Actinic Keratosis Clinical Course Correlates with Underlying Molecular Mechanisms.

Actinic Keratosis Clinical Course Correlates with Underlying Molecular Mechanisms. Br J Dermatol. 2019 Jul 12;: Authors: Bakshi A, Shafi R, Nelson J, Cantrell WC, Subhadarshani S, Andea A, Athar M, Elmets CA Abstract BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common premalignant skin lesions triggered by excessive UV exposure. The majority of AKs regress or persist, but some progress to squamous cell carcinomas. The biomarkers associated with their persistence, progression and regression have not been characterized. OBJECTIVE: We performed skin biopsies in patients with extensive actinic damage to identify biomarkers that correlate with clinical progression and regression of AKs. METHODS: This was an observational study of a cohort of patients with extensive actinic damage. AKs were mapped on a clear plastic template in 26 subjects at months 3, 6, 9 and 11. Biopsies were taken from randomly selected, pre-determined AKs and were evaluated for p53, E-cadherin, Snail, Slug and Twist. RESULTS: p53 exhibited greater expression in clinically apparent AKs (2·89±1·45) than regressed AKs (0·75±0·96); p
Source: The British Journal of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Br J Dermatol Source Type: research

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Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by physical signs and symptoms, including premature aging and scleroderma-like skin changes. The gene responsible for WS is the WRN gene. A significant proportion of WS-related malignant tumours are non-epithelial types, and the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is rare. A case of oral SCC of the lower alveolus and gingiva arising in a 63-year-old woman with WS is reported here. Biopsy confirmed moderately differentiated SCC.
Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Santosh K. Ghosh1*, Thomas S. McCormick1,2 and Aaron Weinberg1* 1Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States 2Dermatology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States Human beta-defensins (hBDs, −1, 2, 3) are a family of epithelial cell derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that protect mucosal membranes from microbial challenges. In addition to their antimicrobial activities, they possess other functions; e.g., cell activation, proliferation, regulation of cytokine/chemokine production, migration, diffe...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Gulcin Tezcan1, Ekaterina V. Martynova1, Zarema E. Gilazieva1, Alan McIntyre2, Albert A. Rizvanov1 and Svetlana F. Khaiboullina1,3* 1Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia 2Centre for Cancer Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, NV, United States Inflammation has a crucial role in protection against various pathogens. The inflammasome is an intracellular multiprotein signaling complex that is linked to pathogen sensing and...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In conclusion, we showed hypermethylation of CpGs as a novel mechanism of action for DNMTi agents and identified 638 hypermethylated molecular targets (CpGs) common to decitabine and azacytidine therapy. These novel results suggest that hypermethylation of CpGs should be considered when predicting the DNMTi responses and side effects in cancer patients. Introduction DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) are widely used as chemical tools for hypomethylating the genome, with an aim to understand the role of DNA methylation in multiple processes (e.g., X-chromosome inactivation and DNA imprinting) and as an anti-ca...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Laia Gorchs1*, Carlos Fernández Moro1,2, Peter Bankhead3, Katharina P. Kern1, Imrul Sadeak1, Qingda Meng1, Elena Rangelova4,5 and Helen Kaipe1,6* 1Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden 2Department of Pathology/Cytology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden 3Division of Pathology, Centre for Genomic &Experimental Medicine, Western General Hospital, Institute of Genetics &Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom 4Department of CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden 5Pancreatic Surgery Unit, Center for Digesti...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, all tumors were adenocarcinomas that originate from ducts or ductules but infiltrate to involve all components of the pancreas. Other tumors that originate in pancreas may have different properties and a future study of in situ tumor is likely needed to determine whether the tumor tissue retains a structural remnant of its originating tissue. Methods and Materials Histology Sample Preparation Samples of normal human pancreas from five patients and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissue samples from ten patients were obtained with informed consent and institutional approval (University Health Network Toro...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion Most head and neck pathologies show a broad cellular heterogeneity making it difficult to achieve an accurate diagnosis and efficient treatment (Graf and Zavodszky, 2017; Lo Nigro et al., 2017). Single cell analysis of circadian omics (Lande-Diner et al., 2015; Abraham et al., 2018), may be a crucial tool needed in the future to fully understand the circadian control of head and neck diseases. It becomes more obvious that there is only a small genetic component but a largely unknown epigenetics and/or environmental component for most of the head and neck pathologies (Moosavi and Motevalizadeh Ardekani, 2016; He...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
The histologic differential diagnosis of perianal Paget disease includes malignant melanoma, pagetoid spread of squamous cell carcinoma, and secondary involvement by colorectal carcinoma. While consideration of these entities is useful when establishing a diagnosis, it does not apply when patients with Paget disease undergo surveillance for recurrent disease. Treatment of perianal Paget disease consists of a combination of surgical excision with skin grafts and topical chemotherapeutic agents that induce cytologic alterations in benign cells and simulate recurrent malignancy. To evaluate the therapy-related changes and pos...
Source: The American Journal of Surgical Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Contributors : Adi Mizrahi ; Aviv Barzilai ; Devorah Gur-Wahnon ; Iddo Z Ben-Dov ; Shayna Glassberg ; Tal Meningher ; Einat Elharar ; Moamen Masalha ; Jasmine Jacob-Hirsch ; Hilla Tabibian-Keissar ; Iris Barshack ; Jason Roszik ; Raya Leibowitz-Amit ; Yechezkel Sidi ; Dror AvniSeries Type : Expression profiling by arrayOrganism : Homo sapiensWe found that miR-497 expression decrease in cSCC biopsies and cell lines compare to normal skin biopsies or normal keratinocytes cell. To understand in role lost expression of miR-497 might have in tumorigenesis of keratinocytes, we aimed to fine possible biochemical pathways and poss...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research
ConclusionOur study underscores cases of Middle Eastern MDM with SLURP1 mutations and skin malignancies at PPK sites. Our findings also highlight a plausible epithelial lineage‐specific tumor suppressor role for the SLURP1 gene, as well as a role in the development and metastasis of melanoma and thus a potential molecular signature for melanoma.
Source: International Journal of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Report Source Type: research
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