Artificial Intelligence in Nuclear Cardiology: Adding Value to Prognostication

AbstractPurpose of the ReviewRadionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) continues to be an accurate and reproducible method of diagnosing obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) with predictive, prognostic, and economic value. We review the evolutionary potential of machine learning (ML), a subset of artificial intelligence, as an adjunct to MPI.Recent FindingsApplying the broad scope of ML, including the integration of deep learning, can leverage the knowledge representation and automated reasoning to detect and extrapolate patterns from high-dimensional features of MPI. There is growing evidence to suggest superior abilities of ML over parametric statistical models for predicting the presence of obstructive CAD, the need for revascularization, and the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events including cardiac death.SummaryML is uniquely positioned to provide the next great advancement in the field of nuclear cardiology for improving patient-specific risk stratification.
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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DiscussionRenal PC-MRI shows promise as a non-invasive technique to reliably measure RBF, both in healthy volunteers and in patients with renal disease. Future multicentric studies are needed to provide definitive normative ranges and to demonstrate the clinical potential of PC-MRI, likely as part of a multi-parametric renal MRI protocol.
Source: Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Authors: Bourassa-Moreau É, Kwon BK Abstract Traumatic spinal cord injury results in devastating and lifelong neurologic impairment in thousands of individuals each year. An understanding of the factors that influence neurologic outcome in polytrauma patients with a spinal cord injury allows for early treatment, which may improve neurologic recovery. Neurologic impairment in polytrauma patients with spinal cord injury is clinically classified based on the American Spinal Injury Association International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury. In general, neurologic recovery is worse ...
Source: Instructional Course Lectures - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Instr Course Lect Source Type: research
Authors: Chen K, Dai F, Li G, Dong J, Wang Y Abstract The present study aimed to investigate the use of computerized tomography (CT) perfusion for evaluating cerebral hemodynamics following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rabbits. The animals were randomly assigned into four groups (n=10 animals/group): i) Control, ii) TBI, iii) TBI + common decompression and iv) TBI + controlled decompression groups. A TBI model was established in rabbits using epidural balloon inflation. In the groups receiving intervention, animals were provided common decompression or controlled decompression treatments. Conventional CT and CT ...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
Conclusions: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a powerful mechanical circulatory support modality capable of rapidly restoring systemic perfusion yet lacking in defined approaches to management. Adopting a management approach based physiologic principles provides a basis for care.
Source: Critical Care Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Concise Definitive Review Source Type: research
This study examines two different perfusion strategies and their impact on various outcome measures including acute kidney injury (AKI), urine output on CPB, ICU length of stay, time to extubation, and mortality. Predicated upon surgeon preference, the study institution employs two different perfusion strategies (PS) during congenital cardiac surgery requiring CPB.
Source: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Tags: CONGENITAL – Original Submission Source Type: research
This study included ten controls, 19 amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 10 AD dementia subjects. Within-subject regional correlations between modalities, between-group regional and voxel-wise analyses of covariance per modality, and receiver operating characteristic analyses for discrimination between groups were performed. RESULTS: FDG standardized uptake value ratio, eAV45 (0-2 min) standardized uptake value ratio, and AV45-R1 were significantly associated with H2O PET (regional Pearson r = 0.54-0.82, 0.70-0.94, and 0.65-0.92, respectively; P 
Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research
Abstract The aim was to evaluate effects of addition of pentoxifylline to skimmed milk semen extender on uterine inflammatory response. Thirty-six estrous cycles of 15 mares were randomly divided into five groups for artificial insemination (AI): Control: mimicking the AI procedure (n = 7); Extender: deposition of skimmed milk based extender (n = 7); Extender + PTX: skimmed milk based extender plus pentoxifylline (7.18 mM; n = 8); Semen: semen diluted with extender without pentoxifylline (n = 7), and Semen + PTX: semen diluted with extender containing pentoxifylline (n = 7). Mares in estr...
Source: Animal Reproduction Science - Category: Zoology Authors: Tags: Anim Reprod Sci Source Type: research
The immune system is deeply involved in the intricate, complex processes of tissue regeneration, and the research community has much left to catalog of the countless interactions that take place between immune cells and other cell populations during regeneration. One interesting discovery is that a subclass of T helper cells can encourage growth of blood vessels. Thus, given a way of attracting and retaining the appropriate T helper cells in a tissue suffering ischemia, it may be possible to encourage sufficient regrowth of blood vessels to treat conditions involving inadequate blood flow, such as critical limb ischemia. R...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2019Source: European Journal of RadiologyAuthor(s): Antonello Vidiri, Simona Marzi, Emma Gangemi, Maria Benevolo, Francesca Rollo, Alessia Farneti, Laura Marucci, Filomena Spasiano, Francesca Sperati, Francesca Di Giuliano, Raul Pellini, Giuseppe SanguinetiAbstractPurposeTo investigate the relationships between imaging parameters derived from intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) and HPV status in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC).Materials and Methods73 patients with a new diagnosis of OPSCC were enrolled in the present study. MRI includ...
Source: European Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2019Source: European Journal of RadiologyAuthor(s): Ramandeep Singh, Amita Sharma, Shaunagh McDermott, Fatemeh Homayounieh, Shivam Rastogi, Efren J. Flores, Jo Anne O. Shepard, Matthew D. Gilman, Subba R. DigumarthyAbstractPurposeTo compare image quality and radiation doses for chest DECT acquired with dual-source and rapid-kV switching techniques.Materials and MethodsOur institutional Review Board approved retrospective study included 97 patients (54 men, 43 women; 63 ± 14 years) who underwent contrast-enhanced chest DECT with both single source, rapid kV-s...
Source: European Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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