Lorlatinib for the treatment of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour with TPM4-ALK fusion following failure of entrectinib
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) is a rare malignancy with limited responses to corticosteroids and chemotherapy. About half of cases have activating rearrangements in the ALK gene which could be targeted with ALK inhibitors. A 40-year-old man presented with a large right lung mass and nodal, trapezius and cerebral metastases. Biopsy confirmed IMT with TPM4-ALK fusion. He was treated with prednisolone without clinical benefit. He received the Trk/ROS1/ALK inhibitor entrectinib in a clinical trial but his disease progressed in less than 3 months. Ifosfamide and etoposide in addition to radiotherapy to the brain and...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - October 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Hyperammonemic encephalopathy during XELOX regimen. Is it capecitabine or oxaliplatin responsible?
Hyperammonemic encephalopathy represents a rare adverse effect of several chemotherapeutic agents, occurring in about 0.7% of patients treated with fluoropyrimidines, and it is independent from dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency. Instead, its physiopathology is linked to the inhibition of Krebs cycle by fluoroacetate, leading to decreased ATP production, and to the inhibition of the urea cycle. Oxaliplatin seems to induce hyperammonemic encephalopathy in a similar way, acting on mitochondria. Here, we report the intriguing case of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy in a 65-year-old patient with preserved liver fun...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - October 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Failure to achieve castrate level of serum testosterone during luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy in a patient with prostate cancer
We report the failure to achieve castrate level of serum testosterone during luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy in a patient with prostate cancer. A 76-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of an elevated serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level (191.10 ng/ml) in August 2011. He was diagnosed with T3aN0M1b prostate adenocarcinoma. A combined androgen blockade using luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (the 1-month depot of leuprorelin acetate) and antiandrogen was administered. Due to liver dysfunction, antiandrogens, both bicalutamide and flutamide, were stopped. The 1-mon...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - October 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Somatostatin analogs in pregnant patients with neuroendocrine tumor
We report two cases of gastroenteropancreatic-NET patients receiving SSA lanreotide for the entire course of their pregnancy, with favorable outcomes for both mothers and babies. Our experience supports the possibility to continue safely SSA lanreotide during pregnancy in patients with NET. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - October 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Mutational profile in circulating tumor DNA in a patient affected by low-risk endometrial cancer: predictable tool of relapse?
Endometrial cancer is the commonest gynecological cancer, the majority is endometrioid type, diagnosed at an early stage with 69–88% 5-year survival. Low-grade endometrial cancers have low recurrence rates and often do not receive adjuvant therapy; however, a subset of these patients will have poor outcomes and would benefit from adjuvant treatment has been challenging. We evaluate the circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) in a patient with low-risk endometrial cancer in order to identify the presence of molecular markers associated with risk of recurrence. The evaluation of mutation profile was performed by next-genera...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - October 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

LifePearl microspheres loaded with irinotecan in the treatment of Liver-dominant metastatic colorectal carcinoma: feasibility, safety and pharmacokinetic study
To evaluate pharmacokinetic and safety profile of LifePearl microspheres loaded with irinotecan (LifePearl-IRI) in the treatment of liver-dominant, metastatic colorectal carcinoma (LM-CRC) by transarterial chemoembolization. In a prospective, multicentre pharmacokinetic study, 14 patients with LM-CRC progressing on at least one line of chemotherapy were treated with LifePearl-IRI. Six patients received unilobar treatment, treating one lobe per session with 100 mg of irinotecan every 2 weeks. Eight patients received bilobar treatment, treating two lobes per session with 100 mg of irinotecan each (200&th...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - October 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research

Induction chemotherapy in nonlaryngeal human papilloma virus-negative high-risk head and neck cancer: a real-world experience
The role of induction chemotherapy in the multidisciplinary treatment of locally advanced, nonlaryngeal high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative head and neck squamous cells carcinoma (HNSCC) is uncertain in terms of overall survival (OS). The primary objective of this study was to identify possible predictive factors of survival and outcome in patients with HNSCC who were treated with induction chemotherapy. Fifty-nine patients with stage IVa/b HPV-negative non-laryngeal HNSCC (mostly originating from the oral cavity) who underwent induction chemotherapy at Policlinico Umberto I were reviewed. Treatment outcomes in ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - October 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research

LncRNA MEG8 promotes tumor progression of non-small cell lung cancer via regulating miR-107/CDK6 axis
This study aims to investigate the mechanism of lncRNA MEG8 on NSCLC progression. The mRNA expressions of MEG8 and miR-107 were examined in tumor and adjacent normal tissues from patients with NSCLC by qRT-PCR. Lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells were transfected with MEG8 overexpression plasmid, and NSCLC A549 and H1299 cells were transfected with MEG8 or miR-107 overexpression/knockdown plasmid to detect the function of MEG8 or miR-107 on cell activity. The function of MEG8 and miR-107 on cell proliferation, cell cycle changes, invasion and migration was separately determined by Cell counting kit-8 assay and 5-ethynyl-2’...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - October 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

A novel multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor anlotinib combined with irinotecan has in-vitro anti-tumor activity against human small-cell lung cancer
Anlotinib is a multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor developed independently in China. Its biological effects remain unclear in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of anlotinib in combination with irinotecan on H446 and H2227 SCLC cell lines and provide new treatment strategy for SCLC. Cell growth of two cell lines was inhibited by anlotinib, irinotecan and the combination in a dose-dependent manner. After 72 h incubation, the inhibition rate was greater in the combination group than all single drug group. A similar result was found when apoptosis was assessed after 12&thi...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - October 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

PdpaMn inhibits fatty acid synthase-mediated glycolysis by down-regulating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in breast cancer
This study investigated the activity of PdpaMn on glycolysis and its mechanism. PdpaMn was used to suppress FASN expression in tumor. Expression of ATP and lactic acid level was measured to investigate the glycolysis variance in cells and animals. MCF-7 and 4T1 cells were treated with G28UCM, an inhibitor of FASN and PdpaMn, western blotting to detect PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The capacity of proliferation was investigated by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. PdpaMn selectively inhibits cancer cells and tumor growth but also block FASN expression and suppresses the content of free fatty acid. Lactate dehydrogena...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - October 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNA TTTY15 promotes growth and metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by sponging microRNA-337-3p to upregulate the expression of JAK2
In conclusion, TTTY15 plays an oncogenic role in ESCC by targeting miR-337-3p/JAK2 axis. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - October 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

The positive correlation between drug addiction and drug dosage in vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells is underpinned by activation of ERK1/2-FRA-1 pathway
This study suggested that the depth of vemurafenib addiction in resistant melanoma cells is positively correlated to the drug dosage, which might be underpinned by the ERK1/2-FRA-1 pathway and the related cytokines. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - October 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Long non-coding RNA X-inactive-specific transcript contributes to cisplatin resistance in gastric cancer by sponging miR-let-7b
X-inactive-specific transcript (XIST) is a 19 kb noncoding RNA which is oncogenic in many cancers including gastric cancer. It is reported that XIST contributes to gastric cancer cells resistant to cisplatin, but specific mechanisms governing this resistance remain unclear. We firstly examined the XIST level in gastric cancer cells and tumor specimens. We confirmed that XIST is overexpressed in gastric cancer cells and tumors, which further contributed to the poor prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. We also confirmed that high XIST level contributes to the cisplatin resistance in gastric cancer cells. Subsequ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - October 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Ticagrelor prevents tumor metastasis via inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting platelet apoptosis
In this study, we investigated the effect of ticagrelor, a new antiplatelet drug, on tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Our results show that ticagrelor not only inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of B16F10 and Lewis lung carcinoma cells but also induces platelet apoptosis. In addition, we find that apoptosis of the platelet cells is dose dependent. Further, the result of in-vivo experiments proved that ticagrelor treatment decreased the tumor metastasis. The results of this study demonstrate that ticagrelor may be a potential anti-tumor agent for tumor metastasis. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - October 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Icaritin inhibits lung cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the expression of IL-6 and TNF-a and through AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway
Bone metastasis is one of the common phenomena in the late stage of lung cancer. Inhibition of bone metastasis can improve the survival of lung cancer patients. However, the current drugs for the treatment of bone metastasis have shown little effect on overall survival. Therefore, there is an urgent necessity to identify novel drugs capable of preventing and treating bone metastasis of lung cancer. Our study determined that icaritin (ICT) can inhibit lung cancer-mediated osteoclastogenesis and induce the apoptosis of osteoclasts. Exposure to ICT increased the activation of adenosine 5’-monophosphate-activated protein...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - October 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Rosthorin A inhibits non-small cell lung cancer cell growth and metastasis through repressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition via downregulating Slug
Lung cancer always ranks first in the number of cancer deaths every year, accounting for 18.4% of total cancer deaths in 2018. Metastasis is the main cause of death in lung cancer patients. The identification of bioactive components of traditional Chinese medicine is very important for the development of novel reagents against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Rosthorin A has originated from Rabdosia rosthornii (Diels) Hara which excerpts from ‘Chinese materia medica’, and is known to have ‘clear heat phlegm’ properties in the folk. Little is known about the biological functions and mechanisms of ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - October 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Pre-activation with TLR7 in combination with thioridazine and loratadine promotes tumoricidal T-cell activity in colorectal cancer
This study suggested that thioridazine + loratadine + R848 combinatorial treatment may be effective in overcoming immune evasion by tumor cells, with promising therapeutic potential in CRC. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - October 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Full-dose cisplatin chemotherapy combined with hemodialysis in a patient with impaired renal function and a mediastinal germ cell tumor
We describe a 42-year-old man with chronic kidney disease stage 4 who was diagnosed with a mediastinal germ cell tumor and metastases in lung and brain. Treatment with cisplatin-etoposide was considered essential for a chance of cure. In order to administer the full cisplatin dose, 4-hour hemodialysis sessions were performed after each cisplatin infusion. During treatment cycle 3, 4 and 5, total and unbound plasma platinum concentrations were measured. Trough concentrations and half-life were at the higher end of the range of those observed in patients with adequate renal function who received the same dose of cisplatin. H...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Evaluation of RAS mutational status through BEAMing assay to monitor disease progression of metastatic colorectal cancer: a case report
Since the introduction of antiepidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) monoclonal antibodies (moAbs), the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has become crucially dependent on the mutation profile of the tumour over the last two decades. Recently, rechallenge strategy with cetuximab-based chemotherapy has demonstrated to be active in a subgroup of patients whose tumour maintained wild-type RAS and RAF status. In this setting, liquid biopsy may replace tissue sample for the identification of specific subgroups of pretreated patients that may benefit from the reintroduction of anti-EGFR moAbs. In November 20...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Lower response to trastuzumab emtansine in metastatic breast cancer patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 immunohistochemistry score of 2 and fluorescence in situ hybridization positive compared with immunohistochemistry score of 3: a retrospective study
Tumor human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status is defined by either protein expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC) or gene amplification using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Approximately 20% of HER2-positive breast cancer is HER2 IHC 2+/FISH-positive. Unlike trastuzumab, it has not been studied whether the response to trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) differs according to HER2-positive status. We retrospectively identified and reviewed medical records of all patients with HER2-positive advanced breast cancer (ABC) who received T-DM1 in our hospital from October 2013 to December 2016. We compared...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts therapy outcomes of transarterial chemoembolization plus apatinib in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma
To evaluate the predictive value of preoperative biochemical marker [platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR)] in patients with advanced hepatocellular cancer receiving transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) plus targeted molecular therapy (apatinib) treatment. Clinical records of 134 patients receiving the treatment of TACE + apatinib (TACE-A) and the treatment of TACE alone were compared in a single-center study. Time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were compared between TACE-A and TACE alone groups in patients with PLR > 150 and PLR ≤ 150, respectively. The area under the recei...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research

Chemotherapy should be performed in epidermal growth factor receptor mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma patients who had progressive disease to the first epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor
After the failure of first-line epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) therapy, some non-small cell lung cancer patients desire to receive switching with another EGFR-TKI (TKI-switching), although cytotoxic chemotherapy has been recommended as second-line therapy. It is unclear who should not receive TKI-switching in these patients. We retrospectively evaluated overall survival (OS) from the initiation of first EGFR-TKI (first-TKI) therapy in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients with active EGFR mutations (deletion of exon 19 or L858R in exon 21) who received TKI-switching according to the b...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances effect of temozolomide on high-grade glioma cells
In the present study, to delve into the effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) combined with temozolomide (TMZ) on high-grade glioma cells and related mechanism, six cases of high-grade glioma cells from patient’s tumor tissues were cultured. 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di- phenytetrazoliumromide 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di- phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay was performed to detect cell proliferation and toxicity. Flow cytometry was performed to ascertain cell cycle and apoptosis rate. To detect the expressions of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methy...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Modulation of oxidative stress/antioxidative defence in human serum treated by four different tyrosine kinase inhibitors
Recent findings implied the significance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a part of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) pharmacological activity. Evidences also suggested that toxic effects of TKIs were related to ROS production. The results regarding benefits of vitamin E usage alongside with prescribed TKIs therapy are ambiguous. We aimed to examine oxidative stress and antioxidative defense in human serum treated with four different TKIs and their possible interactions with hydrosoluble vitamin E analog (Trolox). An in-vitro experiment with serum pool as a substitute model was performed. Different parameters of oxidati...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Shikonin inhibits growth, invasion and glycolysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through inactivating the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/AKT signal pathway
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant tumor which is commonly found in East Asia and Africa. The present clinical treatment of NPC is still mainly based on chemotherapeutics and is prone to drug resistance and adverse reactions. Shikonin has been demonstrated to play the antitumor effect in various cancers. However, the specific effects and related regulatory mechanism of Shikonin in NPC have not been clearly declared yet. Cell viability was valued through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and cell proliferation was detected through colony formation assay and Bromodeoxyuridin...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

MiR-338-3p inhibits cell migration and invasion in human hypopharyngeal cancer via downregulation of ADAM17
In conclusion, our results demonstrate for the first time that miR-338-3p targets ADAM17 and blocks the development of hypopharyngeal carcinoma involving the wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which may be a new target for clinical intervention in human cancer. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Sauchinone inhibits hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway
The hypoxic microenvironment is commonly found in various solid tumors including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Saururus chinensis is a medicinal Chinese herb widely used because of documented anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. Sauchinone is special active lignin extracted from S. chinensis and its biological functions have been extensively explored. Recent studies have found that sauchinone could affect tumor initiation, metastasis and progression of some cancers. However, the specific role of sauchinone in PDAC remains to be elucidated. The main aim of this study was to elucidate the involvement ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 1 promotes invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition
In this study, we found that the expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter, a biomarker of vagus nerve, was associated with hepatocellular carcinoma patients’ clinicopathological characteristics by immunohistochemistry. Further, activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 1 (M1R) promoted HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells migration and invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via PI3K/Akt pathway. Moreover, inhibition of M1R by antagonist or shRNA suppressed hepatocellular carcinoma cells migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo, inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition and PI3K/Akt pathway. Therefore...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Transmembrane protein 45A regulates the proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma cells through nuclear factor kappa-B
In conclusion, TMEM45A is an oncogenic gene in glioma. The proliferation, migration, and invasion of gliomas could be effectively impeded by inhibition of TMEM45A, and the cancer-promoting effect of TMEM45A on gliomas was involved with the NFκB pathway. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

A 3D screening approach identifies the compound epitajixanthone hydrate as a new inhibitor of cancer cell growth and invasion
With unique advantages, the small-molecule anticancer drugs have recently gained growing attention. Particular strategies, exemplified by high-throughput screening, fragment-based drug discovery, virtual screening and knowledge-based design, have been developed to identify active compounds. However, such screens generally rely on sophisticated and expensive instrumentations. Herein, we developed a simple spheroids 3D culture system to enable direct screening of small molecules with reliable results. Using this system, we screened 27 fungal natural products and three fungal crude extracts for their inhibitory effects on can...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Cloning of two splice variants of Spalax heparanase encoding for truncated proteins
We described two splice variants of heparanase from Spalax, Splice 7 and splice 36, both devoid of heparanase enzymatic activity. Splice 7 increases tumor growth, while splice 36 functions as a dominant negative to wild-type heparanase and decreases tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we describe two novel splice variants of Spalax heparanase, splice 67 and splice 612. These splice variants result in production of a shorter heparanase proteins that are similar to the wild-type native heparanase in their N-terminal but have unique C-terminals. Both splice 67 and 612 lack heparan sulfate degradation activity. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - September 18, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Detection of PIK3CA E545A mutation in circulating tumor DNA of a patient affected by uterine carcinosarcoma
Uterine carcinosarcomas are biphasic neoplasms consisting of mixed epithelial and mesenchymal elements, representing less than 5% of all uterine malignancies. Carcinosarcomas are rare, although the most common cause of uterine cancer-specific death. Few information is available on the pathogenesis, and molecular characterization is poorly investigated. Consequently, the treatment has not changed over the last years and is far too being tailored, consisting of surgery and traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Molecular characterization of liquid biopsy by circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA)/circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA)...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Coexistence of the BRCA1 and KRAS mutations in a patient with salivary gland carcinoma arising in mediastinal mature teratoma
Teratoma with malignant transformation is a rare type of malignant teratoma. In the present case, we describe a patient with salivary gland carcinoma (SGC) generating in mediastinal mature teratoma. Next-generation sequencing showed BRCA1 and KRAS somatic mutations, which might be associated with malignant transformation of the mediastinal mature teratomas. To our knowledge, the present case is the first report of coexistence of BRCA1 and KRAS mutations in mature cystic teratoma with malignant transformation to SGC. And the tumor showed a good response to chemotherapy with cisplatin and paclitaxel according to the transfor...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Timing of resumption of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy after successful control of immune-related adverse events in seven advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients
Among advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in whom grade 2/3 immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that had developed during the initial immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy had been successfully controlled, we experienced three patients in whom ICI therapy was resumed at the diagnosis of progressive disease (PD group, n = 3) and four patients in whom it was resumed immediately after successful control of irAEs (non-PD group, n = 4). The tumor response rate, disease control rate to the resumed ICI and progression-free survival from the resumption of ICI therapy were 0%, 0% a...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Impact of sarcopenia on the efficacy of pembrolizumab in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma: a preliminary report
Sarcopenia, the degenerative and systemic loss of skeletal muscle mass, is a multifactorial syndrome reflecting frailty, poor general health status, and the possible presence of cancer cachexia. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of sarcopenia on the efficacy of pembrolizumab in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma (aUC). This retrospective study included 28 patients with aUC treated with pembrolizumab as a second or later-line therapy. Sarcopenia was determined based on computed tomography images. Associations of sarcopenia with objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survi...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research

Predictive and prognostic value of magnesium serum level in FOLFIRI plus cetuximab or bevacizumab treated patients with stage IV colorectal cancer: results from the FIRE-3 (AIO KRK-0306) study
Magnesium wasting is a frequent side effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-antibody treatment as magnesium-absorption mechanisms are dependent on EGFR signaling. EGFR-inhibition results in decreased renal reabsorption. There is evidence that hypomagnesemia during cetuximab treatment correlates with response. The prognostic role of hypomagnesemia during bevacizumab treatment has not been studied yet. Here, we evaluate the prognostic value of hypomagnesemia in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with FOLFIRI plus cetuximab or bevacizumab as first-line therapy. A total of 391 of 752 patients of the ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research

Cucurbitacin E inhibits esophageal carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by suppressing Rac1 expression through PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway
As an oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenoid, Cucurbitacin E (CuE) possesses potential antitumor properties in sorts of malignancies. However, its effect on human esophageal carcinoma cells has not been previously unearthed, and the mechanism underlying its anticarcinoma activity remains vague. Hence, this study was arranged to probe the function of CuE on esophageal carcinoma cells and its specific mechanism. Human esophageal carcinoma cells (ECA109 and EC9706) and human normal esophageal epithelial cells (Het-1A) were selected for subsequent experiments. The expression levels of Rac1 in esophageal carcinoma cells were measu...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2T regulates cell proliferation and migration in cholangiocarcinoma
We report the involvement of UBE2T in CAA malignant progression. UBE2T was found to be highly expressed in human CAA cells both in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of UBE2T significantly enhanced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, proliferation, migration and invasion of CAA cells in vitro, while silencing UBE2T had opposing effects. Furthermore, UBE2T appears to exert its effects via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway as the cellular effects caused by UBE2T overexpression are inhibited by the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Our findings suggest that UBE2T may have potential as a new therapeutic target for the ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

HOXB5 promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of pancreatic cancer cell through the activation of the GSK3β/β-catenin pathway
Many homeobox (HOX) genes have been shown to be related to cancer progression. HOXB5, a member of the HOX genes, is overexpressed in retinoblastoma cancer and positively regulates the breast cancer cell proliferation as well as invasion. However, the role and underlying mechanism of HOXB5 in pancreatic cancer cells are still unclear. HOXB5 expression was measured in four pancreatic cancer cell lines, including PANC-1, ASPC-1, MIA-PaCa-2, and CFPAC-1. PANC-1 and ASPC-1 cells were selected for cell transfection experiments. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, wound ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Ziyuglycoside II exerts antiproliferative and antimetastasis effects on hepatocellular carcinoma cells
In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of ziyuglycoside II against HCC and explored the potential mechanisms. We found that ziyuglycoside II exerts significant inhibitory effects on the viability and clonogenic activity of HCC cells. The proliferation repression mediated by ziyuglycoside II was mainly due to increased apoptosis and reactive oxygen species accumulation, as well as a G0/G1 phase cell-cycle arrest. Additionally, ziyuglycoside II markedly impaired HCC cell migration and invasion, two important steps during metastasis, and these suppressive effects may be attributed to the downregulation of matri...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Growth inhibition and apoptosis of human multiple myeloma cells induced by 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid derivatives
In conclusion, our data suggest that CDDO-Im inhibits the growth of multiple myeloma cells, either cultured alone or co-cultured with bone marrow stromal cells, through the induction of apoptosis. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

The immunocytokine L19-TNF eradicates sarcomas in combination with chemotherapy agents or with immune check-point inhibitors
Antibody-cytokine fusion proteins (also called ‘immunocytokines’) represent an emerging class of biopharmaceutical products, which are being considered for cancer immunotherapy. When used as single agents, pro-inflammatory immunocytokines are rarely capable of inducing complete and durable cancer regression in mouse models and in patients. However, the combination treatment with conventional chemotherapy or with other immune-stimulatory agents typically increases the therapeutic efficacy of immunocytokines. In this article, we describe combination treatments of a tumor-targeting antibody-cytokine fusion protein...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Integrative profiling analysis identifies the oncogenic long noncoding RNA DUXAP8 in oral cancer
In this study, we performed integrative lncRNA profiling analysis using the TCGA RNA sequencing data and gene microarray data from Gene Expression Omnibus to identify more OC associated lncRNAs. A total of 619 differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified between the five data sets, and only the double homeobox A pseudogene 8 (DUXAP8) was screened among the up-regulated lncRNAs in all the five groups. Meanwhile, univariate Cox regression analyses disclosed that some lncRNAs are associated with the outcome of OC patients, such as DUXAP8, LINC00152, MIR4435-2HG and LINC00582. Furthermore, we uncovered that silenced DUXAP8...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Evaluation of anti-cancer potency of silibinin on murine renal carcinoma RenCa cells in an animal model with an intact immune system
Silibinin is a flavonoid extract isolated from milk thistle and has been proved to be a promising chemotherapeutic drug for cancer. However, most of those studies were performed on the human cancer cells, where the effects of silibinin could only be observed on an animal model with a deficient immune system. RenCa cells were isolated from a murine spontaneous renal cell carcinoma, which resembles many features of human renal cell carcinoma, and have been used to establish animal models with a sound immune response. Herein, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of silibinin on RenCa cells, revealing that it inhibited cell...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

FAM60A promotes cisplatin resistance in lung cancer cells by activating SKP2 expression
Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug in lung cancer treatment. Most cancer patients eventually develop cisplatin resistance, resulting in a poor prognosis. Previously, we identified a novel marker, family with sequence similarity 60A (FAM60A), that was responsible for resistance in cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549 (A549/DDP) cells. Here, we investigated the biological effects of FAM60A in A549/DDP cells and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms to understand its functional role in cisplatin resistance. Real-time quantitative PCR and western blot analysis were used to determine the expre...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

A novel screening approach comparing kinase activity of small molecule inhibitors with similar molecular structures and distinct biologic effects in triple-negative breast cancer to identify targetable signaling pathways
This study introduces a new method for discovering novel kinase targets that reverse the EMT phenotype; this screening approach can be applied to all cancer types and is not limited to breast cancer. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - August 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Long-term therapy with Bevacizumab in a young patient affected by NF2. Stop or continue treatment? An update of a case report and review of the literature
We described the case of a young patient with NF2 treated for long time with Bevacizumab. Here, we report the update of the previous case report. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - July 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Surgeons reaching satisfying outcomes without surgery: nasal dorsum skin cancer recurrence treated with electrochemotherapy
We present the case of a patient with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal dorsum which relapsed after surgery and radiation therapy. The patient refused radical surgery and electrochemotherapy under general anesthesia was administered. After 6 months from treatment, the patient showed a complete clinical response. Electrochemotherapy could be considered as an alternative to surgery in small lesion when other approaches are refused. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - July 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Incidence of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck following prolonged pegylated liposomal doxorubicin
Despite numerous case reports, the incidence of a secondary diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNC) following pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) treatment is unknown. Computerized pharmacy records were searched at a large, multi-center healthcare system for patients who received PLD. Electronic medical records were searched to identify the patient’s age at treatment initiation of PLD, diagnosis for which they were treated with PLD, number of courses and total cumulative dose of PLD (TCDPLD) and secondary malignancies. Published PLD associated HNC was utilized to determine the lowest and median TCD...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - July 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research

Predictors of resistance to abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in post-docetaxel setting: a single-center cohort study
Treatment with abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide is one of the approved approaches in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in the post-docetaxel setting. However, a significant fraction of patients do not respond to treatment, and we aimed to determine their characteristics. From April 2015 to May 2019, 71 patients with mCRPC were treated with abiraterone acetate (N = 34) or enzalutamide (N = 37) at our institution. Resistance to treatment was defined as radiological or scintigraphic progression within 3 months, as documented at the first control. After a med...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - July 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research