Global fluoroquinolone resistance epidemiology and implictions for clinical use.
Global fluoroquinolone resistance epidemiology and implictions for clinical use. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2012;2012:976273 Authors: Dalhoff A Abstract This paper on the fluoroquinolone resistance epidemiology stratifies the data according to the different prescription patterns by either primary or tertiary caregivers and by indication. Global surveillance studies demonstrate that fluoroquinolone resistance rates increased in the past years in almost all bacterial species except S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections. However, 10 to 30% of these isolates harbored first-step mutations conferring low level fluoroquinolone resistance. Fluoroquinolone resistance increased in Enterobacteriaceae causing community acquired or healthcare associated urinary tract infections and intraabdominal infections, exceeding 50% in some parts of the world, particularly in Asia. One to two-thirds of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamases were fluoroquinolone resistant too. Furthermore, fluoroquinolones select for methicillin resistance in Staphylococci. Neisseria gonorrhoeae acquired fluoroquinolone resistance rapidly; actual resistance rates are highly variable and can be as high as almost 100%, particularly in Asia, whereas resistance rates in Europe and North America range from 30% in established sexual networks. In general, the continued increase in fluoroquinolone resistance affects patien...
Conclusions The relatively high IR and low CR of penile HPV-16 and HPV-18 among HIV-negative MSM correlates with their high prevalence and oncogenic potential. Incident HPV infections were associated with recent sexual risk behavior.
Conclusions While public health efforts often focus on MSM, non-MSM with STIs is also a subgroup at high risk of incident HIV diagnosis. Non-MSM and MSM with any STI, particularly syphilis, should be prioritized for HIV testing and prevention interventions.
Conclusions Patients with undetermined risk for HIV constituted a large proportion of clinic visits and had a large volume of sexual health needs but rarely received PrEP when indicated. To end the HIV epidemic in the United States, prevention efforts must include people who fall outside traditional risk categories.
Conclusions Integrating STI testing into routine HIV care was feasible, self-collecting specimens was highly acceptable, but uptake of testing was low. Where blanket screening to the entire clinic population may not be feasible because of resource limitation, one strategy could be to prioritize sexually active patients, younger patients, and women.
Conclusions Testing costs varied between venues, reflecting differences in the models used and intensity of services provided. Although staff costs are the major driver, buildings and supplies costs are also significant. Our findings suggest that outreach screenings using rapid syphilis tests may be a feasible and cost-effective tool for health departments when targeting known high-prevalence areas and hard-to-reach populations.
Direct-to-consumer test services have gained popularity for sexually transmitted infections in recent years, with substantially increased use as a result of the SARS-CoV-2 (CoVID-19) global pandemic. This method of access has been variously known as “self-testing,” “home testing,” and “direct access testing.” Although these online services may be offered through different mechanisms, here we focus on those that are consumer-driven and require self-collected samples, and sample shipment to a centralized laboratory without involvement of health care providers and/or local health department...
During the 2017–2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, urine samples from participants aged 14 to 59 years were tested for Mycoplasma genitalium infection. Overall prevalence was 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1%–2.7%). Prevalence was similar between males (1.8% [95% CI, 0.9%–3.1%]) and females (1.7% [95% CI, 0.8%–3.0%]).
We present a case of persistent Mycoplasma genitalium urethritis with documented macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance, and we describe the A2062T mutation in the 23S rRNA gene, possibly associated with pristinamycin resistance. After several treatment failures and loss of the A2062T mutation, M. genitalium urethritis was finally cured by a sequential antibiotic treatment including minocycline.
We implemented self-collected gonorrhea/chlamydia testing in 17 medical centers in California serving men who have sex with men living with HIV. From 2012 to 2018, gonorrhea/chlamydia testing increased from 45.2% to 63.4%. Among those tested, rectal testing increased from 42.0% to 77.3%; pharyngeal testing increased from 31.0% to 79.9% (all, Ptrend
In this brief case series, we outline issues with some online sexually transmitted infection services and delayed reporting of results. Commercial entities providing sexually transmitted infection testing should ensure that all results are reported to local public health jurisdictions and that procedures exist to link persons to appropriate treatment and follow-up.