chitosan microparticles encapsulating an oral plasmid-cured live Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum vaccine causes a higher expression of interferon-gamma in chickens compared to the parenteral live vaccine.
This study was undertaken to compare the expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in chickens generated by different vaccine formulations. Eighty day-old Lohmann layer chicks were divided into four groups of twenty birds each for the experiment. This comprised a non-vaccinated negative control group (NEG), a group vaccinated with the live 9R vaccine by the injection route (SC), a group vaccinated with alginate-coated chitosan microparticles encapsulating live plasmid-cured S. Gallinarum strain 9 (PC) by the oral route and a group vaccinated with a weak attenuated live S. Gallinarum strain 9 encapsulated in alginate-coa...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 13, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Ibe MI, Odimegwu DC, Onuigbo EB Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A Survey of a Mixed Species Aviary Provides New Insights into the Pathogenicity, Diversity, Evolution, Host Range, and Distribution of Psittacine and Passerine Adenoviruses.
Abstract A Bourke's parrot (Neopsephotus bourkii) originating from an aviary in Australia containing two species of parrots, five species of finch and a species of dove was presented for necropsy. The Bourke's parrot died from gastritis caused by Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, but also had an interstitial nephritis and ureteritis with adenovirus-like inclusion bodies within collecting duct epithelial cells. The adenovirus causing the lesions was shown to be Psittacine Adenovirus-2 (PsAdV-2) using a PCR assay specific for adenoviruses and sequencing of amplicons. A survey of droppings from other birds in the aviary us...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 13, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Phalen DN, Agius J, Vaz FF, Eden JS, Setyo LC, Donahoe S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Development of innate immunity in chicken embryos and newly hatched chicks: A disease control perspective.
Abstract Newly hatched chickens are confronted by a wide array of pathogenic microbes when their adaptive immune defenses have limited capabilities to control these pathogens. In such circumstances and within this age group, innate responses provide a degree of protection. Moreover, as the adaptive immune system is relatively naïve to foreign antigens, synergy with innate defenses is critical. This review presents knowledge on the ontogeny of innate immunity in chicken pre-hatch and early post-hatch and provides insights into possible interventions to modulate innate responses early in the life of the bird. A...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Alkie TN, Yitbarek A, Hodgins DC, Kulkarni RR, Taha-Abdelaziz K, Sharif S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Rapid growth predisposes broilers to necrotic enteritis.
In this study, 300 broilers were challenged with Clostridium perfringens using a well-established, previously described challenge model. It was found that birds with a higher body weight (BW) and BWG before challenge were predisposed to develop more severe necrotic enteritis lesions. After challenge, the average BWG of the birds developing mild to severe lesions dropped significantly, negatively affecting animal welfare and performance. These results show a significant interplay between BWG and the development of necrotic enteritis lesions. This raises the question whether there is a limit to broiler performance with respe...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 2, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Dierick E, Hirvonen OP, Haesebrouck F, Ducatelle R, Van Immerseel F, Goossens E Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Vaccination with FAdV-8a induces protection against inclusion body hepatitis caused by homologous and heterologous strains.
Abstract Fowl aviadenoviruses (FAdV) are an important avian pathogen, responsible for several poultry diseases prevalent worldwide, including inclusion body hepatitis (IBH). FAdV intraspecies cross-protection has been clearly demonstrated, but there is little evidence that any interspecies cross-protection exists. The present study aimed to assess the inter- and intraspecies protection between three FAdV field isolates (FAdV-8a, FAdV-8b, FAdV-11) identified in association with severe IBH outbreaks. Inoculums prepared using inactivated plaque-purified virus with adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 71VG, were injected int...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 1, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Steer-Cope PA, Sandy JR, O'Rourke D, Scott PC, Browning GF, Noormohammadi AH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of vaccine delivery systems for inducing long-lived antibody responses to Dermanyssus gallinae antigen in laying hens.
y FM, Nisbet AJ Abstract Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite, is a global threat to the commercial egg-laying industry. Control of D. gallinae is difficult, with only a limited number of effective pesticides and non-chemical treatments available. Here we characterise the candidate vaccine antigen D. gallinae cathepsin D-1 (Dg-CatD-1) and demonstrate that purified refolded recombinant Dg-Cat-D1 (rDg-CatD-1) is an active aspartyl proteinase which digests haemoglobin with a pH optimum of pH 4. Soluble protein extracts from D. gallinae also have haemoglobinase activity, with a pH optimum comparable to the recom...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 29, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Price DRG, Küster T, Øines Ø, Margaret Oliver E, Bartley K, Nunn F, Barbero JFL, Pritchard J, Karp-Tatham E, Hauge H, Blake DP, Tomley FM, Nisbet AJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

How can Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer 1778) (Acari: Anactinotrichida: Dermanyssidae) walk upwards on slippery surfaces?
Abstract Scanning electron microscopy observations of the distal leg region of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer 1778) identified the presence of a compound ambulacrum, the part of the leg that contacts the substratum when the mite walks. The ambulacrum is comprised of a praetarsus (the ambulacrum stalk), a pulvillus and two claws. The pulvillus is a weakly sclerotized structure that can be partly expanded or retracted in the praetarsus. When expanded the pulvillus shows a cushion-like shape which can, as a result of its soft surface, function as a sucker, thus allowing D. gallinae to adhere to a ...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 23, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Di Palma A, Mul MF Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Comparative pathogenicity of two subtypes (hepatitis-type and pancreatitis-type) of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in experimentally-infected Muscovy ducklings.
Abstract Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) causes acute hepatitis with high morbidity and mortality in ducklings of the genera Cairina and Anas and is characterized by ecchymotic haemorrhage and necrosis of the liver surface. Since September 2011, a new subtype of DHAV-1 (named pancreatitis-type DHAV-1) has been isolated. This new subtype is characterized by yellowish or haemorrhagic pancreatitis, but with no significant pathological changes in the liver. To further investigate the difference in pathogenicity between hepatitis-type DHAV-1 and pancreatitis-type DHAV-1, we infected Muscovy ducklings with a hepa...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 15, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Zhu T, Qi B, Liu R, Jiang X, Lu R, Xiao L, Fu G, Fu Q, Shi S, Wan C, Huang Y Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Survey on the prevalence of Dermanyssus gallinae in commercial laying farms in Portugal.
This study aimed to assess the prevalence and infestation levels in laying farms in Portugal and evaluate the perception and attitudes of producers regarding D. gallinae. A survey was performed between August 2016 - November 2017, which included 24 farms in the NUTS2 regions Centro and Norte. Mites were sampled with corrugated cardboard traps and the perception and attitudes of farmers regarding the PRM were evaluated with the European COREMI questionnaire prepared by WG 1 of the COST action FA1404. D. gallinae was detected in 95.8% of farms (95% CI: 79.8-99.3%). The average number of trapped mites among farms was 5200&thi...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 15, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Waap H, Nunes T, Mul MF, Gomes J, Bartley K Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Anatomopathological changes, quantification and distribution of Libyostrongylus spp. in regions of the proventriculus and ventriculus of naturally and experimentally infected ostriches.
tos C Abstract Nematodes of the genus Libyostrongylus parasitize ostriches, causing high mortality rates. These nematodes are found in the proventriculus and ventriculus of ostriches, but little is known about their distribution and the possible anatomopathological changes they cause in the various regions of these organs. This paper describes the distribution and quantification of Libyostrongylus and pathological changes found in regions of the proventriculus and ventriculus of ostriches with high and low levels of both natural and experimental infection. Ostriches were necropsied and tissue samples from the dist...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 12, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: de Souza LP, de Andrade JG, Medina RM, de Carvalho ECQ, Glória LS, DaMatta RA, de Paula Santos C Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Protection Afforded By Avian Influenza Vaccination Programs Consisting Of A Novel RNA Particle And An Inactivated Avian Influenza Vaccine Against A Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Challenge In Layer Chickens Up To 18 Weeks Post Vaccination.
Abstract The efficacies of an oil adjuvanted-inactivated reverse genetics derived H5 avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccine and an alphavirus replicon RNA particle (RP) AIV vaccine were evaluated in commercial leghorn chickens. Challenge utilized A/Turkey/MN/12582/2015, an isolate representing the U.S. H5N2 Clade 2.3.4.4 responsible for the 2015 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epornitic in commercial poultry the United States. As part of long term, 36-week study, chickens were challenged at seven weeks of age after receiving a single vaccination, at 18 weeks of age after following a vaccine prime-single boos...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 9, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Ladman BS, Gelb J, Sauble LA, Murphy MV, Spackman E Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The Role of the phoP Transcriptional Regulator on Biofilm Formation of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli.
This study shows that phoP plays an important regulatory role in APEC biofilm formation, and provides new insights into strategies for preventing and controlling APEC infection. PMID: 30958690 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - April 8, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Yin L, Li Q, Xue M, Wang Z, Tu J, Song X, Shao Y, Han X, Xue T, Liu H, Qi K Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Retrospective investigation and molecular characteristics of the recombinant Muscovy duck parvovirus circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in China.
Abstract The recombinant Muscovy duck parvovirus (rMDPV) has been recently characterized and identified in China. However, whether more other rMDPV field isolates exist, and these strains possess common molecular characteristics remain to be explored. In this retrospective study, two new rMDPV isolates, namely, JH06 and JH10, were identified through genome sequencing and recombination analysis. JH06, JH10, and four previously characterized rMDPV strains (SAAS-SHNH, ZW, FJM3, and PT97) underwent the same recombination events in a 1.1-kb region in their VP3 genes and displayed highly consistent beginning and ending ...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 8, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Wang J, Wang Z, Jia J, Ling J, Mi Q, Zhu G Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Spotlight on Campylobacter hepaticus, the cause of Spotty Liver Disease in layers.
Abstract Campylobacter hepaticus was recently identified as the aetiological agent of Spotty Liver Disease (SLD). SLD causes significant health and productivity losses in the Australian egg industry and the disease is present in other countries. Following the isolation and characterisation of C. hepaticus, molecular tools and refined culturing methods have been developed to identify the pathogen. It is suspected that application of these tools will lead to identification of the pathogen in many poultry production systems throughout the world. As C. hepaticus has only recently been identified, little is known about...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 3, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Moore RJ, Scott PC, Hao Van TT Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases 63-1 Table of Contents.
Authors: PMID: 30777795 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - February 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases 62-4 Table of Contents.
Authors: PMID: 30777796 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - February 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Host Specificity Of Avian Metapneumoviruses.
ssi N Abstract To date four subgroups of avian metapneumoviruses have been defined (AMPV-A, B, C and D) based on genetic and antigenic differences. The extent of infection in the three principal species (turkeys, chickens and ducks) by these subgroups however, is not well defined. Here, a series of controlled and ethically-approved experimental infections were performed in SPF turkeys, chickens and ducks with each of the four AMPV subgroups. For subgroup C, one strain isolated from turkeys in the USA (turkey AMPV-C) and one isolated from ducks in France (duck AMPV-C) were compared. Globally these extensive experim...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 19, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Brown PA, Allée C, Courtillon C, Szerman N, Lemaitre E, Toquin D, Mangart JM, Amelot M, Eterradossi N Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Comparison of the short-term and long-term efficacies of the Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines ts-11 and 6/85.
Abstract In order to compare the short-term efficacies of the live attenuated Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine strains ts-11 and 6/85, four groups of SPF chickens were vaccinated with each of the vaccines using eye drop and aerosol inoculations, and were subsequently challenged with a wild-type MG strain. When administered by the recommended routes (eye drop for ts-11 and fine aerosol for 6/85), both vaccines induced substantial and comparable levels of protection against airsacculitis and tracheitis caused by wild-type MG. The long-term efficacies of the two vaccines administered by the recommended route wer...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 18, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Noormohammadi AH, Whithear KG Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Genetic and antigenic heterogeneity of infectious bronchitis virus in South America: implications for control programs.
acute;rez R Abstract Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a persistent sanitary problem for the South American poultry industry despite extensive vaccination. The IBV single-stranded RNA genome has high rates of mutation and recombination that generate a notorious virus variability. Since most IBV vaccines are type-specific, there is a need for a constant surveillance of the circulating lineages and knowledge about their genetic and antigenic properties. Here we present an integrative analysis that provides the pattern of genetic variation of the South American IBV strains and information about their antigenic cha...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Marandino A, Vagnozzi A, Craig MI, Tomás G, Techera C, Panzera Y, Vera F, Pérez R Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

MinION sequencing to genotype US strains of infectious laryngotracheitis virus.
In this study, the genotyping system was simplified to six genotypes by amplicon sequencing and examining discriminating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these open reading frames. Using phylogenomic analysis of 27 full genomes of ILTV, a single allele (ORFA/ORFB) was identified containing SNPs that could differentiate ILTVs into genotypes congruent with the phylogenetic partitioning. The allelic variations allowed for the cataloging of the 27 strains into 5 genotypes: vaccinal TCO, vaccinal CEO, virulent CEO-like, virulent US and virulent US backyard flocks from 1980 to 1990, correlating with the PCR-RFLP gen...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 5, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Spatz SJ, Garcia M, Riblet S, Ross TA, Volkening JD, Taylor TL, Kim T, Afonso CL Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Dietary selenium supplementation alleviates immune toxicity in the hearts of chickens with lead-added drinking water.
Abstract Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant and can damage organisms. Selenium (Se) can alleviate Pb poisoning. The present study aimed to investigate alleviative effect of Se on Pb-caused immune toxicity in chicken hearts. One hundred and eighty Hy-line male chickens were randomly divided into four groups at 7 days of age. The control group was offered a standard commercial diet (SD) and drinking water (DW); the Se group was offered SD supplemented with sodium selenite (SeSD) and DW; the Pb + Se group was offered SeSD and DW supplemented with lead acetate (PbDW); and the Pb group was offered SD...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 21, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: He H, Xiaoyan J, Yanmin X, Qi H, Wanying J, Yanyan L, Li S, Xiaohua T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Antigenicity, pathogenicity and immunosuppressive effect caused by a South American isolate of infectious bursal disease virus belonging to the 'distinct' genetic lineage.
acute;rez R, Soubies SM Abstract Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease affecting young chickens. The recently described 'distinct IBDV' (dIBDV) genetic lineage encompasses a group of worldwide distributed strains that share conserved genetic characteristics in both genome segments making them unique within IBDV strains. Phenotypic characterization of these strains is scarce and limited to Asiatic and European strains collected more than fifteen years ago. The present study aimed to assess the complete and comprehensive phenotypic characteriza...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 21, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Tomás G, Marandino A, Courtillon C, Amelot M, Keita A, Pikula A, Hernández M, Hernández D, Vagnozzi A, Panzera Y, Domańska-Blicharz K, Eterradossi N, Pérez R, Soubies SM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Fatal necrotic tracheitis by Aviadenovirus in captive Alagoas Curassows (Pauxi mitu) extinct from the wild.
Abstract Extinct from nature captive young Alagoas curassows (Pauxi mitu) were found agonizing or dead with respiratory disease. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of the trachea, associated with marked necrotic tracheitis. An Aviadenovirus was isolated in chicken eggs and characterized genetically with 99% identity to the Fowl Aviadenovirus A as based on the hexon protein gene. This is the first report of a respiratory disease by Aviadenovirus in any cracid species in Brazil, recommending for stricter biosecurity in the conservation premises. PMID: 30663340 [PubMed - as supplied by pub...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 21, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Marques MVR, Marin SY, Couto RM, Ecco R, Resende M, Martins NRDS Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Protection of Chickens Against Fowl Cholera by Supernatant Proteins of Pasteurella Multocida Cultured in an Iron- Restricted Medium.
Abstract Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida), a causative agent of fowl cholera, is an important pathogen in the poultry industry. In the present study, we found that the inactivated vaccine of P. multocida grown in an iron-restricted medium provided better protection than that grown in normal medium. Thus, we adopted a comparative proteomics approach, by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS), to profile the supernatant proteins associated with P. multocida under both conditions. Eleven upregul...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Luo Q, Kong L, Dong J, Zhang T, Wang H, Zhang R, Lu Q, Chen H, Shao H, Jin M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Deletion of the Riemerella anatipestifer type IX secretion system gene sprA results in differential expression of outer membrane proteins and virulence.
In this study, a sprA deletion mutant was constructed encoding a core protein of T9SS to investigate its influence on outer membrane protein expression and role in virulence. Compared with the wild-type RA-YM strain, the deletion mutant ΔsprA failed to digest gelatin, showed the same growth rate in the logarithmic phase and exhibited greater sensitivity to the bactericidal activity of duck sera, whereas the complemented strain restored these phenotypes. The outer membrane proteome of RA-YM and the ΔsprA mutant were analyzed by Tandem Mass Tags, which revealed 198 proteins with predicted localization to the cell...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Hu D, Guo Y, Guo J, Wang Y, Pan Z, Xiao Y, Wang X, Hu S, Liu M, Li Z, Bi D, Zhou Z Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Long term protection against a virulent field isolate of Infectious laryngotracheitis virus induced by inactivated, recombinant, and modified live virus vaccines in commercial layers.
The objective of this study was to assess the protection efficacy against ILT induced by recombinants; live-modified attenuated; and inactivated virus vaccines when administered alone or in combination. Commercial layer pullets were vaccinated with one or more vaccines and challenged at 35 (35WCH) or 74 weeks of age (74WCH). Protection was assessed by scoring clinical signs; and by determining the challenge viral load in the trachea at five days post-challenge. The FPV-LT vaccinated birds were not protected when challenged at 35WCH; the HVT-LT and TCO vaccines in combination provided protection similar to that observed in ...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Palomino-Tapia VA, Zavala G, Cheng S, García M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A novel monoclonal antibodies based sandwich ELISA for detection of serotype 4 fowl adenovirus.
Abstract As a major causative agent for hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrom (HPS) in chickens, serotype 4 fowl adenovirus (FAdV-4) has caused huge economic loss in poultry industry globally. However, there is no commercial diagnostics for FAdV-4 antigens. To generate a rapid approach for specific detection of FAdV-4, a monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) based sandwich ELISA was developed. In this ELISA, a purified mAb 4A3 and HRP labeled mAb 3C2 specific to the fiber2 of FAdV-4 was used as the capture antibody and detection antibody respectively. Specificity assay revealed the ELISA only reacted with FAdV-4, not with oth...
Source: Avian Pathology - January 9, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Shao H, Wang P, Wang W, Zhang J, Li T, Liang G, Gao W, Qin A, Ye J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research