Hepatitis E in pigs in Israel: seroprevalence, molecular characterisation and potential impact on humans.

ConclusionsThis study showed that domestic pigs in Israel are infected with HEV-G3. The high HEV seropositivity of the farm workers together with the previous identification of this virus in human sewage suggests circulation to humans. The clinical impact of these findings on public health should be further explored. PMID: 30621824 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

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In this study, we discovered that the capsid protein antagonizes IFN induction. Mechanistically, the capsid protein blocked the phosphorylation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) via interaction with the multiprotein complex consisting of mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), and IRF3. The N-terminal domain of the capsid protein was found to be responsible for the inhibition of IRF3 activation. Further study showed that the arginine-rich-motif in the N-terminal domain is indispensable for the inhibition as mutations of any of the arginine residues abolished the blockage of IRF3 phos...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In conclusion, the in-house ELISA developed in this work shows a very good agreement with an already licensed commercial HEV IgG ELISA (DIA.PRO, ITALY), which can be used as an epidemiologic tool for HEV surveillance.
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
, a zoonotic disease caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), is transmitted by infected Aedes spp mosquitoes. CHIKV has now spread to more than 100 countries and is listed on the WHO Blueprint priority pathogens. After an incubation period of 1 to 12  days, symptoms similar to other febrile infections appear, with a sudden onset of high fever, nausea, polyarthralgia, myalgia, widespread skin rash, and conjunctivitis. Serious complications include myocarditis, uveitis, retinitis, hepatitis, acute renal disease, severe bullous lesions, meningoenc ephalitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, myelitis, and cranial nerve pa...
Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic agent, which is mainly transmitted by consumption of undercooked meat products originating from infected animals. Domestic pigs and wild boars are the major animal reservoirs, but HEV infections have been also repeatedly described in wild deer species. However, farmed deer has been only sparsely investigated so far. Here, 108 blood and 106 liver samples from fallow deer, red deer, and sika deer strictly hold in game enclosures from 11 farms in Germany were analyzed for markers of HEV infection. Using a commercial double antigen sandwich ELISA, 3/108 (2.7%) serum samples were sc...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Herein, we proposed a new approach for the control of zoonotic HEV infection through its control in its main host (pig). We also designed the first HEV-FMDV combined vaccine and the preliminary analyses revealed a synergistic effect on the immunogenicity of both HEV and FMDV antigens. PMID: 31604580 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Conclusion: The serological methods used in the study were found to be important in the early diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in the endemic areas, since it could be used in sero-epidemiological studies. PMID: 31591872 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Turkish Society for Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Turkiye Parazitol Derg Source Type: research
Abstract The HEV is a known cause of water-borne outbreaks of acute non-A non-B hepatitis in developing countries, which affects young people and may result in high mortality in pregnant women. In recent decades, however, HEV genotypes 3 and 4 have been known as a cause of sporadic zoonotic infections in older males from swine HEV worldwide. Most acute HEV infections are self-limited. On the other hand, in immunosuppressed patients, including solid organ transplant recipients, chronic HEV infections may exist and progress to liver cirrhosis or decompensation. Therefore, physicians need to recognize HEV as a major ...
Source: Korean J Gastroenter... - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Korean J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the presence of HEV RNA by a real-time RT-PCR assay in paired liver and muscle samples collected from 196 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in the two areas of Central and Southern Italy. Twenty animals (10.2%) were HEV RNA positive in livers, 11 of which were also positive in muscles. The ORF2 and ORF1 partial viral sequences were obtained for nine paired livers and muscles, and when aligned were identical to each other. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed detection of different HEV-3 subtypes: 3c, 3f, 3i and some that were not assigned to any subtypes that have so far been identified. Results need...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to develop a multi-pathogen modelling approach to understand the conditions under which HEV spreads and persists on a farrow-to-finish pig farm taking into account the fact that pigs may be co-infected with an intercurrent pathogen. A stochastic individual-based model was therefore designed that combines a population dynamics model, which enables us to take different batch rearing systems into account, with a multi-pathogen model representing at the same time the dynamics of both HEV and the intercurrent pathogen. Based on experimental and field data, the epidemiological parameters of the HE...
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: HEV can be found in pork-containing meat products available for sale in Cape Town, suggesting that these products could be a potential source of HEV transmission in our geographical area. Meat of pig origin should be thoroughly cooked before being consumed. PMID: 31456553 [PubMed - in process]
Source: South African Medical Journal - Category: African Health Tags: S Afr Med J Source Type: research
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