Extensive vitiligo associated to response to c-kit inhibitor in metastatic mucosal melanoma
We present the case of a patient with a c-kit mutated metastatic melanoma who developed autoimmune vitiligo during treatment with oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor Masitinib. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - May 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Metastatic intracranial solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas: description of two cases with radically different behaviors and review of the literature
Solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma with primary tumor location in the central nervous system accounts for less than 1% of all central nervous system tumors. Despite the relatively indolent clinical course, extracranial metastases are reported in 28% of cases. In recent years, NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion has been recognized as the pathognomonic molecular feature of solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma and STAT6 immunohistochemistry has been shown to be a sensitive and specific surrogate for the identification of the gene fusion in these patients. Here we report two cases of patients who experienced occurrence of diff...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - May 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Immune checkpoint inhibitors for the management of advanced non–small-cell lung carcinoma: a meta-analysis
This study is a meta-analysis assessing the safety and efficacy of programmed cell death-1/cell death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitors in order to improve their efficacy in advanced non–small-cell lung cancer. We retrieved studies of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies for non–small-cell lung cancer from electronic databases; 17 clinical trials were analyzed. The pooled hazard ratios for overall and progression-free survival (PFS), and the odds ratios (ORs) for the objective response rate (ORR) and adverse effects were calculated using Review Manager 5.3. The pooled hazard ratios for overall and PFS were 0.69 and 0.74, r...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - May 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research

Association between neutropenia and response to ramucirumab and paclitaxel in patients with metastatic gastric cancer
The aim of this study was to evaluate if the occurrence of neutropenia is correlated with response to ramucirumab plus paclitaxel for metastatic gastric cancer. This is a retrospective study of patients treated with ramucirumab plus paclitaxel. Fifty-three patients were evaluated. Among these, 10 patients (26.5%) developed grade ≥3 neutropenia. Patients with grade ≥3 neutropenia reported a progression-free survival of 6.6 months (95% confidence interval 3.3–8.4) and overall survival of 11 months (95% confidence interval 5.9–13.1) vs. 4.4 months (95% confidence interval 3.9–5.2) and 8.7 months (95% c...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - May 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research

MicroRNA-216b regulates cell proliferation, invasion and cycle progression via interaction with cyclin T2 in gastric cancer
Gastric cancer has become the second most common malignant tumor in the world, revealing the molecular mechanism of gastric cancer development is essential for the treatment of gastric cancer and improvement of prognosis. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs may play a carcinogenic or tumor-suppressive role in many types of cancer. It has been detected that miR-216b is down-regulated in many cancer types, indicating that miR-216b can be used as a prognostic marker for these particular types of cancer. However, the effect of miR-216b on gastric cancer remains unclear. In the present study, miR-216 was observed to be sig...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - May 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Causes and possibilities to circumvent cyclophosphamide toxicity
Cyclophosphamide is an inert prodrug converted into 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (OHCP) by hepatic hydroxylation. OHCP is in equilibrium with its tautomeric aldophosphamide (ALDO). From ALDO, the cytotoxic active metabolites are formed enzymatically by phosphodiesterases; these are the alkylating metabolite phosphoramide mustard (PAM) and the proapoptotic aldehyde 3-hydroxypropanal (HPA). PAM damages the DNA by alkylation; HPA amplifies the thereby induced apoptosis. The generally accepted view that acrolein, which is believed to be formed in the formation of PAM by β-elimination from ALDO would be mainly responsible for...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - May 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Anti-prostate cancer activity of a nanoformulation of the spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitor C61
This study was done to test the cytotoxicity of the lead nanoformulation of a potent spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor, C61-LNP, against the human prostatic carcinoma cell line, PC-3. PC-3 cells were treated with various concentrations of C61-LNP either alone or in combination with cisplatin (CDDP) for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The cell viability was evaluated by MTS assay. Cellular expression levels of various regulatory proteins in treated PC-3 cells were evaluated by Western blot analyses. C61-LNP exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity against PC-3 cells. C61-LNP, as well as C61-LNP + CDDP treatments, caused pro-apoptotic prot...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - May 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Tanshinone I regulates autophagic signaling via the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in cancer cells
This study aims to investigate whether AMP-activated protein kinase dependent pathway is involved in the autophagic signaling regulation and its relationship with tumor suppression. Breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7) and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) were treated with Tanshinone I or vehicle. Acridine orange dyeing and transmission electron microscopy were employed to evaluate autophagic cells. MTT and Cell Counting Kit-8 assays were used to detect the effect of Tanshinone I combined with autophagy inhibitors on cell proliferation. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of Beclin1 and LC3-I/II,...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - May 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

TUG1 knockdown inhibits the tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer by regulating microRNA-496/Wnt/β-catenin pathway
Our study aimed to further investigate the roles and molecular mechanisms of lncRNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) in the development and progression of PC. RT-qPCR assay was carried out to measure expression of TUG1, miR-496, together with β-catenin, cyclin D1 and c-myc. Protein levels of β-catenin, cyclin D1 and c-myc were detected by western blot assay. Cell proliferative ability was assessed by colony formation assay and CCK-8 assay. Cell migratory and invasive capacities were evaluated by Transwell migration and invasion assay. The interaction between miR-496 and TUG1 was explored by bioinformatics analys...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - May 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

miR-203a suppresses cell proliferation by targeting RING-finger protein 6 in colorectal cancer
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of most common cancers worldwide. Although miR-203a is reported as a tumor suppressor involved in cell progression in some cancers, the role of miR-203a in CRC is still controversial and the underling mechanism of miR-203a in CRC remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that low expression of miR-203a had poorer survival in CRC patients. miR-203a was down-regulated in most human colon cancer cells. Overexpression of miR-203a could inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation and arrest cell cycle in G1 phase. Bioinformatics and dual luciferase reporter assay confirmed that RING-finger protein 6 (RNF...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - May 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Geraniin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis through inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway in human colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo
Geraniin, a polyphenolic component isolated from Phyllanthus amarus, has been reported to possess diverse biological activities, including antitumor, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, and antioxidant. However, the role and underlying mechanisms of geraniin in colorectal cancer still remain unclear. In the present study, we found that geraniin notably inhibited cell proliferation and clonogenic formation of colorectal cancer cell SW480 and HT-29 in a dose-dependent manner by Cell Counting Kit 8, EdU, and colony formation assays, respectively. Additionally, geraniin remarkably induced apoptosis of SW480 ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - May 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Trichostatin A augments esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells migration by inducing acetylation of RelA at K310 leading epithelia–mesenchymal transition
Protein acetylation modification controlled by acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulates multiple biologic processes including cell proliferation and migration. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) are currently used as a promising epigenetic-based therapy for cancer treatment. Of the anticancer activity, accumulating evidence has shown that HDACi can enhance cell migration in subset of cancer cells. Thus, there is a critical need to identify such counter anticancer activity to HDACi in different cancer cell types and elucidate the rational in order to develop appropriate combination therapies in cancer treat...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - May 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

High expression of TRAF4 predicts poor prognosis in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer and promotes tamoxifen resistance
In this study, we aimed to explore the roles of TRAF4 in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer and tamoxifen resistance. Through high-throughput sequencing and differential gene expression analyses, TRAF4 was identified as the research object in this study. The prognosis significance of TRAF4 was studied based on 155 tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. We then investigated the TRAF4 expression level in tamoxifen-resistant and the tamoxifen-sensitive breast cancer cell lines with western blot and real-time quantitative PCR. The loss- and gain-of-function assay of TRAF4 in...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - May 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Treatment options in BRAF-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer
This article will describe most suitable treatment options for CRC patients with BRAF mutation and discuss new emerging agents. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - May 20, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Myositis and myasthenia during nivolumab administration for advanced lung cancer: a case report and review of the literature
We report the case of one patient who developed myositis and myasthenia during nivolumab treatment for metastatic lung squamous carcinoma. Moreover, we reviewed literature data in order to identify similar cases in cancer patients treated with immune-checkpoints inhibitors. A 65-year-old patient, who had previously received a first-line platinum-based therapy, developed diplopia and ptosis 4 weeks after the start of nivolumab. Although antibodies associated with myositis, myasthenia gravis and paraneoplastic syndromes were absent, immune-related myositis and myasthenia were diagnosed. Corticosteroids, immunoglobulin...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - April 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Successful treatment with brentuximab vedotin for relapsed and refractory adult T cell leukemia
Although treatments for adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in the past two decades have advanced, the current standard treatment for aggressive adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, particularly in patients who are not eligible for stem cell transplantation, remains inadequate; therefore, treatments to prolong the duration of remission and provide relevant benefits in terms of survival and quality of life are needed. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma tumor cells express CD30 in some cases and the increased expression of CD30 is considered to be one of the causes of constitutive NF-κB activation in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma c...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - April 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

A case of pelvic giant cell tumor of bone, complete remission with denosumab: long duration of response
Although giant cell tumor of bone has been considered as a disease with benign course, it can lead to bone destruction and serious morbidity. A 19-year-old case was presented with hip pain. There was a recurrence after 9 months of curative surgical resection and zoledronic acid use, and as surgical morbidity would be high, antiosteoclastic receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand inhibitor denosumab treatment was administered. She had a complete remission after 18 months of denosumab treatment. The important point in the present case is that it has been followed up without recurrence after around 42 months of de...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - April 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors plus aromatase inhibitor in first-line treatment hormone-receptor–positive/HER2-negative advanced breast cancer women with or without visceral disease: time to turn page?
Breast cancer is the most common female tumour type and accounts for the leading cancer mortality in women worldwide. Up to 75% of breast cancers express the oestrogen receptor or progesterone receptor (hormone-receptor–positive). Aromatase inhibitors were the preferred first-line treatment option. New and acquired resistance to hormonal blockade has led to the development of targeted treatments. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a large family of serine–threonine kinases that play an important role in regulating cell cycle progression: palbociclib, ribociclib, and abemaciclib. We conducted a study to evaluat...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - April 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research

Outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing sorafenib treatment: toxicities, cellular oxidative stress, treatment adherence, and quality of life
This study focused on toxicities, cellular oxidative stress, adherence, and quality of life of 11 patients with HCC treated with sorafenib. Dermatotoxicity, myelotoxicity, gastro toxicity, nephrotoxicity, pain, and fatigue were investigated. For oxidative stress analysis, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and mitochondrial superoxide anion production was measured using MitoSOX Red test. Medication adherence was evaluated based on Morisky-Green and MedTake tests. Quality of life assessment was performed using EORTC QLQ C-30 and QLQ HCC18 questionnaires. The results showed that hand-foot syndrome (45.5%), ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - April 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research

Predictors of outcome in elderly patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: the final results of a prospective phase II study of bevacizumab in combination with capecitabine as first-line treatment
We present the final results of the study with data on tumor molecular biology, sidedness and postprogression therapy. Forty patients with mCRC aged ≥70 years, initially treated with bevacizumab and capecitabine, were followed from the start of the treatment of metastatic disease to death. Tumor tissue samples were retrospectively analyzed for RAS, BRAF and microsatellite status. After a median follow-up time of 20.5 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 9.8 and 20.5 months, respectively and the objective response rate (ORR) was 65%. Twelve patients had mutation in RAS and fou...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - April 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research

Elucidating the mechanisms of action of parecoxib in the MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line
In this study, parecoxib showed antitumor effects in the MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells. The potential mechanism was inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting necrosis. These results further suggested that parecoxib might be a potential candidate for in-vivo studies. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - April 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

A novel bis-aryl urea compound inhibits tumor proliferation via cathepsin D-associated apoptosis
Derivatives of bis-aryl urea have been widely investigated for their various biological activities, such as antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative. We evaluated a new chemical entity consisting of bis-aryl urea moiety, N69B, for its anticancer activities and explored their underlying molecular mechanism. The compound inhibited proliferation of multiple types of murine and human cancer cells in vitro, and reduced tumor growth in mouse 4T1 breast tumor model in vivo. Protein microarray analysis revealed and western blot confirmed that the compound significantly increased protein levels of cathepsins, especially c...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - April 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

SUMOylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 inhibits the proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer
We examined the level of VEGFR2 SUMOylation in cells and rat tissues, and its effects on the angiogenesis signaling pathway (immunoprecipitation and western blotting), as well as the proliferation (Cell Counting Kit-8 assay) and migratory ability (cell scratch and Transwell assays) of NSCLC cells. Apoptosis was evaluated through Hoechst staining. VEGFR2 and SUMO1 are colocalized in the cytoplasm. VEGFR2 can be SUMOylated through combination with SUMO1 in cells and rat tissues, and the level of VEGFR2 SUMOylation in NSCLC is higher than that observed in healthy cells and tissues. Cell proliferation, migration, and the prote...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - April 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Antitumor activity of triptolide in SKOV3 cells and SKOV3/DDP in vivo and in vitro
In conclusion, triptolide has antitumor activity in both SKOV3 and SKOV3/DDP cells likely through inducing apoptosis and regulating MMP-2, Sorcin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - April 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Downregulation of lncRNA H19 sensitizes melanoma cells to cisplatin by regulating the miR-18b/IGF1 axis
Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) lncRNA H19 has been shown to be involved in the chemotherapy resistance of cancer cells. However, the role of lncRNA H19 in chemotherapy resistance of melanoma cells remains unknown. Here, we determined lncRNA H19, miR-18b, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) expression by utilizing quantitative real-time PCR. Cell proliferation ability and chemosensitivity were assessed by colony formation assay and MTT assay. Flow cytometry assay was applied to detect cell apoptosis. We discovered that lncRNA H19 was upregulated, but miR-18b was downregulated in melanoma tissues and cisplatin (DDP)-resis...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - April 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Tumor uptake and associated greater efficacy of anti-Her2 immunoliposome does not rely on Her2 expression status: study of a docetaxel-trastuzumab immunoliposome on Her2+ breast cancer model (SKBR3)
Nanoparticles have been used for decades in breast cancer. More recently, anti-human epidermal receptor 2 (Her2) immunoliposomes are of rising interest. However, recent studies have questioned the actual relevance of using anti-Her2 antibodies to improve liposome distribution and efficacy. Using standard thin-film method and maleimide linker, we have synthesized a 140-nm docetaxel-trastuzumab immunoliposome. This nanoparticle was then tested on a canonical Her2-overexpressing breast cancer model (i.e., SKBR3), using 3D spheroids and xenografted mice. Its efficacy was compared with free docetaxel + trastuzumab, liposomal do...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - April 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Investigation of the cytotoxic activity of two novel digitoxigenin analogues on H460 lung cancer cells
Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are natural compounds traditionally used for the treatment of heart disorders, and recently new therapeutic possibilities were proposed. Their antitumor reports and clinical trials have notably enhanced, including those targeted for lung cancer, the most lethal type that lacks of new treatment agents, instigating the research of these molecules. The CGs studied here, named C10 {3β-[(N-(2-hydroxyethyl)aminoacetyl]amino-3-deoxydigitoxigenin} and C18 (3β-(aminoacetyl)amino-3-deoxydigitoxigenin), are semisynthetic derivatives prepared from digitoxigenin scaffold. Both compounds demonstrated h...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - April 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Antitumor activity of a novel Aurora A/B kinases inhibitor TY-011 against gastric cancer by inducing DNA damage
TY-011, a novel Aurora A/B kinases inhibitor, was found in our previous study to exhibit prominent inhibitory effects on growth of gastric cancer, both in vitro and in vivo. To clarify the mechanisms of TY-011 in inhibiting proliferation of gastric cancer cells, the effects of TY-011 on mitosis, cell cycle, apoptosis and cellular DNA were checked in the present study. Our results showed that TY-011 treatment induced aberrant mitosis, G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis. Importantly, TY-011 induced evident DNA damage in MGC-803 and MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells, which was further characterized as DNA double-strand break. Fu...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - April 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Albendazole suppresses cell proliferation and migration and induces apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells
This study aims to investigate the effects of albendazole on pancreatic cancer cells and to explore the possible mechanisms involved. MTT, colony formation, wound healing and Transwell assays and immunocytochemistry analyses of proliferation antigen Ki-67 were employed to evaluate the role of albendazole in pancreatic cancer cell line proliferation and migration. Moreover, flow cytometry cell apoptosis evaluation was used for mechanism analysis. Finally, the in-vivo effects of albendazole were examined in an in-vivo nude mouse xenograft model. Compared to the control treatment, albendazole significantly decreased the growt...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - April 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Expression and subcellular localization of the bromodomain-containing protein 7 is a prognostic biomarker in breast cancer
Bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7) is a member of the bromodomain-containing protein family. Previous studies suggest that BRD7 is predominantly localized in the nucleus, wherein it functions as a transcriptional regulator. Several lines of evidence imply a tumour suppressor function for BRD7. However, the importance of BRD7 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer is not well understood. We have investigated the expression, CpG island methylation and subcellular localization of BRD7 in breast cancer cell lines and clinical cases and thereby assessed its prognostic significance by correlating with clinical-pathological fe...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research

MicroRNA-301b and its target gene synaptosome-associated protein 91 as important modulators in esophageal cancer: functional experiments
The aim of this study was to probe the influence of microRNA-301b (miR-301b) in esophageal cancer pathogenesis. Based on the data acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas database, we found that miR-301b was highly expressed in esophageal cancer tissues and high expression of miR-301b was related to worse prognosis in patients with esophageal cancer. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the expression of miR-301b was higher in all examined esophageal cancer cell lines (ECA109, KY-SE150, TE-1, and NEC) than that in a human esophageal epithelial cell line (HEEC). Upregulation/downregulation of miR-301b facilitated/suppresse...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research

Clinical efficacy of irinotecan plus raltitrexed chemotherapy in refractory esophageal squamous cell cancer
Our retrospective study assessed the efficacy and safety of irinotecan plus raltitrexed in esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) patients who were previously treated with multiple systemic therapies. Between January 2016 and December 2018, records of 38 ESCC patients who underwent irinotecan plus raltitrexed chemotherapy after at least one line of chemotherapy were reviewed. Efficacy assessment was performed every two cycles according to the RECIST version 1.1. A total of 95 cycles of chemotherapy were administered, and the median course was 3 (range 2–6). There was no treatment-related death. Nine patients had part...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research

Anticancer activity of a 1,4-dihydropyridine in DMBA-induced mouse skin tumor model
Antitumor potential of a 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative (DHP-8) has been successfully studied previously in a number of cancer cell lines including the human melanoma cells, A375. In order to validate its anticancer activity, DMBA induced tumor in Swiss Albino mice was considered for this study. DMBA causes skin carcinoma in murine systems and is an important in vivo model for evaluating the efficacy of any new chemical entity against skin cancer. Topical administration of DHP-8 at the dose rate of 33.3 and 50.0 mg/kg body weight showed a significant reduction in tumor parameters. It also prevented the progression and diff...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

miR-21 modulates cisplatin resistance of gastric cancer cells by inhibiting autophagy via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway
In conclusion, the results demonstrated that miR-21 is associated with DDP resistance in GC cells by inhibiting autophagy via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, and autophagy inducers could be therapeutic targets for the effective treatment of DDP resistance in GC. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Cholesterol-lowering drug pitavastatin targets lung cancer and angiogenesis via suppressing prenylation-dependent Ras/Raf/MEK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling
Therapeutic agents that target both tumor cell and vascular endothelial cell may achieve additional anti-tumor efficacy, particularly in lung cancer due to the critical roles of angiogenesis during lung cancer progression and metastasis. In this work, we showed that pitavastatin, a novel cholesterol-lowering drug, potently inhibited lung cancer cells and angiogenesis. This was achieved by the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation of lung cancer cells and human lung tumor-associated endothelial cell. Pitavastatin was not only effective to chemo-sensitive but also chemo-resistant lung cancer cells. This was ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

miR-7641 depletion suppresses proliferation of gastric cancer cells by targeting ARID1A
In this study, we explored the target genes and effects of miR-7641 in GC. Our data showed that high miR-7641 expression was associated with low expression of ARID1A in GC tissue. miR-7641 expression promoted GC cell proliferation and colony formation. Luciferase reporter assay results confirmed that ARID1A was a target gene of miR-7641. Furthermore, downregulation of ARID1A expression caused a significant increase in GC cell proliferation. In vivo depletion of miR-7641 reduced tumor volume and weight and increased ARID1A and Ki67 expression as well as a decreased terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end lab...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Combination treatment of bicalutamide and curcumin has a strong therapeutic effect on androgen receptor-positive triple-negative breast cancers
Triple-negative breast cancers account for approximately 15–20% of breast cancer patients. Due to lack of expression of estrogen receptor, PR and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in triple-negative breast cancers, there are no targeted therapies available for these cancers. Therefore, a major research priority is to find potential therapeutic targets. Androgen receptor is present in 80–90% of all breast cancers, including 55% of estrogen receptor-α–negative cancers and 12%–35% of triple-negative breast cancers. Androgen receptor stimulates growth and survival in triple-negative breast ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Combinational treatment of gap junction enhancers and paclitaxel attenuates mammary tumor growth
This study examined the effect of a combinational treatment of PQs and the antineoplastic drug paclitaxel in a xenograft animal model. Mice were implanted with estradiol-17ß (1.7 mg/pellet) before the injection of 1 × 107 T47D breast cancer cells subcutaneously into the inguinal region of mammary fat pad. Animals were treated intraperitoneally with DMSO (control), paclitaxel (10 mg/kg), PQ (25 mg/kg), or a combinational treatment of paclitaxel and PQ. There was no significant difference between the paclitaxel-treated animals and the control group after seven injections of treatment for 2 we...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Metformin mediated microRNA-7 upregulation inhibits growth, migration, and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells
Metformin, a medication widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, has a possible antitumor effect in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. MicroRNA-7 is a significant microRNA in non-small cell lung cancer. Metformin has an inhibitory effect on lung cancer and regulates the expression of certain microRNAs, but there is no report connecting metformin with microRNA-7 in lung cancer. Thus, we used qPCR to measure microRNA-7 expression in A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells treated with metformin. We used CCK8, cell scratch, and Transwell assays to test the growth, migration, and invasion of A549 cells. Western ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Overexpressed CXCR4 and CCR7 on the surface of NK92 cell have improved migration and anti-tumor activity in human colon tumor model
This study demonstrated that overexpressed CXCR4 and CCR7 on the surface of NK92 cell enhanced their migration to human colon cells. Moreover, the administration of such natural killer cells resulted in tumor shrinkage and a significantly increased survival of experimental mice when compared to ones undergoing the treatment of xenografts with natural killer cells expressing only the mock control. These suggested that chemokine receptor engineered natural killer cells could be a promising tool to improve adoptive tumor immunotherapy. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Upregulated LEPRE1 correlates with poor outcome and its knockdown attenuates cells proliferation, migration and invasion in osteosarcoma
In conclusion, leucine proline-enriched proteoglycan 1 might function as an important therapeutic factor in human osteosarcoma through regulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

The role of long noncoding RNAs in regulating invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a group of non–protein-coding transcripts exceeding 200 nucleotides in length, which are emerging as key players in various fundamental biological processes. Furthermore, it is increasingly recognized that mutation and dysregulation of lncRNAs contribute importantly to a variety of human diseases, particularly human cancers. Previous studies have revealed that altered lncRNAs have a close association with tumorigenesis, metastasis, prognosis and diagnosis of cancers. The present review aims to exhibit a brief overview of the associated reports of lncRNAs in cancers, including colorec...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - March 14, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Response to cabozantinib in renal cell carcinoma with cardiac metastases
In this report, we describe the case of a 66-year-old male who presented with mRCC with lung and cardiac metastases treated with cabozantinib, a multikinase inhibitor that was administered in second line after disease progression with sunitinib. To date, there are no data about the safety and efficacy of cabozantinib in mRCC with cardiac metastasis. In a real word analysis, cabozantinib demonstrated to be associated to a modest risk of developing left ventricular heart failure. It is unknown if this risk is higher in mRCC population with cardiac metastases. We report the first evidence of efficacy and safety of cabozantini...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - February 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Successful immune checkpoint inhibition in an EGFR-mutant lung cancer patient refractory to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment
It is widely assumed that immune checkpoint inhibition does not give rise to clinical benefits in patients with lung cancer and activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Clinical trial data have predominantly demonstrated low activity of immunotherapy in this patient group, although some evidence has been obtained that implies outcome improvement with checkpoint inhibitors even in EGFR-positive disease. The case presented here demonstrates excellent activity of the PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab and the PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab as the sixth- and seventh-line treatments in a patient with EGFR-mutant me...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - February 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Primary cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma successfully treated with eribulin: a case report
This reported case of cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma is the first case to be successfully treated with eribulin over a relatively long period. Eribulin therapy may thus be a viable treatment alternative for rhabdomyosarcoma. (Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs)
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - February 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Prognostic significance of lactate dehydrogenase in cabazitaxel chemotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer: a multi-institutional study
This study included 74 Japanese patients with CRPC who were treated with cabazitaxel between 2014 and 2017. Associations between clinicopathological factors including serum markers and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were investigated. On multivariate analysis, high Gleason score [≥9 vs. ≤7; hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.00 (1.01–4.34); P = 0.047], presence of pain [HR, 95% CI: 2.02 (1.14–3.58); P = 0.016], and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level [HR, 95% CI: 47.31 (3.79–577.49); P = 0.0019] were significantly associated with PFS. Similarly, number of doc...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - February 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research

Feasibility of modified docetaxel, oxaliplatin, capecitabine followed by capecitabine as maintenance chemotherapy as first-line therapy for patients with metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal cancer
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of modified docetaxel, oxaliplatin, capecitabine (DOC) combination chemotherapy, followed by maintenance capecitabine as first-line therapy for patients with metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Treatment consisted of docetaxel 35 mg/m2 (days 1–8), l-OHP 85 mg/m2 (day 1), and capecitabine 750 mg/m2 twice daily (days 1–14), every 3 weeks. After six cycles of DOC, patients who did not progress received maintenance treatment with three-weekly capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 twice daily (days 1–14...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - February 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Clinical Reports Source Type: research

miRNA-574-5p downregulates ZNF70 and influences the progression of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma through reactive oxygen species generation and MAPK pathway activation
In this study, we observe that the expression of miR-574-5p is not only increased in human ESCC tissues but also remarkably increased in cell lines correlates with ZNF70. In vitro, we explored the role of miR-574-5p in ESCC progression via transfection of the miR-574-5p inhibitor into ECA-109 cells. The results show miR-574-5p serve as a tumor promoter regulating cells proliferation and apoptosis in ESCC through mitochondrial-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and MAPK pathways. Furthermore, ZNF70 has been proved to as a functional target for miR-574-5p to regulate cells poliferation and apoptosis. In summar...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - February 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

Overexpression of microRNA-21 decreased the sensitivity of advanced cervical cancer to chemoradiotherapy through SMAD7
Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. The oncogenic microRNA-21 (miR-21) is involved in drug resistance in various cancers. However, the regulatory role of miR-21 and its target, Smad7 in drug resistance of cervical cancer remains to be elucidated. We compared miR-21 and Smad7 levels in human samples from chemoradiotherapy-resistance cervical cancer (resistant group) and chemoradiotherapy-sensitive cervical cancer (sensitive group) patients. Then, the miR-21 level was manipulated in HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cells and the Smad7 level was determined by PCR and western blot. We ...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - February 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research

MicroRNA-107 inhibits proliferation and invasion of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells by targeting CACNA2D1 in vitro
Our previous studies have confirmed that α2δ1 has the potential to function as a cancer stem cell marker, and CACNA2D1 is the coding gene of α2δ1. But it is unclear how microRNAs regulate the expression of the CACNA2D1 gene in laryngeal cancer cells. We detected the expressions of α2δ1 protein, microRNA-107, and CACNA2D1 in 40 pairs of laryngeal cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells, TU212 and TU686, were cultured and transfected in the blank control group, the agomiR negative control group, the agomiR-107 group, the antagomiR negative contro...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - February 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research