The challenges of adoptive cell transfer in the treatment of human renal cell carcinoma

AbstractRenal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most lethal urologic malignancies. Its incidence continues to rise worldwide with a rate of 2% per year. Approximately, one-third of the RCC patients are diagnosed at advanced stages due to the asymptomatic nature of its early stages. This represents a great hurdle, since RCC is largely chemoresistant/radioresistant, and targeted therapy of mRCC still has limited efficacy. The 5-year survival rate of metastatic RCC (mRCC) is only around 10%. Adoptive cell transfer (ACT), a particular form of cell-based anticancer immunotherapy, is a promising approach in the treatment of mRCC. The vaccination principle, however, faces unique challenges that preclude the efficacy of ACT. In this article, we review the main challenges of ACT in the treatment of mRCC and describe multiple methods that can be used to overcome these challenges. In this respect, the ultimate purpose of this review is to provide a descriptive tool by which to improve the development of novel protocols for ACT of mRCC.
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Abstract Brain metastasis (BM) is associated with a poor prognosis, with the typical overall survival rate ranging from weeks to months in the absence of treatment. Although the concept of immune privilege in the central nervous system has eroded over time, the advent of immunotherapy has opened a new set of potential therapeutic options for patients with BM. Recently, immunotherapy has been demonstrated to confer survival advantages to patients with multiple malignancies commonly associated with BMs. Data from a number of clinical trials have demonstrated that immune checkpoint inhibitors are effective for patien...
Source: International Journal of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Int J Oncol Source Type: research
aff Immunotherapy encompasses a wide range of therapies to engage the immune system to target malignancies. In recent years, immunotherapy has made a major impact on treatment of metastatic cancer and has altered standard of care for many tumor types. However, predicting and understanding responses across tumor types has been challenging. While some metastatic cancers have shown dramatic responses to immunotherapy, such as melanoma, lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma, prostate cancer has generally failed to show a significant response. However, small series of prostate cancer patients have shown impressive responses...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncologist Source Type: research
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Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
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Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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Source: Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research
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Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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