Parasites and wildlife in a changing world: The vector-host- pathogen interaction as a learning case

Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and WildlifeAuthor(s): Annapaola Rizzoli, Valentina Tagliapietra, Francesca Cagnacci, Giovanni Marini, Daniele Arnoldi, Fausta Rosso, Roberto RosàAbstractIn the Anthropocene context, changes in climate, land use and biodiversity are considered among the most important anthropogenic factors affecting parasites-host interaction and wildlife zoonotic diseases emergence. Transmission of vector borne pathogens are particularly sensitive to these changes due to the complexity of their cycle, where the transmission of a microparasite depends on the interaction between its vector, usually a macroparasite, and its reservoir host, in many cases represented by a wildlife vertebrate. The scope of this paper focuses on the effect of some major, fast-occurring anthropogenic changes on the vectorial capacity for tick and mosquito borne pathogens. Specifically, we review and present the latest advances regarding two emerging vector-borne viruses in Europe: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and West Nile virus (WNV). In both cases, variation in vector to host ratio is critical in determining the intensity of pathogen transmission and consequently infection hazard for humans. Forecasting vector-borne disease hazard under the global change scenarios is particularly challenging, requiring long term studies based on a multidisciplinary approach in a One-Health framework.
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Tito Ramiro Muñoz Guarnizo, Dasiel Obregón Alvarez, Adrian Alberto Díaz-Sánchez, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Loidy Zamora Gutiérrez, Siomara Martínez Marrero, Belkis Corona-GonzálezAbstractBovine anaplasmosis, caused by the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale, is a hemolytic disease that constitutes a major constraint to cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions including Ecuador. However, the epidemiological situation of this hemoparasitosis in Ecuador is poorly cha...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Anterior segment optical coherence tomography can complement biomicroscopy, allowing for a better characterization of corneal involvement at presentation that can help in staging and providing useful prognostic information. PMID: 31962057 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Medica Portuguesa - Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Med Port Source Type: research
Conclusion: Due to general lack of awareness towards toxoplasmosis observed among both health workers and pregnant women in Temeke Municipality, we recommend health policy on maternal and child healthcare to address prenatal screening that is aimed at providing early diagnosis for any possible congenital toxoplasmosis as well as diseases that are currently screened in Tanzania such as HIV, syphilis and malaria. Integrating a One Health approach in educating medical professionals and the vulnerable population of pregnant women on the importance of congenital zoonoses will promote awareness and preventive practices towards t...
Source: African Health Sciences - Category: African Health Source Type: research
West Nile (WN) virus infection of humans is frequently asymptomatic, but can also lead to WN fever or neuroinvasive disease. CD4 T cells and B cells are critical in the defense against WN virus, and neutralizing antibodies, which are directed against the viral glycoprotein E, are an accepted correlate of protection. For the efficient production of these antibodies, B cells interact directly with CD4 helper T cells that recognize peptides from E or the two other structural proteins (capsid-C and membrane-prM/M) of the virus. However, the specific protein sites yielding such helper epitopes remain unknown. Here, we explored ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Yes. However, very probably not because of the novel coronavirus that has appeared in China. This seems to be front page headlines in every media outlet on the planet, and  the World Health Organization has convened a meeting to decide whether to declare an official Global Health Emergency.This sort of flapdoodle happens every time a novel pathogen appears. Back when I lived in the Hub of the Universe a mosquito-borne disease called West Nile virus appeared (having formerly been large confined to, yes, west of the Nile). For weeks, every time a new case was identified it would be on the front page of the Boston Globe....
Source: Stayin' Alive - Category: American Health Source Type: blogs
How does climate change threaten the health and survival of humans? Beyond obvious threats like heatstroke, doctors and other scientists suspect climate change factored in the 2012 Dallas epidemic of West Nile encephalitis and the spread of other tropical diseases shared by mosquitos. One physician expert points to climate change as a contributing factor for allergies, asthma, worse COPD conditions, and heart attacks. Physicians will address this timely issue and more during the 2020 Texas Medical Association (TMA) Winter Conference in Austin this week.
Source: TMA News Room - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Publication date: 21 January 2020Source: Cell Reports, Volume 30, Issue 3Author(s): Jennifer Ann Black, Kathryn Crouch, Leandro Lemgruber, Craig Lapsley, Nicholas Dickens, Luiz R.O. Tosi, Jeremy C. Mottram, Richard McCullochSummaryTrypanosoma brucei evades mammalian immunity by using recombination to switch its surface-expressed variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), while ensuring that only one of many subtelomeric multigene VSG expression sites are transcribed at a time. DNA repair activities have been implicated in the catalysis of VSG switching by recombination, not transcriptional control. How VSG switching is signaled t...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Parasitology InternationalAuthor(s): Juliana Naldoni, Jose O.L. Pereira, Tiago Milanin, Edson A. Adriano, Marcia R.M. da Silva, Antonio A.M. MaiaAbstractTwo new Myxobolus species were described infecting Brycon orthotaenia from the São Francisco River, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From a total of 39 B. orthotaenia collected, two specimens (5.1%) exhibited infection of the ovary and 12 specimens (30.8%) displayed infection of the liver. The plasmodia of both Myxobolus species were white and spherical measuring around 1 mm in length. The plasmodium f...
Source: Parasitology International - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
In this study, we undertook the first analysis of the incidence of Cryptosporidium infection in the Yezo sika deer in the Tokachi area using polymerase chain reaction testing and phylogenetic analysis. Polymerase chain reaction analysis showed Cryptosporidium species present in 7.5% of fecal samples (13/173) collected from deer hunted between 2016 and 2017. However, the zoonotic Cryptosporidium paruvm parasite was not detected in the phylogenetic analysis; when sequenced, all species in the positive samples matched the Cryptosporidium deer genotype. However, deer may act as a reservoir of the zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvu...
Source: Parasitology International - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and WildlifeAuthor(s): Annapaola Rizzoli, Valentina Tagliapietra, Francesca Cagnacci, Giovanni Marini, Daniele Arnoldi, Fausta Rosso, Roberto RosàAbstractIn the great acceleration phase of the Anthropocene, changes in climate, land use and biodiversity are considered among the most important drivers of modifications in parasites-host interaction and wildlife zoonotic disease emergence. In the case of vector-borne diseases, changes in vector-host interaction require a continuous monitoring since this parameter con...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
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