Neuromelanin magnetic resonance imaging of the substantia nigra in first episode psychosis patients consumers of illicit substances

Neuromelanin (NM) is a by-product of the metabolism of noradrenalin and dopamine, neurotransmitters which are mainly distributed in the Substantia Nigra (SN) and Locus Coeruleus (Zucca et al., 2014). NM can be detected using a high-resolution Fast Spin Echo T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequence at 3T (Sasaki et al., 2006).
Source: Schizophrenia Research - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

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A decrease in the volume of the hippocampus is associated with severe mental illness, especially schizophrenia, and has been studied extensively in the living using magnetic resonance imaging. Autopsy cohorts also represent a valuable data source for imagi...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
This study aimed to determine if results from in vivo studies could be replicated on a post-mortem cohort of decedents who suffered from severe mental illness. We included 96 decedents with either schizophrenia (n = 34), depressive disorder (n = 17), or no known psychiatric diagnosis (n = 45) from April 2015 to January 2017. All cases underwent a T2-weighted cerebral MRI less than 24 h before autopsy. We used a manual segmentation algorithm to define the hippocampus on coronal images and subsequently estimate the volume of the region. The group with schizophrenia had a statis ...
Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology - Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research
AbstractIn order to explore the relationship between hippocampal structure changes and performance symptoms as well as cognitive function in adolescent schizophrenia, taking the brain response signals of psychiatric patients as the research object, the relationship between hippocampal volume drawn by schizophrenia and language memory of negative symptoms is explored based on morphological analysis method. It is found that the left hippocampal volume of schizophrenic patients is abnormal when the whole brain volume is returned, which is significantly lower than that of normal people. It is also found that the left hippocamp...
Source: Journal of Medical Systems - Category: Information Technology Source Type: research
AbstractRationaleAnterior cingulate cortex (ACC) glutamatergic abnormalities are reported in treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and implicated in functional dysconnectivity and psychopathology. Preclinical evidence indicates riluzole reduces synaptic glutamate. However, it is unknown whether riluzole can modulate glutamate metabolite levels and associated functional connectivity in TRS.ObjectivesTo examine the relationship between glutamatergic function and cortical connectivity and determine if riluzole can modulate glutamate metabolite levels and cortical functional connectivity in TRS.MethodsNineteen TRS patients a...
Source: Psychopharmacology - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
It ’s a phrase many of us have uttered at one time or other: “I feel your pain.”However, the degree to which you actually feel another person ’s pain may depend on your sex. That was a key finding of a recent study by Leonardo Christov-Moore, a UCLA postdoctoral fellow in psychiatry and biobehavioral sciences, and Dr. Marco Iacoboni, director of the Neuromodulation Lab at theUCLA Ahmanson-Lovelace Brain Mapping Center, who studied the brain activity of people as they reacted to images of pain in others.Christov-Moore and Iacoboni, whoseresearch was published in the journal Brain Structure and Functi...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study revealed a wide range of thalamic functional dysconnectivity in the CCTCC pathway, increasing our understanding of the relationship between the CCTCC pathway and symptoms associated with schizophrenia, and further indicating a potential alteration pattern in the thalamic nuclei in people with schizophrenia.Declaration of interestNone. PMID: 30791964 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry for Mental Science - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Br J Psychiatry Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe current study found increased gamma oscillation in SZ and suggests significant involvement of the STG in gamma oscillations.
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
AbstractSubstantial evidence supports the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Meanwhile, progressive neurodegenerative processes have also been reported, leading to the hypothesis that neurodegeneration is a characteristic component in the neuropathology of schizophrenia. However, a major challenge for the neurodegenerative hypothesis is that antipsychotic drugs used by patients have profound impact on brain structures. To clarify this potential confounding factor, we measured the cortical thickness across the whole brain using high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in 145 first-episode and trea...
Source: Neuroscience Bulletin - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Researchers have shown that a type of magnetic resonance imaging — called neuromelanin-sensitive MRI (NM-MRI) — is a potential biomarker for psychosis. NM-MRI signal was found to be a marker of dopamine function in people with schizophrenia and an indicator of the severity of psychotic symptoms in people with this mental illness.
Source: National Institute of Mental Health - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: news
(NIH/National Institute of Mental Health) Researchers have shown that a type of magnetic resonance imaging -- called neuromelanin-sensitive MRI (NM-MRI) -- is a potential biomarker for psychosis. NM-MRI signal was found to be a marker of dopamine function in people with schizophrenia and an indicator of the severity of psychotic symptoms in people with this mental illness. The study was funded, in part, by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), part of the National Institutes of Health.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
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