Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing of the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Virology

We applied metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) to detect Zaire Ebola virus (EBOV) and other potential pathogens from whole-blood samples from 70 patients with suspected Ebola hemorrhagic fever during a 2014 outbreak in Boende, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and correlated these findings with clinical symptoms. Twenty of 31 patients (64.5%) tested in Kinshasa, DRC, were EBOV positive by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Despite partial degradation of sample RNA during shipping and handling, mNGS followed by EBOV-specific capture probe enrichment in a U.S. genomics laboratory identified EBOV reads in 22 of 70 samples (31.4%) versus in 21 of 70 (30.0%) EBOV-positive samples by repeat qRT-PCR (overall concordance = 87.1%). Reads from Plasmodium falciparum (malaria) were detected in 21 patients, of which at least 9 (42.9%) were coinfected with EBOV. Other positive viral detections included hepatitis B virus (n = 2), human pegivirus 1 (n = 2), Epstein-Barr virus (n = 9), and Orungo virus (n = 1), a virus in the Reoviridae family. The patient with Orungo virus infection presented with an acute febrile illness and died rapidly from massive hemorrhage and dehydration. Although the patient’s blood sample was negative by EBOV qRT-PCR testing, identification of viral reads by mNGS confirmed the presence of EBOV coinfection. In total, 9 new EBOV genomes (3 complete genomes, and an additional 6 ≥50% complete) were assembled. Relaxed molecular cloc...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Virology Source Type: research

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ConclusionAccording to our results, Nested PCR method had higher sensitivity than LM and is suggested as a good approach for malaria detection. Consideration the wide diversity of tested isolates and the importance of vaccine development, which is affected by this diversity, further studies are needed in this regard.
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Scientists who resurrected a 50,000-year-old gene sequence have analyzed it to figure out how the world's deadliest malaria parasite jumped from gorillas to humans - giving insight into the origins of one of human history's biggest killers.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and GastroenterologyAuthor(s): Wei Hou, Zhixiao Huo, Yanan Du, Cindy Wang, Wing-Kin SynSummaryObjectivesSimultaneous positivity for both hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs) is an atypical serological profile in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. The exact mechanisms underlying the uncommon profile remains unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of amino acid substitutions within the “a” determinant region in a large cohort of CHB patients with coexistence of ...
Source: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Several countries that have never experienced the problem, including Nigeria which is home to 191 million people, are particularly at risk - both now and in the years ahead.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
ConclusionsThe hypoglycemic mechanism of DOP might be associated with the regulation of glucagon-mediated hepatic glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis, and of liver glycogen structure, contributing to improved hepatic glucose metabolism in diabetic mice.Graphical abstractDOP could regulate glucagon-mediated signaling pathways and reverse the instability of liver glycogen structure, contributing to improved hepatic glucose metabolism.
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Environmental destruction risks increasing the spread of deadly diseases including Ebola and malaria, with serious consequences for future public health
Source: New Scientist - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: research
China detected African swine fever in pigs being transported to Guangxi region from outside provinces, the Agriculture Ministry said on Tuesday.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
Authors: Fillâtre P, Revest M, Tattevin P Abstract Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe form of hemorrhagic fever caused by a virus of the genus Nairovirus. The amplifying hosts are various mammal species that remain asymptomatic. Humans are infected by tick bites or contact with animal blood. CCHF has a broad geographic distribution and is endemic in Africa, Asia (in particular the Middle East) and South East Europe. This area has expanded in recent years with two indigenous cases reported in Spain in 2016 and 2018. The incubation period is short with the onset of symptoms in generally less tha...
Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research
Abstract Global immunization efforts to date have heavily focused on infants and children, with noted success on public health. Healthy adolescents and adults contribute to the economic growth and development of countries but efforts to ensure vaccine coverage for these groups receive inadequate global attention and resources. Emerging epidemics for a number of infectious diseases including Ebola, Zika, dengue, malaria and the continuing epidemics of tuberculosis and several sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, HPV and Hepatitis B, have high incidence and prevalence in adolescents and adults. New vaccin...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
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