Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 775: Environmental Surveillance of Polioviruses in Armenia, Colombia before Trivalent Oral Polio Vaccine Cessation

This study aimed to detect the introduction and/or circulation of wild poliovirus or vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV) in wastewater, covering a significant population of Armenia, Colombia, before trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) cessation. Between March and September 2015, 24 wastewater samples were collected from eight study sites in eight communes of Armenia, Colombia. Virus detection and characterization were performed using both cell culture (i.e., RD or L20B cells) and RT-PCR. Polioviruses were isolated in 11 (45.8%) of 24 wastewater samples. All isolates were identified as Sabin strains (type 1 = 9, type 3 = 2) by intratypic differentiation. Type 2 poliovirus was not detected in any of the samples. No wild poliovirus or VDPV was detected among the isolates. Non-polio enterovirus was identified in 8.3% (2/24) of the samples. This study revealed the excretion of Sabin poliovirus from OPV-immunized individuals, as well as the absence of VDPV and wild poliovirus in wastewaters of Armenia, Colombia. This confirms that environmental surveillance is an effective method, as an additional support to AFP surveillance, to monitor poliovirus during the OPV-to-IPV (inactivated polio vaccine) transition period.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Communication Source Type: research

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Abstract Poliovirus (PV) environmental surveillance was established in Haiti in three sites each in Port-au-Prince and Gonaïves, where sewage and fecal-influenced environmental open water channel samples were collected monthly from March 2016 to February 2017. The primary objective was to monitor for the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) and the importation and transmission of wild polioviruses (WPVs). A secondary objective was to compare two environmental sample processing methods, the gold standard two-phase separation method and a filter method (bag-mediated filtration system [BMFS]). In ad...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Carter Roberts’ motorized wheelchair didn’t arrive until the day he died. It had been a long time coming and his parents had fought hard to get it. The chair cost more than $32,000 and the insurance companies wouldn’t cover it, so the family went to court. One insurer eventually agreed to pay for some components of the chair but not the whole thing. And then none of it mattered anyway. On Sept. 22, 2018, the Roberts’ doorbell rang and the chair was delivered. Also on Sept. 22, 2018, Carter died, just three months shy of his sixth birthday. He had been largely paralyzed for the final two years of his...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Infectious Disease viruses Source Type: news
The TWiV team covers outbreaks of eastern equine encephalitis virus in the US and poliovirus in the Philippines, and explain how a chemokine induced by HIV-1 infection helps release more virus particles from cells. Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, Kathy Spindler, and Brianne Barker Subscribe (free): iTunes, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Poliomyelitis returns to the Philippines (Mashable, virology blog) EEE in the USA (Am J Trop Med Hyg) Chemokine helps HIV-1 release (eLIFE) Image credit Letters read o...
Source: This Week in Virology - MP3 Edition - Category: Virology Authors: Source Type: podcasts
s Delpeyroux RNA recombination is a major driving force in the evolution and genetic architecture shaping of enteroviruses. In particular, intertypic recombination is implicated in the emergence of most pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, which have caused numerous outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis worldwide. Recent experimental studies that relied on recombination cellular systems mimicking natural genetic exchanges between enteroviruses provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms of enterovirus recombination and enabled to define a new model of genetic plasticity for enteroviruses. Homolog...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 424: Environmental Surveillance for Poliovirus and Other Enteroviruses: Long-Term Experience in Moscow, Russian Federation, 2004–2017 Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11050424 Authors: Ivanova Yarmolskaya Eremeeva Babkina Baykova Akhmadishina Krasota Kozlovskaya Lukashev Polio and enterovirus surveillance may include a number of approaches, including incidence-based observation, a sentinel physician system, environmental monitoring and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. The relative value of these methods is widely debated. Here we summarized the results of 14 ye...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
This study was carried to i) investigate the circulation and genetic diversity of NPEV and polio vaccine isolates recovered from healthy children and Acute Flaccid Paralysis ( AFP) patients, ii) evaluate the occurrence of genetic recombination among EVs belonging to theEnterovirus C species (including PVs) and iii) identify the virological factors favoring multiple emergences of cVDPVs in DR Congo. The biological material considered in this study included i) a collection of 91 Sabin-like PVs, 54 cVDPVs and 150 NPEVs isolated from AFP patients between 2008 and 2012 in DR Congo and iii) a collection of 330 stool specimens co...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
(NEW YORK) — One morning last fall, 4-year-old Joey Wilcox woke up with the left side of his face drooping. It was the first sign of an unfolding nightmare. Three days later, Joey was in a hospital intensive care unit, unable to move his arms or legs or sit up. Spinal taps and other tests failed to find a cause. Doctors worried he was about to lose the ability to breathe. “It’s devastating,” said his father, Jeremy Wilcox, of Herndon, Virginia. “Your healthy child can catch a cold — and then become paralyzed.” Joey, who survived but still suffers some of the effects, was one of 228...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized illness medical onetime Source Type: news
(The Translational Genomics Research Institute) Using multiple genomic sequencing tests, TGen identified a specific non-polio enterovirus -- EV-D68 -- among at least four children, according to a study published today in the scientific journal mBio. The finding is significant because AFM cases are continuing to increase and there has been no official recognition that this disease is being caused by EV-D68, which limits the research community's ability to develop preventative measures, such as new vaccines.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 3 December 2018Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): W. Joseph Evans, Brett L. Hurst, Christopher J. Peterson, Arnaud J. Van Wettere, Craig W. Day, Donald F. Smee, E. Bart TarbetAbstractEnterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a non-polio enterovirus that affects the respiratory system and can cause serious complications, especially in children and older people with weakened immune systems. As an emerging virus, there are no current antiviral therapies or vaccines available. Our goal was to develop a mouse model of human EV-D68 infection that mimicked the disease observed in humans and could be used fo...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Abstract Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a non-polio enterovirus that affects the respiratory system and can cause serious complications, especially in children and older people with weakened immune systems. As an emerging virus, there are no current antiviral therapies or vaccines available. Our goal was to develop a mouse model of human EV-D68 infection that mimicked the disease observed in humans and could be used for evaluation of experimental therapeutics. This is the first report of a respiratory disease model for EV-D68 infection in mice. We adapted the virus by 30 serial passages in AG129 mice, which are defic...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
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