Avian Diseases.
Authors: PMID: 32568595 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - June 23, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Evaluation of young chickens challenged with aerosolized Salmonella Pullorum.
In this study, the effects of aerosolized S. Pullorum were investigated on young chickens. The results showed that the colonization and morbidity induced by bioaerosol infection are dose dependent. The bacteria colonized in chicken lung for more than 14 days on exposure of ≥ 1.25 × 106 cfu/m3 of aerosolized S. Pullorum. Tachypnea and depression were present in all the chickens between 5-7 days after infection, and some died, on exposure of ≥ 1.25 × 108 cfu/m3 of aerosolized S. Pullorum. RT-PCR results showed that significant expressions of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (T...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Cheng Y, Sihua Z, Lu Q, Zhang W, Wen G, Luo Q, Shao H, Zhang T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Oral immunization with an attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum encoding the H9N2 hemagglutinin and M2 ectodomain induces protective immune responses against H9N2 infection in chickens.
Abstract H9N2, a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus, causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Herein, we describe the construction of an attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) strain for expression and delivery of H9N2 hemagglutinin (HA) 1 (SG-HA1), HA2 (SG-HA2) and/or the conserved matrix protein 2 ectodomain (SG-M2e). We demonstrated that recombinant SG strains expressing HA1, HA2 and M2e antigens were immunogenic and safe in a chicken model. Chickens (N=8) were vaccinated once orally with SG alone, SG-HA1, SG-HA2, SG-M2e, or mixture of SG-HA1, SG-HA2 and SG-M2e, or vaccinate...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 2, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Hajam IA, Kirthika P, Hewawaduge C, Jawalagatti V, Park SW, Senevirathne A, Lee JH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

International Meetings, WVPA Matters and Announcements.
Authors: PMID: 32270708 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - April 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Differential house finch leukocyte profiles during experimental infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates of varying virulence.
Abstract Leukocyte differentials are a useful tool for assessing systemic immunological changes during pathogen infections, particularly for non-model species. To date, no study has explored how experimental infection with a common bacterial pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), influences the course and strength of hematological changes in the natural songbird host, house finches. Here we experimentally inoculated house finches with MG isolates known to vary in virulence and quantified the proportions of circulating leukocytes over the entirety of infection. First, we found significant temporal effects of MG i...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Bale NM, Leon AE, Hawley DM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

New PA/1220/98-like variant of infectious bronchitis virus in Poland.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to report the first detection of a new IBV variant in Polish commercial flocks which is completely different to any previously known in this region. In 2018, samples from Ross 308 breeding hens aged 35 weeks were delivered for IBV diagnosis. IBV presence was detected, but all attempts to amplify the S gene fragment were negative. The field material was analysed using the Illumina MiSeq platform and a 1073-nt fragment of the S1 coding region was obtained. The gCoV/ck/Poland/516/2018 strain shared only 52.7-58.1% nucleotide identity to any known genotypes of IBV and shared t...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Domanska-Blicharz K, Sajewicz-Krukowska J, Lisowska A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Active virological surveillance in backyard ducks in Bangladesh: Detection of avian influenza and gamma-coronaviruses.
This study focused on active surveillance of several avian viral pathogens with a special reference to AIV in selected backyard duck populations in Bangladesh. A total of 500 pooled oropharyngeal and cloacal samples from individual ducks of four districts were tested by real time PCRs for the presence of AIV, avian avulavirus-1, anatid herpesvirus-1, avian parvovirus, avian bornavirus and avian coronavirus. The investigation identified 27 (5.4%) ducks positive for AIV and 12 (2.4%) for avian coronavirus. In 13 samples, RNA specific for AIV H4N6 was detected. Phylogenetic analysis of the AIV hemagglutinin H4 and neuraminida...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Parvin R, Kabiraj CK, Mumu TT, Chowdhury EH, Islam MR, Beer M, Harder T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Development of an in-house ELISA for detection of antibodies against Enterococcus cecorum in Pekin ducks.
Abstract Enterococcus cecorum (EC) is known to cause skeletal lesions in broiler chickens and also systemic infections in Pekin ducks. Despite the importance of the pathogen, there is still a lack of serological diagnostic tools for the detection of EC infections. Here we describe the development of an in-house indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of EC-specific antibodies and its application by examination of 67 sera from experimentally infected Pekin ducks, 710 field samples from 4 Pekin duck breeder flocks previously vaccinated with inactivated vaccines and 80 samples from commer...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jung A, Rautenschlein S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Protection following simultaneous vaccination with 3 or 4 different attenuated live vaccine types against infectious bronchitis virus.
In this study, we vaccinated one-day old broiler chicks by eyedrop with three or four different IBV vaccine types simultaneously. The presence and relative amount of each vaccine was examined in all of the birds by IBV type specific real time RT-PCR at 5 days post-vaccination and each vaccine was detected in all of the birds given that vaccine. The birds were challenged at 28-days of age and protection was measured by clinical signs, virus detection and by ciliostasis. Birds vaccinated with 3 different IBV types (Ark, Mass and GA98) were protected against challenge with each of those IBV types and were partially protected ...
Source: Avian Pathology - April 3, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Jackwood MW, Clark R, Cheng S, Jordan BJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Identification of a common conserved neutralizing linear B-cell epitope in the VP3 protein of waterfowl parvoviruses.
In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) 5B5 against the VP3 protein of NGPV was used to identify the possible epitope in the three kinds of WPVs. The mAb 5B5 had neutralizing activities to the three viruses, and reacted with the conserved linear B-cell epitopes of 438LHNPPP443 in VP3 protein of GPV, NGPV and MDPV. To the author's best knowledge, this appears to be the first report on identification of the common conserved neutralizing linear B-cell epitope on VP3 protein of three different WPVs, which would facilitate the development of a novel immunodiagnostic assay for rapid detection of WPVs infection. PMID: 322...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 25, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Lian C, Zhang R, Lan J, Yang Y, Li H, Sui N, Xie Z, Jiang S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Spotlight on avian pathology: Untangling contradictory disease descriptions of necrotic enteritis and necro-haemorrhagic enteritis in broilers.
Abstract Necrotic enteritis (NE) is one of the most detrimental infectious diseases in modern poultry industry, characterized by necrosis in the small intestine. It is commonly accepted that NetB-producing C. perfringens type G strains are responsible for the disease. However, based on both macroscopic and histopathological observations, two distinct types of NE are observed. To date, both a haemorrhagic form of NE and the type G associated non-haemorrhagic disease entity are commonly referred to as NE and results from scientific research are interchangeably used, without distinguishing between the disease entitie...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 25, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Goossens E, Dierick E, Ducatelle R, Van Immerseel F Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Development of mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) for the rapid differentiation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum K vaccine strain from field isolates.
ky I, Olaogun OM, Gyuranecz M Abstract Mycoplasma gallisepticum causes respiratory diseases and reproduction disorders in turkeys and chickens. The infection has considerable economic impact due to reduced meat and egg production. Because elimination programs are not feasible in a large number of poultry farms, vaccination remains the only effective measure of disease control.Differentiating vaccine strains from field isolates is necessary in the control of vaccination programs and diagnostics. The aim of this study was to develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA)...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 17, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Bekő K, Kovács ÁB, Kreizinger Z, Marton S, Bányai K, Bánáti L, Catania S, Bradbury J, Lysnyansky I, Olaogun OM, Gyuranecz M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Outbreak of Avian Mycobacteriosis in a Commercial Turkey Breeder Flock.
In this report, we not only describe the epidemiological, pathological, and molecular characteristics of the outbreak in detail, but we also discuss multiple factors influencing the introduction and development of avian mycobacteriosis critically. In this case, wild feral pigeons might have been the source of infection, but further molecular-epidemiology studies are needed to understand the role of wild birds in the persistence and transmission of Mycobacterium.Research highlights First report of avian mycobacteriosis in an Iranian commercial turkey flock is described in detail.Risk factors intrinsic to the bird and mycoba...
Source: Avian Pathology - March 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Salamatian I, Ghaniei A, Mosavari N, Nourani H, Keshavarz R, Eslampanah M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Major difference in clinical outcome and replication of a H3N1 avian influenza strain in young pullets and adult layers.
In this study, we investigated the pathogenicity, replication and tropism of the low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strain A/chicken/Belgium/460/2019(H3N1) in adult SPF layers and young SPF males. The inoculated hens showed 58% mortality and a 100% drop in egg production in the second week post inoculation. The high viral loads in the cloacal samples coincided with the period of the positive immunohistochemistry (IHC) of the oviduct, acute peritonitis and time of mortality, suggesting that the replication of H3N1 in the oviduct was a major component of the onset of clinical disease and increased level of excretion of th...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 17, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: de Wit JJ, Fabri THF, Molenaar RJ, Dijkman R, de Bruijn N, Bouwstra R Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Complementation of the Mycoplasma synoviae MS-H vaccine strain with wild-type oppF1 influences its growth characteristics.
This study reveals that truncation of oppF1 impacts on growth characteristics of the MS-H and provides insight into the molecular pathogenesis of MS and perhaps broader mycoplasma species. PMID: 32054292 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - February 14, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Kordafshari S, Marenda MS, Agnew R, Shil P, Shahid MA, Marth C, Konsak BM, Noormohammadi AH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian coxiellosis in 9 psittacine birds, 1 black-browed barbet, and 1 paradise tanager.
Abstract Infection with a novel species of the genus Coxiella was first described in 3 Swainson's Blue Mountain Rainbow Lorikeets from a zoological collection, and days later in a group of seven other psittacine birds and a toucan. We provide an update on coxiellosis in 9 additional psittacines, and two non-psittacines. Psittacines originated in New England, the mid Atlantic, the Midwest, the South and the Northwest. Psittacines most commonly had lesions in the brain, spleen, liver, and lungs, consisting of meningoencephalitis, hepatosplenomegaly, and interstitial pneumonia. Lesions contained histiocytic infiltrat...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 14, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Needle DB, Agnew DW, Bradway DS, Nordhausen RB, Garner MM Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pathogenicity of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in rooks (Corvus frugilegus).
Abstract Rooks (Corvus frugilegus) are considered migratory crows in Japan. Some rooks share a wintering site in the Izumi plain in Kagoshima Prefecture with hooded cranes (Grus monacha) and white-necked cranes (Grus vipio), which are designated as "endangered" in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5 subtype viruses has recently been reported in these crane species in Japan, in conjunction with a massive decrease in their population. In the present study, the pathogenicity of HPAI virus was assessed...
Source: Avian Pathology - February 4, 2020 Category: Pathology Authors: Soda K, Tomioka Y, Usui T, Ozaki H, Yamaguchi T, Ito T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases 63-4 Table of Contents.
Authors: PMID: 31873041 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - December 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases 63-4 Table of Contents.
Authors: PMID: 31847576 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - December 19, 2019 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Rate of false positive reactions in 11 M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae serological tests in samples obtained from SPF birds inoculated with heterologous mycoplasma species.
In this study the performance of a current available Mg and Ms RPA test, three Mg, three Ms and three Mg/Ms combination ELISAs were evaluated on SPF sera that were obtained from day (D) 0-28 after M. gallinarum, M. imitans or M. gallinaceum inoculation, after sham inoculation and without inoculation. Trachea swabs for mycoplasma culture were obtained before inoculation (D0), 7 and 28 days post inoculation (d.p.i.) in all groups except the sham inoculated group. The different mycoplasma species colonized well. In the early stage after inoculation(7-14 d.p.i.) with heterologous mycoplasma species, the specificity varied from...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 10, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Feberwee A, Dijkman R, Wiegel J, Veen CT, Bataille H, Bouwstra R, de Wit S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The transcriptional regulator PhoP mediates the tolC molecular mechanism on APEC biofilm formation and pathogenicity.
Abstract As a transcriptional regulator of the classical binary regulatory system, PhoP plays an important role in the life activities of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). In previous experiments, we found that the absence of phoP affects APEC biofilm formation and pathogenicity. To further explore the molecular mechanism of phoP regulation of these phenomena, the differentially expressed gene tolC was screened based on phoP-derived transcriptional data, and the specific sequence identity of the PhoP binding sequence was predicted by bioinformatics and verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA...
Source: Avian Pathology - December 6, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Li Q, Yin L, Xue M, Wang Z, Song X, Shao Y, Liu H, Tu J, Qi K Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Abnormal expression of liver autophagy and apoptosis-related mRNA in fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome and improvement function of resveratrol in laying hens.
Abstract Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) is characterized by hepatic rupture and hemorrhage leading to sudden death in laying hens. Resveratrol (Res) is a natural polyphenol with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that can ameliorate chronic liver disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the improved effect of Res on the altered expression of autophagy and apoptosis-related genes in laying hens with FLHS. A total of 144 healthy 150-day-old laying hens were randomly divided into four group: control group (standard diet), HELP group (high-energy-low-protein (HELP) diet), HELP + R...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 27, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Wang X, Xing C, Yang F, Zhou S, Li G, Zhang C, Cao H, Hu G Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Spotlight on avian pathology: aspergillosis.
l;a M Abstract Aspergillosis is a disease of domestic and free-living birds caused by infection with a fraction of fungi within the genus Aspergillus. Species can be identified by colony morphology and microscopic characterization of conidia and conidiophores or by PCR, and isolates can be typed by microsatellite typing. Serodiagnostic options for testing are limited to antibody and antigen detection methods. The sensitivity of these tests can be enhanced through the use of protein electrophoresis. In many countries, no systemic antifungal drugs are registered for use in food-producing animals and resistance to an...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 26, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Hauck R, Cray C, França M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Analysis of Antibody Response to an Epitope in the Haemagglutinin Subunit 2 of Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 for Differentiation of Infected and Vaccinated Chickens.
This study demonstrates the usefulness of the HPAI H5N1 HA2 E29 epitope as a DIVA antigen in HPAI H5N1 vaccinated and infected chickens.Research Highlight E29 (HA2 position 488-516) epitope is antigenic in chickenAntibodies to E29 are elicited following live H5N1 virus infection in chickenE29 epitope is a potential DIVA antigen for use in ELISA. PMID: 31738584 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - November 18, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Putri K, Wibowo MH, Tarigan S, Wawegama N, Ignjatovic J, Noormohammadi AH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Genotypic divergence of Avibacterium paragallinarum isolates with different growth requirements for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.
Abstract In 2017, for the first time in Asia, we reported the isolation of variants of Avibacterium paragallinarum with atypical NAD dependency. The present study was conducted to characterize the genotypes of 24 isolates of Av. paragallinarum in Korea, including the four variants reported previously. Most of the typical isolates (19/20) showed a unique ERIC-PCR pattern with no ERIC-PCR patterns in common between the typical isolates and the variants. Furthermore, the variants shared no ERIC-PCR patterns among themselves. All the typical NAD-dependent isolates belonged to the same phylogenetic group based on both ...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 11, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Jeong OM, Kang MS, Blackall PJ, Jeon BW, Kim JH, Jeong J, Lee HJ, Kim DW, Kwon YK, Kim JH Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular characterisation of a Marek's disease virus strain detected in tumour-bearing turkeys.
This study reports the molecular characterisation of a GaHV-2 strain detected in a flock of Italian meat-type turkeys exhibiting visceral lymphomas. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the meq gene revealed that the turkey GaHV-2 has molecular features of high virulence and genetic similarity with GaHV-2 strains recently detected in Italian commercial and backyard chickens. GaHV-2 is ubiquitous among chickens despite the vaccination, and chicken-to-turkey transmission is hypothesised due to the presence of broilers in neighbouring pens.Research highlights A GaHV-2 strain from Italian turkeys was molecularly characteris...
Source: Avian Pathology - November 8, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Mescolini G, Lupini C, Davidson I, Massi P, Tosi G, Fiorentini L, Catelli E Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

ybjX mutation regulated Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli pathogenicity though stress-resistance pathway.
In this study, we examined the bactericidal activity of chicken serum and blood, as well as bacterial survival in HD11 macrophages. We compared the transcriptome of ybjX mutations with those of the wild strain and studied the effects of ybjX on miRNA expression in the spleen. Our findings revealed that the mutant strain, ΔybjX, had a lower resistance to chicken serum and blood, as well as bacterial survival in HD11 macrophages than AE17. RNA sequencing analyses showed that the ybjX mutation reduced stress resistance by down-regulating mRNAs in metabolic pathways. Infection with the ybjX mutation caused changes in the...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 31, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Song X, Qiu M, Jiang H, Xue M, Hu J, Liu H, Zhou X, Tu J, Qi K Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Unravelling fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome: 2. Inflammation and pathophysiology.
Abstract To study the role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of the fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS), mature laying hen were treated with oestrogen (β-estradiol-17-dipropionate or E2) and challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Oestrogen injections induced FLHS, but the incidence and severity of the condition was increased with a combination of E2 & LPS. Hepatic mRNA levels of the genes encoding key regulators of inflammation such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) were evaluated. The expression of IL-6 mRNA in hepatocytes of all treated gro...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 17, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Shini S, Shini A, Bryden WL Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Monitoring of free-ranging and captive Psittacula populations in Western Europe for avian bornaviruses, circoviruses and polyomaviruses.
Abstract Avian pathogens such as bornaviruses, circoviruses and polyomaviruses are widely distributed in captive collections of psittacine birds worldwide and can cause fatal diseases. In contrast, only little is known about their presence in free-ranging psittacines and their impact on these populations. Rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) are non-native to Europe, but have established stable populations in parts of Western Europe. During 2012 to 2017, we surveyed free-ranging populations in Germany and France as well as captive Psittacula individuals from Ger...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 16, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Kessler S, Heenemann K, Krause T, Twietmeyer S, Fuchs J, Lierz M, Corman VM, Vahlenkamp TM, Rubbenstroth D Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Retrospective study on transmissible viral proventriculitis and Chicken proventricular necrosis virus (CPNV) in the UK.
jó N Abstract Chicken proventricular necrosis virus (CPNV) is a recently described birnavirus, which has been proposed to be the cause of transmissible viral proventriculitis (TVP). The understanding of the epidemiology of both the virus and the disease is very limited. A retrospective investigation on TVP and CPNV in broiler chicken submissions from the UK from between 1994 and 2015 was performed with the aims of assessing the longitudinal temporal evolution of TVP and CPNV and to review the histological proventricular lesions in the studied chickens. Ninety-nine of the 135 included submissions (73.3%) ful...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 8, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Grau-Roma L, Schock A, Nofrarías M, Ali Wali N, de Fraga AP, Garcia-Rueda C, de Brot S, Majó N Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Influences of swab types and storage temperatures on isolation and molecular detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae.
Abstract Routine diagnosis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is performed by collecting oropharyngeal swabs, followed by isolation and/or detection by molecular methods. The storage temperature, storage duration and the type of swabs could be critical factors for a successful isolation or molecular detection. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of different types of cotton tipped swabs stored at different temperatures, on detection of MG and MS. To achieve this, a combined use of traditional culture analysis (both agar and broth), with modern molecular detection methods w...
Source: Avian Pathology - October 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Ball C, Felice V, Ding Y, Forrester A, Catelli E, Ganapathy K Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases 63-3 Table of Contents.
Authors: PMID: 31441340 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - August 25, 2019 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Geese not susceptible to virulent subgroup J avian leukosis virus isolated from chickens.
Abstract To determine whether geese are infection of avian leukosis virus (ALV), 702 serum samples from domestic and foreign goose breeds were screened for p27 antigen as well as being inoculated into DF-1 cell cultures to isolate ALV. Although 5.6% of samples were positive for p27 antigen, reactivity appeared to be non-specific because no ALV was detected in the corresponding DF-1 cultures. To further determine whether geese are susceptible to ALV-J isolated from chickens, ALV-J strain JS09GY7 was artificially inoculated into 10-day-old goose embryos, with 1-day-old hatched goslings then screened for p27 antigen ...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Mu X, Xu M, Zhu S, Xiao W, Shen X, Qin A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Co-infections of chickens with Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 and Moroccan Italy 02 Infectious Bronchitis Virus: effect on pathogenesis and protection conferred by different vaccination programs.
ez MF Abstract Since the emergence of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses in Morocco in 2016, severe respiratory problems have been encountered in the field. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is often detected together with H9N2, suggesting disease exacerbation in cases of co-infections. This hypothesis was therefore tested and confirmed in laboratory conditions using specific pathogen free chickens. Most common field vaccine programs were then tested to compare their efficacies against these two co-infecting agents. IBV γCoV/chicken/Morocco/I38/2014 (Mor-IT02) and LPAI virus A/chicken/Morocco...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 15, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Belkasmi SFZ, Fellahi S, Touzani CD, Faraji FZ, Maaroufi I, Delverdier M, Guérin JL, Fihri OF, El Houadfi M, Ducatez MF Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Comparative clinico-pathological assessment of velogenic (sub-genotype VIIi) and mesogenic (sub-genotype VIm) Avian avulavirus 1 in chickens and pigeons.
Abstract Newcastle disease (ND), caused by virulent Avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV 1), affects a wide range of avian species worldwide. Recently, several AAvVs of diverse genotypes have emerged with varying genomic and residue substitutions, and subsequent clinical impact on susceptible avian species. We assessed the clinico-pathological influence of two different AAvV 1 pathotypes [wild bird originated-velogenic strain (sub-genotype VIIi, MF437287) and feral pigeon originated-mesogenic strain (sub-genotype VIm, KU885949)] in commercial broiler chickens and pigeons. The velogenic strain caused 100% mortality in both avi...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 12, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Aziz-Ul-Rahman, Rohaim MA, El Naggar RF, Mustafa G, Chaudhry U, Shabbir MZ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Histomonosis (blackhead disease): a re-emerging disease in turkeys and chickens.
Abstract Histomonosis or blackhead disease is a well-known disease in turkeys that can cause high mortality but outbreaks with lower losses are also observed. The disease is less fatal in chickens but economically important due to reduced performance and its co-appearance with colibacillosis. The lack of specific prophylactic and therapeutic interventions led to a re-emergence of the disease in recent years, mainly in turkeys, free-range layers and chicken parent stock. PMID: 31393162 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - August 8, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Liebhart D, Hess M Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of Avian Reovirus Causing Tenosynovitis Outbreaks in Broiler Flocks, Iran.
In this study, ARVs from the tendon of 23 broiler flocks with marked tenosynovitis were characterized, and their genetic relationship was examined. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of Sigma C protein revealed that all ARVs detected in affected broiler flocks share genetic homogeneity and suggests that a single genotype is involved in recent outbreaks. This genotype, so-called "Ardehal strain," is grouped in cluster I with vaccine strains. The amino acid sequence similarity between Ardehal and vaccine strain, including S1133, 1733, and 2408 was less than 80%. As the outbreaks have occurred in progenies of vacci...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 8, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Mirbagheri SA, Hosseini H, Ghalyanchilangeroudi A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Effects of a feed additive blend on broilers challenged with heat stress.
In conclusion, the feed additive blend protected intestines during heat stress from the decrease in villus height and crypt depth, and from the increase in villus width. Especially in the jejunum, heat stress played an important role by modulating oxidative stress and inflammation, impairing gut integrity and nutrient transport, and such deleterious effects were alleviated by the feed additive blend. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Jejunum is the most sensitive intestinal segment during heat stress. Heat stress affects the expression of tight junctions and nutrient transporters. Feed management helps to alleviate the disturbances caus...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Santos RR, Awati A, Roubos-van den Hil PJ, van Kempen TATG, Tersteeg-Zijderveld MHG, Koolmees PA, Smits C, Fink-Gremmels J Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian Diseases 63-2 Table of Contents.
Authors: PMID: 31215807 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - June 21, 2019 Category: Pathology Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Armored Exogenous Internal Control for Real-Time PCR Diagnosis of Avian Influenza.
Abstract An exogenous "armored" PCR internal control (IC) short RNA was analyzed in conjunction with real-time RT-PCR method for diagnosis of avian influenza. The resistance to nucleases and increase the physical stability of the IC was ensured branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) which was in complex with IC-RNA. The option to add the IC directly to pathological material suspensions allows to measure the nucleic acids extraction efficiency. Stability of armored RNA-IC during storage and tissue suspension preparation was shown. The advantage of exogenous "armored" IC was demonstrated in the experim...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 17, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Andreychuk DB, Andriyasov AV, Nikonova ZB, Kozlov AA, Suarez DL, Chvala IA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Glycoprotein D peptide-based diagnostic approach for the detection of avian infectious laryngotracheitis antibodies.
Abstract Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens, pheasants, and peafowl. It is caused by the alpha herpesvirus, an infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Glycoprotein D (gD) of ILTV is immunogenic and helps in its binding to the susceptible host cell receptor. In the present study, a recombinant gD protein was expressed in a prokaryotic system to develop a single serum dilution ELISA. In addition, two immunogenic peptides corresponding to regions 77-89, and 317-328 were identified in gD protein. The peptides were synthesized using solid-phase peptide synthesis...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Kumar V, Yadav K, Kumar R, Chaudhary N, Kumar S Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pigeon circoviruses from feral pigeon in Australia demonstrates extensive recombination and genetic admixture with other circoviruses.
Abstract Like other avian circovirus species Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is known to be genetically diverse with a relatively small circular single stranded DNA genome of 2 kb that encodes for a capsid protein (Cap) and a replication initiator protein (Rep). Recent paleoviral evidence hints towards a probable Gondwanan origin of avian circoviruses, paralleling the evolution and dispersal of their hosts. Limited availability of PiCV genome sequence data in Australia has hindered phylogeographic studies in this species, so we screened clinically normal rock doves (Columba livia) in regional New South Wales, and demon...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Sarker S, Das S, Ghorashi SA, Forwood JK, Raidal SR Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Cross-species transmission of poultry pathogens in backyard farms: ducks as carriers of chicken viruses.
CP Abstract In backyard farms of Lao People's Democratic Republic, mixed-species rearing of poultry is a breeding-ground for cross-species transmission. Here, the epidemiology of viruses circulating among backyard poultry in Vientiane Province was assessed to guide future control strategies. Oral/tracheal and cloacal swabs, collected from 605 poultry (308 ducks, 297 chickens) between 2011 and 2015, were screened by PCR for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), Coronavirus (CoV) and Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV). Chicken sera were screened for anti-NDV antibodies by ELISA. Statistical and phylogenetic analyses revealed tran...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Pauly M, Snoeck CJ, Phoutana V, Keosengthong A, Sausy A, Khenkha L, Nouanthong P, Samountry B, Jutavijittum P, Vilivong K, Hübschen JM, Black AP, Pommasichan S, Muller CP Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Experimental model of oral transmissible AA amyloidosis in quails.
In this study, we developed an oral transmission model of AA amyloidosis using quails and assessed the oral transmission efficiency of AA amyloidosis in quails and mice. Young quails, adult quails, and young mice received inflammatory stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, simultaneously homogeneous amyloid fibrils was orally or intravenously administrated. As a result of the histological examination, induction of amyloidosis by orally or intravenously administration of amyloid was confirmed in all species. Furthermore, both quail and murine AA amyloidosis were orally transmitted in a dose-dependent manner. These results sup...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 14, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Miyoshi T, Ono A, Shimada K, Murakami T Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

New Introduction of a Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus in New York, USA.
Abstract Bursa tissue samples from a pullet flock in New York State that was experiencing immune suppression related disease were sent to our laboratory in 2018. A very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) was identified in those samples through molecular and pathogenicity studies and designated 1/chicken/USA/1054NY/18. Phylogenetic analyses of the hypervariable VP2 nucleotide sequence region indicated that this strain belonged to genogroup 3 which comprises the vvIBDV. Partial sequence data of the VP1 gene indicated this virus also had a VP1 typical of vvIBDV. While vvIBDV have previously been identi...
Source: Avian Pathology - June 3, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Michel LO, Kimber ML, Jackwood DJ Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Pathogenicity of Fowl Adenovirus (FAdV) Serotype 4 Strain SDJN in Taizhou Geese.
This study is the first experimental infection of FAdV-4 in geese, which will provide a basis for further understanding of the disease. PMID: 31155930 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - June 3, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Wei Z, Liu H, Diao Y, Li X, Zhang S, Gao B, Tang Y, Hu J, Diao Y Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Avian influenza H9N2 subtype in Ghana: virus characterization and evidence of co-infection.
Abstract Between November 2017 and February 2018, Ghanaian poultry producers reported to animal health authorities a dramatic increase in mortality rate and a relevant drop in egg production in several layer hens farms. Laboratory investigations revealed that the farms had been infected by the H9N2 influenza subtype. Virological and molecular characterization of the viruses identified in Ghana is described here for the first time. Whole genome analysis showed that the viruses belong to the G1-lineage and cluster with viruses identified in North and West Africa. The low pathogenicity of the virus was confirmed by t...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 30, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Awuni JA, Bianco A, Dogbey OJ, Fusaro A, Yingar DT, Salviato A, Ababio PT, Milani A, Bonfante F, Monne I Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

The residue levels of spinosad and abamectin in eggs and tissues of laying hens following spray application.
This study aimed to determine SPN (spinosyn A + spinosyn D) and ABM residues in egg and edible tissues of laying hens following spray application. A total of 36 laying hens were divided into four groups of nine animals each, and they were kept in individual cages. Two different concentrations of SPN (2 and 4 g/L) and ABM (0.025 and 0.033 g/L) were applied in stocked and empty cages, respectively. Eggs were collected individually for 30 days. All hens were sacrificed at day 30 post-treatment, and tissue samples (liver, breast muscle, fat and skin) were collected. The residue levels in eggs and tissues were...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 27, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Gokbulut C, Ozuicli M, Aslan B, Aydin L, Cirak VY Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

A combined retrospective, prospective and experimental study of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale infection in chickens.
Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the histopathological and immunohistochemical changes caused by natural and experimentally induced Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale infection in the respiratory system of chickens. To this end, three different studies were carried out. The first was a retrospective study of 82 field cases with respiratory disorders compatible with O. rhinotracheale infection. The bacterium was immunohistochemically detected in the lungs in 48 of 82 field cases, and 50 β-haemolytic (BH) and non-haemolytic (NH) strains were isolated. In the second study, an experimental model of the ...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Gornatti-Churria CD, Loukopoulos P, Prescott M, Petruccelli MA, Machuca MA Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Influence of different housing systems on prevalence of keel bone lesions in laying hens.
Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the effect of three housing systems (furnished cages - FC, Barns - B and free range - FR) on the prevalence and severity of keel bone protrusion and deformations. These health and welfare indicators were measure at the slaughterhouse, using a 4-point scale (0 = absence, 1 = slight, 2 = moderate and 3 = severe). Keel bone deformation was also categorized in relation to the presence of compression over the ventral surface, deviation from a 2D straight plane and deviation from the transverse (C-shaped) or median sa...
Source: Avian Pathology - May 20, 2019 Category: Pathology Authors: Saraiva S, Esteves A, Stilwell G Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research