A Nucleolar PARtnership Expands PARP Roles in RNA Biology and the Clinical Potential of PARP Inhibitors

In this issue of Molecular Cell, Kim et  al. (2019) identify small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) as activators of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) synthesis, demonstrating that this snoRNA–PAR partnership promotes cancer cell growth independent of DNA repair pathways.
Source: Molecular Cell - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Preview Source Type: research

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We report an unprecedented case of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the floor of mouth of a 23-year-old woman with XP. The patient was referred to the oncologist and, two months after surgical resection, underwent a single chemotherapy and radiotherapy session. However, she died 73 hours after undergoing her first chemotherapy session. Considering the unexpected outcome of this case, we also investigated possible exacerbated adverse effects of antineoplastic treatments (especially cisplatin-based chemotherapy) in XP patients, and discussed the main characteristics of the disease, especially cases with oral manifestations d...
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
In conclusion, spironolactone is a safe candidate drug that exerts anti-cancer effects in combination with non-DNA-damaging drugs, such as gemcitabine and osimertinib, most likely through the suppression of survivin.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In conclusion, a polypharmacology approach of combining established, prolongevity drug inhibitors of specific nodes may be the most effective way to target the nutrient-sensing network to improve late-life health. Deletion of p38α in Neurons Slows Neural Stem Cell Decline and Loss of Cognitive Function in Mice https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/10/deletion-of-p38%ce%b1-in-neurons-slows-neural-stem-cell-decline-and-loss-of-cognitive-function-in-mice/ Researchers here provide evidence for p38α to be involved in the regulation of diminished neural stem cell activity with age. It is thought...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Purpose of review One of the most vexing problems for gastroenterologists is what actions to take after receiving a histological diagnosis of gastric intestinal metaplasia. We approach the problem by starting with suggesting a biopsy protocol that ensures obtaining the biopsies required for diagnosis, assessing the status of the gastric mucosa, and effective communication with the pathologist and patient. Recent findings The rediscovery and integration of the long history of gastric damage and repair resulting in pseudopyloric metaplasia (called SPEM) into the thinking of investigators working with animal models of ga...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: STOMACH AND DUODENUM: Edited by Mitchell L. Schubert Source Type: research
We describe the repair processes that follow removal of TOP2 adducts and the resultant broken DNA ends, and present how these processes can contribute to disease-associated mutations. Furthermore, we examine the involvement of TOP2-induced breaks in the formation of oncogenic translocations of leukemia and papillary thyroid cancer, as well as the role of TOP2 and proteins which repair TOP2 adducts in other diseases. The participation of TOP2 in generating persistent DNA breaks and leading to diseases such as cancer, could have an impact on disease treatment and prevention.
Source: Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
We report an unprecedented case of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the floor of mouth of a 23-year-old woman with XP. The patient was referred to the oncologist and, two months after surgical resection, underwent a single chemotherapy and radiotherapy session.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Sterile inflammation arises without external cause, such as infection or injury, and chronic sterile inflammation is a characteristic of aging. Inflammatory signaling becomes constant and pronounced in tissues, and the immune system is constantly roused to action. Processes, such as regeneration from injury, that depend upon a clear cycle of inflammation that starts, progresses, and resolves are significantly disrupted. It is no exaggeration to say that the downstream consequences of chronic inflammation accelerate the progression of all of the common age-related conditions. It is of great importance in atherosclerosis and...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSION: This study highlights the distinct clinicopathological features of MSI-related CRC and the relevance of MSI testing of stage II CRC for management decisions and prognostication.
Source: Indian Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The detection of defective mismatch repair (MMR) proteins using IHC for MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 and molecular testing using BAT26 and NR24 appears to be a good protocol to detect CRCs with MSI. Histology could be useful in identifying cases that require screening for presence of MMR protein defects.
Source: Indian Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
In conclusion, PARP1 directs the transcription of some proliferation and DNA repair genes in breast cancer cells by the ADP-ribosylation of EP300, thereby causing its activation and marking nucleosomes for displacement by BRG1. PARP1 in rapidly dividing cells facilitates the expression of genes that confer a cancer cell phenotype. Our study shows a new mechanism that links PARP1 with the removal of DNA damage in breast cancer cells via the regulation of BRG1–EP300-dependent transcription of genes involved in DNA repair pathways.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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