Melanoma: the new perspectives from clinical and translational research

The prognosis of metastatic melanoma has not changed throughout the 20th century. However, in the last decade, we have witnessed a continuous improvement in survival, with many long-term survivors. These results are largely because of the simultaneous development of the knowledge in the biology of metastatic malignant melanoma and of the relationship between the disease and the host’s immune system that allowed the development of effective new treatments. In this overview, we summarize the therapies available today, their biological rationale, and the research field currently under investigation divided into three main chapters: target therapies, immunotherapies, and their combination.
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

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This review focuses on what is the biological basis of esophageal cancer for immunotherapy, how to screen out the patients who can benefit from immunotherapy, and whether the toxic side effects of immunotherapy are manageable. AbstractConsidering the benefits of immunotherapy in advanced melanoma, non –small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, bladder cancers, and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma, we begin to consider whether immunotherapy is effective for esophageal cancer, which is extremely malignant and has a poor prognosis. There are a large number of clinical trials to study the applicatio n of immunotherapy suc...
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research
Authors: Malvi P, Wang B, Shah S, Gupta R Abstract Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Despite recent advances in medicine and the development of new treatments for melanoma, cures remain elusive as acquired resistance to both targeted and immunotherapies are becoming common. Therefore, more studies are conducted to dissect underlying molecular mechanisms that drive melanoma growth in order to provide better therapeutic option. Here, employing a comprehensive and unbiased analysis of different RNA modification regulatory proteins using various publicly available databases we identify the most relevant RN...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 June 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Fabrizio Fontana, Michela Raimondi, Alessandro Di Domizio, Roberta M. Moretti, Marina Montagnani Marelli, Patrizia LimontaAbstractMelanoma is the most fatal form of skin cancer. Current therapeutic approaches include surgical resection, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy. However, these treatment strategies are associated with development of drug resistance and severe side effects. In recent years, natural compounds have also been extensively studied for their anti-melanoma effects, including tumor growth inhibition, a...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
AbstractThe efficacy of cancer immunotherapy, including treatment with immune-checkpoint inhibitors, often is limited by ineffective presentation of antigenic peptides that elicit T-cell-mediated anti-tumor cytotoxic responses. Manipulation of antigen presentation pathways is an emerging approach for enhancing the immunogenicity of tumors in immunotherapy settings. ER aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) is an intracellular enzyme that trims peptides as part of the system that generates peptides for binding to MHC class I molecules (MHC-I). We hypothesized that pharmacological inhibition of ERAP1 in cells could regulate the cellular i...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this report, we present a case of pembrolizumab-induced autoimmune hemolytic anemia and pancytopenia in a patient who was receiving pembrolizumab treatment for metastatic melanoma. This patient has a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and was diagnosed with metastatic melanoma in 2017. He developed symptomatic AIHA and pancytopenia after receiving 8 cycles of pembrolizumab in 2018. Pembrolizumab treatment was discontinued and he was treated with blood transfusion and prednisone. After 5 months of tapering prednisone treatment, his anemia and pancytopenia have improved toward successful recovery. Cancer patients alr...
Source: Case Reports in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Cancer Network spoke with Paul B. Chapman, MD, of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, about pursuing adjuvant immunotherapy for patients with melanoma.
Source: CancerNetwork - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: news
piteijn Here, we critically evaluated the knowledge on cutaneous melanoma (CM) and uveal melanoma (UM). Both cancer types derive from melanocytes that share the same embryonic origin and display the same cellular function. Despite their common origin, both CM and UM display extreme differences in their genetic alterations and biological behavior. We discuss the differences in genetic alterations, metastatic routes, tumor biology, and tumor-host interactions in the context of their clinical responses to targeted- and immunotherapy.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract Recent reports describe how genome-wide transcriptional analysis of cancer tissues can be exploited to identify molecular signatures of immune infiltration in cancer. We hypothesize that immune infiltration in cancer may also be defined by changes in certain epigenetic signatures. In this context, a primary objective is to identify site-specific CpG markers whose levels of methylation may be highly indicative of known transcriptional markers of immune infiltration such as GZMA, PRF1, T cell receptor genes, PDCD1, and CTLA4. This has been accomplished by integrating genome-wide transcriptional expression a...
Source: Advances in Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Adv Cancer Res Source Type: research
This study reveals diverse T-cell clones in the blood of melanoma patients prior to immunotherapy, which may reflect the extent to which T cells are able to react against melanoma and potentially control melanoma progression. Therefore the T-cell clonality in the circulation may have predictive value for antitumor responses from checkpoint inhibition.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractBackground.Patients with a history of autoimmune diseases (AIDs) have not usually been included in clinical trials with immune checkpoint inhibitors.Materials and Methods.Consecutive patients with advanced cancer, treated with anti‐programmed death‐1 (PD‐1) agents, were evaluated according to the presence of pre‐existing AIDs. The incidence of immune‐related adverse events (irAEs) and clinical outcomes were compared among subgroups.Results.A total of 751 patients were enrolled; median age was 69 years. Primary tumors were as follows: non‐small cell lung cancer, 492 (65.5%); melanoma, 159 (21.2%);...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Precision Medicine Clinic: Molecular Tumor Board Immuno ‐ Oncology Source Type: research
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