Preservation of muscle mass as a strategy to reduce the toxic effects of cancer chemotherapy on body composition

Purpose of review Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy often experience very debilitating side effects, including unintentional weight loss, nausea, and vomiting. Changes in body composition, specifically lean body mass (LBM), are known to have important implications for anticancer drug toxicity and cancer prognosis. Currently, chemotherapy dosing is based on calculation of body surface area, although this approximation does not take into consideration the variability in lean and adipose tissue mass. Recent findings Patients with depletion of muscle mass present higher chemotherapy-related toxicity, whereas patients with larger amounts of LBM show fewer toxicities and better outcomes. Commonly used chemotherapy regimens promote changes in body composition, primarily by affecting skeletal muscle, as well as fat and bone mass. Experimental evidence has shown that pro-atrophy mechanisms, abnormal mitochondrial metabolism, and reduced protein anabolism are primarily implicated in muscle depletion. Muscle-targeted pro-anabolic strategies have proven successful in preserving lean tissue in the occurrence of cancer or following chemotherapy. Summary Muscle wasting often occurs as a consequence of anticancer treatments and is indicative of worse outcomes and poor quality of life in cancer patients. Accurate assessment of body composition and preservation of muscle mass may reduce chemotherapy toxicity and improve the overall survival.
Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Tags: CACHEXIA, NUTRITION AND HYDRATION: Edited by Aminah Jatoi and Barry J.A. Laird Source Type: research

Related Links:

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) are aggressive neuroendocrine tumors with poor survival rates [1 –3]. For stage IV SCLC, treatment has not advanced significantly over the last decades and consists of palliative chemotherapy. The same applies to stage IV LCNEC, were no standard treatment exists and palliative chemotherapy with SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) regimens are both deeme d appropriate [4]. Recently, targeted therapy focusing on delta like protein 3 (DLL3) has received attention to improve outcomes for SCLC and LCNEC [5].
Source: Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Indian patients with colon cancer, at a tertiary referral center, tend to present at more advanced stages of the disease as compared to the West. However, curative treatment with surgery and chemotherapy offers similar survival outcomes when compared stage for stage.
Source: Indian Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: Patients with advanced carcinoma GB were managed with various palliative procedures with the aim to improve the quality of life of patients because of jaundice, loss of appetite, nausea, pain, etc. Symptoms are distressing for patients.
Source: Indian Journal of Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: The incidence of bleomycin induced pulmonary toxicity and mortality was significantly higher in our study compared to that of other Western studies. This could be probably due to the increased susceptibility of the Indian patients to bleomycin induced lung damage. In a highly curable cancer such as HL, it is unacceptable to have such a high life-threating toxicity. Hence, an alternative chemotherapy regimen without bleomycin is to be explored which would prevent toxicity and hence the compromise on survival.
Source: Indian Journal of Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: The majority of our patients continue with anticancer treatments they possibly do not need and associated with poor survival.
Source: Indian Journal of Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2019Source: Social Science &MedicineAuthor(s): Rose-Anna Foley, Lucie Lechevalier Hurard, Annick Anchisi, Sandro AnchisiAbstractA new subfield of oncology has emerged in the last twenty years to raise awareness and address the specific needs of elderly cancer patients, a population that was long neglected in oncology. We sought to understand the individual experiences, as well as moral and social implications of considering elderly cancer patients as “treatable”.Following an anthropological critical interpretative approach focusing on practical and symbolic effec...
Source: Social Science and Medicine - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Although only 3 cases are reported, the exceptional results and the absence of side effects observed strongly warrant future trials to investigate the role intraperitoneal chemotherapy can have both as palliative treatment of refractory ascites and as salvage therapy in advanced endometrial cancer. PMID: 31597138 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncology Source Type: research
by Drew Rosielle (@drosielle)A Series of Observations on Opioids By a Palliative Doc Who Prescribes A Lot of Opioids But Also Has Questions.This is the 5th post in a series about opioids, with a focus on how my thinking about opioids has changed over the years. See also:Part 1 – Introduction, General Disclaimers, Hand-Wringing, and a Hand-Crafted Graph.Part 2 – We Were Wrong 20 years Ago, Our Current Response to the Opioid Crisis is Wrong, But We Should Still Be Helping Most of our Long-Term Patients Reduce Their Opioid DosesPart 3 – Opioids Have Ceiling Effects, High-Doses are Rarely Therapeutic, and Ano...
Source: Pallimed: A Hospice and Palliative Medicine Blog - Category: Palliative Care Tags: cancer opioids pain rosielle The profession Source Type: blogs
AbstractPurposeTo investigate the effect of prior chemotherapy on self-expanding metal stent (SEMS)-related complications in patients with locally advanced primary esophageal cancer.Materials and methodsData from patients with locally advanced primary esophageal cancer who received SEMS placement with or without prior chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were grouped according to prior palliative therapy: group A (n = 41) had received SEMS only, and group B (n = 64) had received palliative chemotherapy prior to SEMS placement. Patients’ age, stricture length, tumor location...
Source: Abdominal Imaging - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Authors: Hishida A, Watanabe R, Hattori Y, Okugawa Y, Shirai Y, Miki C Abstract Treatment of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy with L-carnitine (LC) supplementation is becoming increasingly popular in the clinic. The present study aimed to examine the possible effects of polymorphisms in CPT1B and CPT2 (CPT1B G320D, S427C, c.282-18 C>T, and p.E531K, and CPT2 V368I) on the plasma concentration of carnitine in humans. The subjects were the 218 participants of the Iga Cohort Study. Differences in plasma-free carnitine levels by genotype were examined. Genotyping was conducted by polymerase chain reaction with...
Source: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Nagoya J Med Sci Source Type: research
More News: Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Chemotherapy | Nutrition | Palliative | Palliative Care | Toxicology | Weight Loss