Cell Death Mechanisms in Stroke and Novel Molecular and Cellular Treatment Options.

Cell Death Mechanisms in Stroke and Novel Molecular and Cellular Treatment Options. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2018 Mar 01;: Authors: Sekerdag E, Solaroglu I, Gursoy-Ozdemir Y Abstract As a result of ischemia or hemorrhage, blood supply to neurons is disrupted which subsequently promotes a cascade of pathophysiological responses resulting in cell loss. Many mechanisms are involved solely or in combination in this disorder including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial death pathways, and the release of free radicals, protein misfolding, apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and inflammation. Besides neuronal cell loss, damage to and loss of astrocytes as well as injury to white matter contributes also to cerebral injury. The core problem in stroke is the loss of neuronal cells which makes recovery difficult or even not possible in the late states. Acute treatment options that can be applied for stroke are mainly targeting re-establishment of blood flow and hence, their use is limited due to the effective time window of thrombolytic agents. However, if the acute time window is exceeded, neuronal loss starts due to the activation of cell death pathways. This review will explore the most updated cellular death mechanisms leading to neuronal loss in stroke. Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke as well as subarachnoid hemorrhage will be debated in the light of cell death mechanisms and possible novel molecular and cellular treatment options will be discussed. PMID: 29512465 [Pub...
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

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We present a case report of a patient who suffered fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage after thrombolysis from a known aneurysm. A history of recent previously inexperienced headaches was revealed retrospectively, suggestive of sentinel bleedings. A similar patient was identified in the literature; we thus propose that this history should be excluded in patients harboring an aneurysm considered for thrombolytic treatment.
Source: Acta Neurochirurgica - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe current study describes rare cases of SAH accompanied by ischemic stroke secondary to ET along with a review of the current literature, implying specific mechanisms for cerebral artery disorders associated withJAK2 V617F mutation.
Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Shanshan Zhang1, Dongli Yuan2 and Ge Tan1* 1Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China 2The Institute of Medical Information, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China Primary systemic vasculitis can affect every structure in both the central and peripheral nervous system, causing varied neurological manifestations of neurological dysfunction. Early recognition of the underlying causes of the neurological symptoms can facilitate timely treatment and improve the prognosis. This review highlights the clinical manifestations of primary systemic vasc...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Anemia on admission was associated with higher mortality and an increased risk of poor outcome in patients with ICH. However, the results were limited by the high heterogeneity of included studies. Prospective, multi-center or population-based, large sample cohort studies are needed in the future. Introduction Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the second most common cause of stroke and a highly lethal disease (1), which still lacks effective therapeutic interventions (2, 3). Although age, baseline ICH volume and neurological status on admission are well-known predictors of outcome of ICH (4), none of t...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Hongye Zhao1,2, Tiezheng Zheng1, Xiaohan Yang1, Ming Fan3, Lingling Zhu3, Shuhong Liu3, Liying Wu3 and Changkai Sun1,4* 1Department of Physiology and Key Laboratory of Brain Diseases of Liaoning Province, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China 2Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Qiqihar Medical University, Qiqihar, China 3Department of Brain Protection and Plasticity, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, China 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineerin...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Johannes Schurig1,2*, Karl Georg Haeusler1,2,3, Ulrike Grittner4,5, Christian H. Nolte1,2, Jochen B. Fiebach1,2, Heinrich J. Audebert1,2, Matthias Endres1,2,5,6 and Andrea Rocco1,2 1Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany 2Department of Neurology, Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany 3Department of Neurology, Universitätsklinikum Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany 4Insitute of Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany 5Berlin Institute of Heal...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Embolism associated with asymptomatic carotid stenosis shows circadian variation with highest rates 4–6 h before midday. This corresponds with peak circadian incidence of stroke and other vascular complications. These and ASED Study results show that monitoring frequency, duration, and time of day are important in ES detection. Introduction Transcranial Doppler (TCD) detected microembolism in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) may help stratify the risk of stroke and other arterial disease complications in persons with advanced (≥60%) asymptomatic carotid stenosis. If so, this techniqu...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: In ischemic stroke or TIA patients with platelet count within normal range, platelet count may be a qualified predictor for long-term recurrent stroke, mortality, and poor functional outcome. Introduction Platelets exert a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic complications of cardio-cerebrovascular disease, contributing to thrombus formation, and embolism (1, 2). Previous literature reported that platelets of various size and density are produced by megakaryocytes of different size and stages of maturation in different clinical conditions, suggesting various platelet patterns in differen...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsReversal of anticoagulation appears safe following LVAD-associated intracranial hemorrhage, though inadequate reversal was common. Resumption of warfarin±antiplatelet was associated with fewer fatal and non-fatal thrombotic events compared to antiplatelets alone, though more non-fatal hemorrhage events occurred.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Reversal of anticoagulation appears safe following LVAD-associated intracranial hemorrhage, though inadequate reversal was common. Resumption of warfarin±antiplatelet was associated with fewer fatal and non-fatal thrombotic events compared to antiplatelets alone, though more non-fatal hemorrhage events occurred. PMID: 30763560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Tags: Ann Thorac Surg Source Type: research
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