Role of the orbitofrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum in incentive motivation for cocaine.

Role of the orbitofrontal cortex and the dorsal striatum in incentive motivation for cocaine. Behav Brain Res. 2019 Jun 10;:112026 Authors: Minogianis EA, Servonnet A, Filion MP, Samaha AN Abstract Drug addiction involves increased incentive motivation for drug. Intermittent access to cocaine (IntA; 5-6 minutes ON, 25-26 minutes OFF, for 5-6 hours/session) enhances motivation to take the drug. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the dorsal striatum (DS) are part of a corticolimbic circuit that encodes incentive value and regulates reward-directed behaviour. We predicted that inactivation of the OFC, DS or both suppresses incentive motivation for cocaine after IntA experience. Male Wistar rats had IntA to cocaine (0.25 mg/kg/infusion) for 10 sessions. The rats developed a 'loading' pattern of intake, taking most of their cocaine in the first minute of each drug-available period. They also developed psychomotor sensitization to self-administered cocaine. We then measured incentive motivation for cocaine using a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement (PR). Before some PR sessions, rats received microinfusions of a baclofen/muscimol cocktail (0.3 and 0.03 nmol/hemisphere, respectively, or saline) to temporarily inactivate the OFC or DS, or to disconnect the two regions. None of these treatments changed spontaneous locomotion in cocaine-naïve rats. However, both baclofen/muscimol and saline infusions influenc...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Related Links:

CONCLUSIONRegardless of the high awareness of health problems related to alcohol and tobacco use, the usage was high among the rural population. So more effective behavioural change communication strategies should be designed and implemented in the area to improve the practice among the rural population.
Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Abstract Crosstalk between the immune system and the nervous system, via neurotransmitters such as dopamine, is increasingly of interest as we begin to learn how lymphocytes in peripheral tissues can both produce and respond to these molecules. This crosstalk can modulate immune responses by influencing the local tissue environment and can, for instance, influence the activation status and migration of T cells. Immune cells also use neurotransmitters to communicate with each other. Understanding how neurotransmitters influence the immune system may provide novel approaches for targeting diseases associated with ti...
Source: Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunology Source Type: research
No matter what challenges you are facing — cancer, caregiving, addiction, behavior disorders and many more — there are local and online support groups where you can talk to people who understand. Those who are struggling with similar situations, others who have found ways to cope, and professionals who often facilitate meetings can all provide a shelter where you can express your honest thoughts, hear what has worked for those around you, and find compassion and strength in the words of other people.   Look for safety. Gatherings sponsored by reliable organizations will emphasize confidentiality and r...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Self-Help Treatment Group Therapy Support Group Source Type: blogs
The tortured songwriter. What's bad for your heart is good for your art. Depression, anxiety and addiction have long been considered part of the unpredictable lives of working musicians, especially those on the road. But a younger generation is trying to change that tune.
Source: CBC | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: News/Entertainment Source Type: news
The objective of this systematic review is to assess the evidence available to determine the safety and efficacy of memantine as treatment for OUD. Pubmed (1946-August 2019) and Embase (1947-August 2019) were queried using the following search terms: opioid-related disorders, opioids, substance withdrawal syndrome, withdrawal syndrome, opiate addiction, opiate, opiate dependence, opiate substitution treatment, managed opioid withdrawal, or drug withdrawal and memantine.
Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment - Category: Addiction Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsCB1R was widely distributed in multiple hypothalamic nuclei. The expression of CB1R was augmented only when mice were treated with HFD and nicotine in combination. These data suggest that the exposure to nicotine may provoke an enhanced endocannabinoid response in diet-induced obesity.Graphical abstract
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
As a therapist, I sit in the presence of individuals, couples and families who share stories about the challenges in their interpersonal relationships. What remains with me, after decades of being a privileged listener, is a litany of complaints about how yelling is the primary means of communication between them and if not a direct reaction to disagreement, it becomes the default mode when the temperature rises.  As a human being who does my level best to take the professional hat off in my own interactions outside the office and sometimes failing miserably, I know all too well, the temptation to increase the volume ...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Anger Communication Anger Management Conflict Source Type: blogs
Publication date: 19 October 2019Source: New Scientist, Volume 244, Issue 3252Author(s): Clare Wilson, Jason Arunn Murugesu
Source: New Scientist - Category: Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): Jack E. Henningfield, Judy B. Ashworth, Karen K. Gerlach, Bernie Simone, Sidney H. SchnollAbstractPain and addiction are complex disorders with many commonalities. Beneficial outcomes for both disorders can be achieved through similar principles such as individualized medication selection and dosing, comprehensive multi-modal therapies, and judicious modification of treatment as indicated by the patient's status. This is implicit in the term “medication assisted treatment” (MAT) for opioid use disorders (OUD), and is equally...
Source: Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Authors: Sheldon RR, Weiss JB, Do WS, Forte DM, Carter PL, Eckert MJ, Sohn VY Abstract INTRODUCTION: Surgery is a known gateway to opioid use that may result in long-term morbidity. Given the paucity of evidence regarding the appropriate amount of postoperative opioid analgesia and variable prescribing education, we investigated prescribing habits before and after institution of a multimodal postoperative pain management protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Laparoscopic appendectomies, laparoscopic cholecystectomies, inguinal hernia repairs, and umbilical hernia repairs performed at a tertiary military medical cent...
Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research
More News: Addiction | Baclofen | Brain | Neurology