Validated model of platelet slip at stenosis and device surfaces.
The objective of this study was to explore whether microspheres-modeling platelets-slip at different vascular and device surfaces in an acrylic scaled-up model coronary artery. The microspheres (3.12 µm diameter) were suspended in a transparent glycerol/water experimental fluid, which flowed continuously at Reynolds numbers typical of coronary flow (200-400) through the model artery. We placed a series of axisymmetric acrylic stenoses (cross-sectional area reduction [CSAr], 20-90%) into the model artery, both without and with a central cylinder present (modeling a percutaneous interventional guide wire, and with a scaled-up Doppler catheter mounted upstream). We used laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) to measure microsphere velocities within, proximal and distal to each stenosis, and compared to computer simulations of fluid flow with no-slip. For validation, we replaced the acrylic with paraffin stenoses (more biologically relevant from a surface roughness perspective) and then analyzed the signal recorded by the scaled-up Doppler catheter. Using the LDV, we identified progressive microsphere slip proportional to CSAr inside entrances for stenoses ≥60% and ≥40% without and with cylinder present, respectively. Additionally, microsphere slip occurred universally along the cylinder surface. Computer simulations indicated increased fluid shear rates (velocity gradients) at these particular locations, and logistic regression analysis comparing microsphere slip with fluid...
Publication date: Available online 18 August 2019Source: Microvascular ResearchAuthor(s): Sang-Soo Han, Zhen Jin, Byoung-Seok Lee, Ji-Seok Han, Jong-Jin Choi, Soon-Jung Park, Hyung-Min Chung, Anthony Safaa Mukhtar, Sung-Hwan Moon, Sun-Woong KangAbstractCritical limb ischemia is one of the most common types of peripheral arterial disease. Preclinical development of ischemia therapeutics relies on the availability of a relevant and reproducible in vivo disease model. Thus, establishing appropriate animal disease models is essential for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Currently, the most commonly employed model...
CONCLUSION: The protocol is based on scientific evidence that describes an effective therapy to prevent VTE. However, the protocol should be updated because the justifications for non-adherence are based on scientific evidence, and this justified non-adherence generates savings and yields effective disease prevention.
Endotoxemia often results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), coagulation disturbance and acute lung injury (ALI), and such a condition is associated with the activation of platelets, leukocytes and vascular endothelial cells (VECs). P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) is a key regulatory molecule in the activation of platelets, leukocytes and VECs. However, it still remains largely unexplored whether PSGL-1 plays an important role in SIRS, coagulation dysfunction and ALI of endotoxemia.
The zymogen form of circulating Factor VII activating protease (FSAP) is activated by histones that are released as a consequence of tissue damage or excessive inflammation. This is likely to have consequences in a number of disease conditions such as stroke, atherosclerosis, liver fibrosis, thrombosis and cancer. To investigate the existence, as well as the concentration, of active FSAP (FSAPa) in complex biological systems an active site probe is needed. We used Hybrid Combinatorial Substrate Library (HyCoSuL) to screen for natural and unnatural amino acids that specifically bind to P4-P2 pockets of FSAPa.
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are widely used as therapies for venous thromboembolism and other cardiovascular diseases. However, routine coagulation monitoring is not required, but may be clinically indicated in high risk populations including obese patients.
Cancer patients are prone to higher risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared to the general population. However, the estimated incidence of cancer-associated VTE varied among the studies. The primary objective of this study was to determine the national annual incidence and examine the trend of cancer-associated VTE in the US over the years from 2005 to 2014.
Reduced clot permeability and lysability have been reported in patients who experienced venous thromboembolism (VTE) following lower limb injury despite pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. We hypothesized that similarly altered fibrin clot properties characterize patients with post-discharge VTE despite thromboprophylaxis during prior hospitalization due to acute medical illnesses.
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2019Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental HepatologyAuthor(s): Raseen Tariq, Page Axley, Ashwani K. SingalNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide with a strong association with metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is truly a systemic disease and is associated with a plethora of extra-hepatic manifestations or comorbidities. These are either related to secondary effects of associated obesity or from pathophysiological effects of insulin resistance in NAFLD. Three most common causes of increased morbidity and mortality associa...
The monitoring of unfractionated heparin (UFH) reversal with protamine plays a crucial role for bleeding management after cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) in congenital cardiac surgery. The current standard for the monitoring of UFH and its reversal is the activated clotting time (ACT). While the ACT is affected by other CPB-associated pathologies a bedside technique with more specific heparin-related results would be very helpful. The new point-of-care viscoelastic test Haemonetics TEG ® 6s, which is based on small blood samples may fulfill these requirements.