Update on transarterial approaches to locoregional treatment in hepatocellular carcinoma

Purpose of review This review explores current knowledge and recent data about vascular-centered locoregional treatments and proposes alternate algorithms. Recent findings Hepatocellular carcinoma represents the sixth most common neoplasm worldwide. Currently, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging is the most commonly used in Europe for treatment allocation. According to this classification, European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) guidelines currently recommend transarterial chemoembolization for intermediate stage HCC and systemic treatments, such as, sorafenib in more advanced stages. However, strong evidences are still lacking to conclude to the superiority of one technique over another, as the optimal treatment choice remains challenging and should take into consideration more clinical, biological and imaging findings than reported in the BCLC staging system, such as patient age or clinical status, tumor characteristics (including distribution and heterogeneity), tumor vascularization and concomitant portal hypertension or biliary anomalies. Summary Many controversies remain, in particular, the relative place of bland embolization versus chemoembolization, the clinical benefit of drug-eluting bead chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) over conventional chemoembolization (cTACE), as well as the real place of radioembolization in general setting as well as innovative applications, such as radiation segmentectomy and radiation lobectomy.
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

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ConclusionOur report illustrates the potential that PKD may be associated with an increased risk for developing cancer, even in children. Further research is necessary to better understand this relationship.
Source: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: CLINICAL REPORT Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Latino and Caucasian patients with HCC present with a different profile of etiologies, but cancer features appear to be more severe in Latinos. PMID: 31113588 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
In this study, we reviewed major human studies on the health risks of radiation exposure and showed that sex-related factors may potentially influence the long-term response to radiation exposure. Available data suggest that long-term radiosensitivity in women is higher than that in men who receive a comparable dose of radiation. The report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR VII) published in 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences, United States emphasized that women may be at significantly greater risk of suffering and dying from radiation-induced cancer than men exposed to the same dose of radiation....
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
This study is an important step forward in highlighting C1q as a new prognostic candidate biomarker for a range of carcinomas. Methods Oncomine Database Analysis The expression levels of C1QA, C1QB, and C1QC genes in various carcinomas were analyzed using Oncomine (www.oncomine.org), a cancer microarray database and web-based data mining platform from genome-wide expression analyses (22, 23). We compared the differences in mRNA level between normal tissue and carcinoma. The mRNA expression levels in neoplastic tissues compared to the healthy tissues were obtained as the parameters of p-value 2, and gene ranking in the t...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion Massive SI and immune cell paralysis associated with ACLF represent the extreme severity of CAID in response to an infectious or sterile challenge. The severe immune disturbance plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the distinctive features of ACLF: organ failure and bacterial infection susceptibility. Excessive SI in ACLF results from the massive activation and dysfunction of an innate immune system challenged by increased PAMPs and DAMPs. SI leads to cell and tissue immunopathology contributing to hepatic and extrahepatic organ failure. Concomitantly, the course of ACLF is associated with a disproportio...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion The elucidation of the function of circRNAs is an emerging field of science with a tremendous potential after previously being dismissed as RNA artifacts. They are ubiquitously expressed and thousands of members have already been identified. This fact only expands their potential to possibly enhance our knowledge to understand the difference between health and disease. Owing to their structure stability and their presence in exosomes circRNAs may also exert their function in an autocrine, paracrine and possible endocrine fashion. In addition, the fact that circRNAs are widely distributed in the cellular compart...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Gui-Jiang Wei1,2, Ming-Qing Yuan1, Li-He Jiang1, Yu-Lan Lu3, Chun-Hong Liu3, Hong-Cheng Luo3, Hua-Tuo Huang3, Zong-Quan Qi1* and Ye-Sheng Wei1,2* 1Department of Cell Biology, Medical College of Guangxi University, Nanning, China 2Department of Medical Laboratory, Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Guilin, China 3Department of Medical Laboratory, Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities, Baise, China miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs modulating gene expression, and variants in miRNA genes are involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke (IS). However, the effect of mi...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
This study was approved by the NCCH institutional review board and performed in compliance with our institutional guidelines. Patients positive for anti-HCV antibody or HBV antigen (HBsAg) were considered to have HCC due to chronic viral hepatitis, whereas those without anti-HCV antibody nor HBsAg were considered to have HCC by another etiology (non-B/non-C). All medical records were reviewed to summarize the patients' clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes based on the status of chronic viral hepatitis. The baseline clinical characteristics included age, gender, ECOG-performance status (PS), treatmen...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions In this review, we analyzed mechanisms through which mitobolites, a distinct set of mitochondria-generated metabolites, can be released from mitochondria and then act as second messengers that contribute to cellular and organismal aging by regulating longevity-defining processes outside of mitochondria. Our analysis indicates that in eukaryotes across phyla, these second messengers of cellular aging exhibit the following common features: (1) they are produced in mitochondria in response to certain changes in the nutrient, stress, proliferation or age status of the cell; it remains unknown, however, what kind o...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Conclusions and Perspectives In this review, we have discussed important milestones from the early description of “Serum-sickness” as being due to antibodies directed against Neu5Gc epitopes all the way to the present-day therapeutic implications of these antibodies in cancer therapy. Some of these milestones have been represented in a concise timeline (Figure 6). While the “Xenosialitis” hypothesis is well-supported in the human-like mouse models, it has yet to be conclusively proven in humans. It remains to be seen if “Xenosialitis” plays a role in other uniquely-human diseases. FI...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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