History of The Selective Autophagy Research: How Did It Begin and Where Does It Stand Today?

Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: Journal of Molecular BiologyAuthor(s): Vladimir KirkinAbstractAutophagy, self-eating, is a pivotal catabolic mechanism that ensures homeostasis and survival of the cell in the face of stressors as different as starvation, infection, or protein misfolding. The importance of the research in this field was recognized by the general public after the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 2016 to Yoshinori Ohsumi for discoveries of the mechanisms of autophagy using yeast as a model organism. One of the seminal findings of Ohsumi was on the role ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) – Atg5, Atg12, and Atg8 – play in the formation of the double-membrane vesicle autophagosome, which is the functional unit of autophagy. Subsequent work by several groups demonstrated that, like the founding member of the UBL family ubiquitin, these small but versatile protein and lipid modifiers interact with a plethora of proteins, which either directly regulate autophagosome formation, e.g., components of the Atg1/ULK1 complex, or are involved in cargo recognition, e.g., Atg19 and p62/SQSTM1. By tethering the cargo to the UBLs present on the forming autophagosome, the latter proteins were proposed to effectively act as selective autophagy receptors (SARs). The discovery of the SARs brought a breakthrough in the autophagy field, supplying the mechanistic underpinning for the formation of an autophagosome selectively around the c...
Source: Journal of Molecular Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

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Huang Jun Li To develop new anti-inflammatory agents, a series of 7-O-amide hesperetin derivatives was designed, synthesized and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using RAW264.7 cells. All compounds showed inhibitory effect on LPS-induced NO production. Among them, 7-O-(2-(Propylamino)-2-oxoethyl)hesperetin (4d) and 7-O-(2-(Cyclopentylamino)-2-oxoethyl)hesperetin (4k) with hydrophobic side chains exhibited the most potent NO inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19.32 and 16.63 μM, respectively), showing stronger inhibitory effect on the production of pro- inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF-&a...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
We examined responses of these two groups of pulmonary sensory units to direct injection of hypertonic saline (8.1% sodium chloride; 9 fold in tonicity) into the receptive fields. Hypertonic saline decreased the activity in most SAR units from 40.3 ± 5.4 to 34.8 ± 4.7 imp/s (p
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) are two coronaviruses with demonstrated potential to generate significant nosocomial outbreaks. In particular, MERS continue...
Source: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica BAuthor(s): Lei Pang, Chuan-Yan Liu, Guo-Hua Gong, Zhe-Shan QuanAbstractLappaconitine (LA), a natural compound with a novel C18-diterpenoid alkaloid skeleton, displayed extensive biological profile. Recent research on LA is focused mainly on its anti-tumor and analgesic effects, and therefore we aimed to investigate its anti-inflammatory potential. A series of novel LA derivatives with various substituents on the 20-N position was designed and synthesized. In the initial screening of LA derivatives against NO production, all the target co...
Source: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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Source: Health News from Medical News Today - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Flu / Cold / SARS Source Type: news
Abstract The continuous emergence of drug-resistant bacteria has become a severe threat to the public health. Therefore, the discovery of novel antibacterial mechanisms to combat this jeopardized problem is urgently needed. In the past decades, plenty of new antibacterial modes of action have been discovered continuously, based on which many promising scaffolds have been designed and synthesized. In particular, cationic amphiphilic small-molecules open a door to the new mode of action of bactericidal agents by depolarizing and disturbing the bacteria membrane. The cationic amphiphilic are characterized by high eff...
Source: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Eur J Med Chem Source Type: research
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Source: Chinese Chemical Letters - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
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Source: Drug Discovery Today - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Drug Discov Today Source Type: research
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Source: Indian Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Health News from Medical News Today - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Flu / Cold / SARS Source Type: news
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