The association between treatment beliefs and engagement in care in first episode psychosis
Disengagement from mental health services poses an important problem for people with psychosis. Lack of treatment adherence is associated with poorer physical health, reduced social functioning, an increased rate of relapse and an increased likelihood of being legally detained (O'Brien et al., 2009). Previous research has uncovered differences in treatment beliefs based upon either differences in causal attributions (McCabe and Priebe, 2004) and ethnic/racial group (Jimenez et al., 2012), however the impact of differing treatment beliefs on engagement in care has not been examined. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: B.I. Perry, A. Kular, L. Brown, R. Gajwani, R. Jasani, Z. Islam, M. Birchwood, S.P. Singh Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Cognitive control network dysconnectivity and response to antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia
To better understand cognitive control impairment in schizophrenia, it is vital to determine the extent of dysfunctional connectivity in the associated fronto-striatal brain network, with a focus on the connections with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prior to the potential confounding effect of medication. It is also essential to determine the effects following antipsychotic medication and the relationship of those effects on psychosis improvement. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia, initially unmedicated and after a 6-week course of risperidone, and 20 matched healthy controls (HC) performed a fMRI task twice, s...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elyse J. Cadena, David M. White, Nina V. Kraguljac, Meredith A. Reid, Ripu Jindal, Roland Matthew Pixley, Adrienne C. Lahti Source Type: research

The efficacy of computerized cognitive drill and practice training for patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder: A meta-analysis
Computerized methods for improving cognitive functioning in schizophrenia have gained popularity during the past decades. Therefore, this study evaluates the available evidence for the efficacy of computerized cognitive drill and practice training for patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Merel Prikken, Mette J. Konings, Wan U. Lei, Marieke J.H. Begemann, Iris E.C. Sommer Source Type: research

Social reward processing: A biomarker for predicting psychosis risk?
The desire to obtain social rewards (e.g. positive feedback) features prominently in our lives and relationships, and is relevant to understanding psychopathology – where behavior is often impaired. Investigating social rewards within the psychosis-spectrum offers an especially useful opportunity, given the high rates of impaired social functioning and social isolation. The goal of this study was to investigate hedonic experience associated with social rewa rd processing as a potential biomarker for psychosis risk. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Joseph M. Orr, Jessica A. Bernard, Vijay A. Mittal Source Type: research

Diminished modulation of motor cortical reactivity during context-based action observation in schizophrenia
Deficient mirror neuron system (MNS)-activity is associated with social cognition deficits in schizophrenia. However, it is not known how socio-emotional contexts modulate the MNS-response. In a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)-experiment, we aimed to compare putative MNS-responses to action observation stimuli with and without a context, in patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Virupakshappa Irappa Bagewadi, Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, Shalini S. Naik, Ramajayam Govindaraj, Shivarama Varambally, Shyam Sundar Arumugham, C. Naveen Kumar, Jagadisha Thirthalli Source Type: research

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms as antecedents of later psychotic outcomes in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) are at substantially heightened risk for psychosis. Thus, prevention and early intervention strategies that target the antecedents of psychosis in this high-risk group are a clinical priority. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children with 22q11.2DS, particularly the inattentive subtype. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that ADHD inattention symptoms predict later psychotic symptoms and/or psychotic disorder in those with 22q11.2DS. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Maria Niarchou, Samuel J.R.A. Chawner, Ania Fiksinski, Jacob A.S. Vorstman, Johanna Maeder, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez, Marco Armando, Maria Pontillo, Stefano Vicari, Donna M. McDonald-McGinn, Beverly S. Emanuel, Elaine H. Zackai, Carrie E. Bearden, V Source Type: research

Relapse in the first three months postpartum in women with history of serious mental illness
Relapse of serious mental illness (psychotic and bipolar disorders; SMI) in the postpartum period is potentially devastating for mother and baby. There is limited evidence on whether medication in the perinatal period is protective against postpartum relapse for women with SMI particularly non-affective psychoses. We aimed to investigate risk factors for postpartum relapse, particularly the potential prophylactic effects of medication. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Clare L. Taylor, Robert J. Stewart, Louise M. Howard Source Type: research

A multi-dimensional approach to the relationship between insight and aggressiveness in schizophrenia: Findings from the FACE-SZ cohort
Aggressiveness is a stigma frequently associated with schizophrenia. The role of insight as a risk factor of aggressiveness remains contradictory; mainly because single measures of these states mask their complexity and heterogeneity. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: A. Schandrin, J. Norton, S. Raffard, B. Aouizerate, F. Berna, L. Brunel, I. Chereau-Boudet, T. D'Amato, H. Denizot, C. Dubertret, J. Dubreucq, C. Faget, G. Fond, F. Gabayet, P.M. Llorca, J. Mallet, D. Misdrahi, C. Passerieux, R. Rey, F. Schurhoff, M. Urba Source Type: research

Neurocognitive profiles in the prodrome to psychosis in NAPLS-1
Most studies of neurocognitive functioning in Clinical High Risk (CHR) cohorts have examined group averages, likely concealing heterogeneous subgroups. We aimed to identify neurocognitive subgroups and to explore associated outcomes. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eva Velthorst, Eric C. Meyer, Anthony J. Giuliano, Jean Addington, Kristin S. Cadenhead, Tyrone D. Cannon, Barbara A. Cornblatt, Thomas H. McGlashan, Diana O. Perkins, Ming T. Tsuang, Elaine F. Walker, Scott W. Woods, Carrie E. Bearden, Larry J. Seidman Source Type: research

Neural correlates of social cognitive introspective accuracy in schizophrenia
Introspective accuracy (IA) refers to the ability to accurately assess one's own skills and capabilities. Recent work provides evidence of IA deficits in schizophrenia that are predictive of everyday functioning. Thus, IA deficits are an important target to understand mechanistically. The current study used fMRI to assess neural activation in 32 healthy controls and 31 individuals with schizophrenia as they completed IA and control versions of a social cognitive task (i.e., emotion recognition). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Amy E. Pinkham, Hans S. Klein, Grant B. Hardaway, Kathryn C. Kemp, Philip D. Harvey Source Type: research

Social impairment and social language deficits in children and adolescents with and at risk for psychosis
One of the more debilitating functional outcomes of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders is social impairment. Previous studies have identified impaired social functioning both in the prodromal phase of psychosis and after acute symptoms abate, suggesting that social impairment represents a core deficit in psychosis not directly linked to psychotic episodes or symptom severity. To date, research in this area has focused primarily on adult populations rather than children, and has not directly assessed social language in individuals across the psychosis continuum. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Eugene J. D'Angelo, Nicholas Morelli, Sarah Hope Lincoln, Kelsey Graber, Sahil Tembulkar, Alyssa Gaudet, Joseph Gonzalez-Heydrich Source Type: research

Is a higher dose of antipsychotic medication required to treat a relapse following discontinuation in first episode psychosis?
Antipsychotic medications are effective in treating positive psychotic symptoms (Leucht et al., 2009) and preventing relapse (Leucht et al., 2012). Yet, prolonged exposure is associated with adverse effects (Young et al., 2015). Clinicians should use the minimum dose for the minimum duration in order to achieve and sustain recovery. However, it is currently not possible to predict the necessary dose or duration for each individual. Unnecessarily prolonged use of antipsychotics may increase adverse effects, while trials of discontinuation may lead to relapses. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Meghan Bowtell, Patrick McGorry, Brian O'Donoghue Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Effect of fronto-temporal transcranial direct current stimulation on corollary discharge in schizophrenia: A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled mediation analysis study
Deficient corollary discharge (CD) has been linked to agency related anomalies in schizophrenia (SCZ) (Poletti et al., 2017), especially with pathophysiology of auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) (Heinks-Maldonado et al., 2007). Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive, safe neuromodulation technique, is a re-emerging intervention (Brunoni et al., 2012) with promising potential to treat schizophrenia (Mondino et al., 2015a). In an open label study, we reported add-on tDCS to ameliorate CD deficit in SCZ patients with persistent AVH (Nawani et al., 2014). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - August 1, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Anushree Bose, Hema Nawani, Sri Mahavir Agarwal, Venkataram Shivakumar, Sunil V. Kalmady, Sonia Shenoy, Vanteemar S. Sreeraj, Janardhanan C. Narayanaswamy, Devvarta Kumar, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Is “praecox feeling” a phenomenological fossil? A preliminary study on diagnostic decision making in schizophrenia
The “criteriological revolution” has profoundly modified the practice and teaching of psychiatric nosology. DSM-III was based upon third-person data which aimed to be context- and observer-independent. The origin of this epistemological shift lie in the late 1970's reliability concerns about diagnos is in disorders such as schizophrenia (Aboraya, 2007; Robins and Guze, 1970; Sartorius et al., 1972). However, by focusing on reliability only, contemporary nosologies may have neglected the issue of validity (Parnas et al., 2013). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 30, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tudi Goz é, Marcin Moskalewicz, Michael A. Schwartz, Jean Naudin, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Michel Cermolacce Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Implications of an admixed Brazilian population in schizophrenia polygenic risk score
The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) has implemented a tool, called Polygenic Risk Score (PRS), which compiles data from hundreds to millions of common variants into a single measure, making it a valuable instrument to investigate the genetic risk of complex diseases, like schizophrenia (SCZ) (Dudbridge, 2013; Purcell et al., 2009). To calculate the SCZ-PRS, a reference sample must be defined, but most subjects in currently available samples are Caucasian, and doubts remain about the reliability and efficiency of SCZ-PRS in admixed samples (Birnbaum and Weinberger, 2017; Vassos et al., 2017). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fernanda Talarico, Marcos Santoro, Vanessa K. Ota, Ary Gadelha, Renata Pellegrino, Hakon Hakonarson, Rodrigo Bressan, Jair J. Mari, Sintia Belangero Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Identification of a miRNAs signature associated with exposure to stress early in life and enhanced vulnerability for schizophrenia: New insights for the key role of miR-125b-1-3p in neurodevelopmental processes
In this study, we conducted a miRNOme analysis in different samples (blood of adult subjects exposed to childhood trauma, brain (hippocampus) of rats exposed to prenatal stress and human hippocampal progenitor cells treated with cortisol) and we identified miR-125b-1-3p as a down-regulated miRNA in all the three datasets. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nadia Cattane, Cristina Mora, Nicola Lopizzo, Alessandra Borsini, Carlo Maj, Laura Pedrini, Roberta Rossi, Marco Andrea Riva, Carmine Maria Pariante, Annamaria Cattaneo Source Type: research

Incidence of psychotic disorders and its association with methodological issues. A systematic review and meta-analyses
In the last few years, several systematic reviews on the epidemiology of schizophrenia and related disorders (SRD) have been carried out, all of them finding great variability of the incidence rates among studies (McGrath et al., 2004; Saha et al., 2005a, 2005b; Kirkbride et al., 2012; Moreno-K üstner et al., 2018), and that is, when we perform a systematic review on a question, we cannot forget the methodology diversity that it comes with each study included in it, which may differ in the design and how it was conducted, participants, interventions, exposures or results (Higgins and Thom pson, 2002). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: M.C. Castillejos, C. Mart ín-Pérez, B. Moreno-Küstner Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Client predictors of the therapeutic alliance in individual resiliency training for first episode psychosis
Individuals experiencing their first episode of psychosis (FEP) are often reluctant to seek treatment, and are difficult to engage and retain in mental health services. The therapeutic alliance (TA), or the affective and collaborative bond between therapist and client, is predictive of better treatment outcomes for clients with FEP; thus, it is important to understand the predictors of the TA in order to determine how best to foster a positive alliance with these individuals. The primary aim of the present study was to examine whether baseline client characteristics, including severity of symptoms, social functioning, and ...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Julia Browne, Emily Bass, Kim T. Mueser, Piper Meyer-Kalos, Jennifer D. Gottlieb, Sue E. Estroff, David L. Penn Source Type: research

Neural correlates of reality filtering in schizophrenia spectrum disorder
A false sense of reality is a characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). Reality confusion may also emanate from posterior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) lesions, as evident in confabulations that patients act upon and disorientation. This confusion can be measured by repeated runs of a continuous recognition task (CRT): patients increase their false positive rate from the second run on, failing to realize that an item is not a repetition within the current run. Correct handling of these stimuli, a faculty called orbitofrontal reality filtering (ORFi), induces a distinct frontal potential at 200 –300 ms,...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rapha ël Thézé, Aurélie L. Manuel, Elena Pedrazzini, Fabrice Chantraine, Maria Cristina Patru, Louis Nahum, Adrian G. Guggisberg, Armin Schnider Source Type: research

Targeted cognitive training improves auditory and verbal outcomes among treatment refractory schizophrenia patients mandated to residential care
This study aimed to determine whether TCT improves auditory processing, verbal learning, and clinical symptoms in SZ patients mandated to receive care at a locked residential rehabilitation center. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael L. Thomas, Andrew W. Bismark, Yash B. Joshi, Melissa Tarasenko, Emily B.H. Treichler, William C. Hochberger, Wen Zhang, John Nungaray, Joyce Sprock, Lauren Cardoso, Kristine Tiernan, Mouna Attarha, David L. Braff, Sophia Vinogradov, Neal Swerdlow, Source Type: research

Clinical significance of auditory hallucinations in youth: Comparison between a general population and a help-seeking sample
During childhood and adolescence, AVH are mostly transient, pointing towards a possible benign or developmental nature. However, in some children and adolescents, AVH can lead to substantial suffering, are associated with significant behavioral problems, and may last for a longer period, even into adulthood (Bartels-Velthuis et al., 2010; Bartels-Velthuis et al., 2011; Bartels-Velthuis et al., 2016). When children and adolescents actually seek help for AVH, they represent a group with a high level of suffering, a reduced level of functioning and severe and/or comorbid psychopathology. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kim Maijer, Laura A. Steenhuis, Rosa Lotgering, Saskia J.M.C. Palmen, Iris E.C. Sommer, Agna A. Bartels-Velthuis Source Type: research

Changes in physical and psychiatric health after a multidisciplinary lifestyle enhancing treatment for inpatients with severe mental illness: The MULTI study I
Patients hospitalized with severe mental illness (SMI) often have an unhealthy lifestyle. Changing their sedentary behavior and deficiency in physical activity is challenging and effective interventions are lacking. We evaluated changes in sedentary behavior, physical activity, metabolic health and psychotic symptoms after 18  months of Multidisciplinary Lifestyle enhancing Treatment for Inpatients with SMI (MULTI) compared to treatment as usual (TAU) and explored mediation by change in total activity. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jeroen Deenik, Diederik E. Tenback, Erwin C.P.M. Tak, Femke Rutters, Ingrid J.M. Hendriksen, Peter N. van Harten Source Type: research

Is there a symptomatic distinction between the affective psychoses and schizophrenia? A machine learning approach
Dubiety exists over whether clinical symptoms of schizophrenia can be distinguished from affective psychosis, the assumption being that absence of a “point of rarity” indicates lack of nosological distinction, based on prior group-level analyses. Advanced machine learning techniques, using unsupervised (hierarchical clustering) and supervised (regularized logistic regression algorithm and nested-cross-validation) were applied to a dataset of 202 patients with functional psychosis (schizophrenia n = 120, affective psychosis, n = 82). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: S. Jauhar, R. Krishnadas, M.M. Nour, D. Cunningham-Owens, E.C. Johnstone, S.M. Lawrie Source Type: research

Altered gyrification in schizophrenia and its relation to other morphometric markers
Schizophrenia is modelled as a neurodevelopmental disease with high heritability. However, established markers like cortical thickness and grey matter volume are heavily influenced by post-onset changes and thus provide limited possibility of accessing early pathologies. Gyrification on the other side is assumed to be more specifically determined by genetic and early developmental factors. Here, we compare T1 weighted 3 Tesla MRI scans of 51 schizophrenia patients and 102 healthy controls (matched for age and gender) using a unified processing pipeline with the CAT12 toolbox. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robert Spalthoff, Christian Gaser, Igor Nenadi ć Source Type: research

Post-hoc analysis of two clinical trials examining Customized Adherence Enhancement plus long acting injectable antipsychotic (CAE-L) in high-risk individuals with serious mental illness
Long-acting injectable antipsychotic (LAI) medications are a practical option for promoting treatment adherence in high risk individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) (Alphs et al., 2015, 2014; West et al., 2008). Treatment of these individuals may be optimized when LAI is combined with a quality psychosocial intervention to modify a patient's long-term attitudes and behaviors (Velligan et al., 2008). Customized Adherence Enhancement (CAE) is a manualized behavioral intervention targeting adherence specific barriers to improve medication adherence by Sajatovic et al. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christine M. Collins, Michelle E. Aebi, Jennifer B. Levin, Curtis Tatsuoka, Kristin A. Cassidy, Martha Sajatovic Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Spatial externalization of inner verbal thoughts in auditory verbal hallucinations, an fMRI study
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), the perception of speech without corresponding external stimuli, are often described as the “voices” of others coming from outside the head. Evidence suggests that AVH results from disorders of inner speech generation (thinking in words) (Stephane et al., 2001) whereby the inner voice associated with verbal thoughts are experienced as that of other (agency externalization) coming from outside the head (spatial externalization). Consistently, cognitive experiments have demonstrated impairment of Self/Other (S/O) distinction of speech agency (Stephane et al., 2010b) as well a...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Massoud Stephane, Philip Burton, Dustin Meriwether, Gihyun Yoon Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Combining training leads to better results: Implications for clinical delivery of computerized cognitive and social cognitive training
Social cognition and neurocognition are both important predictors of everyday functioning, in healthy people and in people with severe mental illness. As a result, training efforts aimed at both of these domains have been developed, with the results of meta-analyses (Wykes et al., 2011) suggesting that these interventions are successful for improving performance on the targeted cognitive and social cognitive domains. Further, there is considerable evidence that the combination of functional skills training and neurocognitive training (NCT) leads to functional gains as well (Bowie et al., 2012). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Philip D. Harvey Source Type: research

Enhancing social functioning in young people at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for psychosis: A pilot study of a novel strengths and mindfulness-based online social therapy
Psychological and pharmacological treatments have been shown to reduce rates of transition to psychosis in Ultra High Risk (UHR) young people. However, social functioning deficits have been unresponsive to current treatments. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: M. Alvarez-Jimenez, J.F. Gleeson, S. Bendall, D.L. Penn, A.R. Yung, R.M. Ryan, D. Eleftheriadis, S. D'Alfonso, S. Rice, C. Miles, P. Russon, R. Lederman, R. Chambers, C. Gonzalez-Blanch, M.H. Lim, E. Killackey, P.D. McGorry, B. Nelson Source Type: research

7 T MRI reveals hippocampal structural abnormalities associated with memory intrusions in childhood-onset schizophrenia
The hippocampus exhibits striking volume reductions in schizophrenia (van Erp et al., 2016), with regionally specific changes in subfields cornu ammonis 1 to 4 (CA1-4), dentate gyrus, and subiculum (Mathew et al., 2014). Models of hippocampal function suggest an association with memory deficits in schizophrenia patients; for example, impairment of the pattern separation component of declarative memory in schizophrenia suggests dentate gyrus dysfunction (Das et al., 2014). As yet, however, there is incomplete understanding of how subfield structure contributes to these impairments. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Dale Zhou, Siyuan Liu, Xueping Zhou, Rebecca Berman, Diane Broadnax, Peter Gochman, Judith Rapoport, Adam Thomas Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Refining strategies to drive cognitive gains through transcranial electrical stimulation
Combining conventional non-invasive neuromodulatory therapeutics like Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) or Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) with behavioral interventions like cognitive training, in a neuroscience-informed manner has the potential to harness cortical plasticity and thus deliver more robust therapeutic gains than either treatment delivered in isolation (Mehta, 2016). The application of such combinatory therapies is prominent in treating cognitive deficits and residual negative symptoms, which pose tremendous clinical challenges. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta Source Type: research

Distinctive profiles of traits predisposing to violence in schizophrenia and in the general population
We delineated important trait predispositions to violence, including psychopathic and impulsive traits and trait aggression, in patients with schizophrenia and in the general population. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Menahem I. Krakowski, Pal Czobor Source Type: research

Cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: New data and an updated meta-analysis
Few studies have been conducted examining cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid of patients compared to healthy volunteers. The goals of this study were: 1) to report original data detailing cytokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 10 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) diagnosis and 10 healthy controls and 2) to conduct a meta-analysis of the available data on cytokine levels in the CSF of patients with SSD compared to healthy controls, including our new data. Cytokine concentrations were measured using the Q-plex Human Cytokine Screen array in CSF of 10 patients with SSD and 10 healthy volunteers....
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Juan A. Gallego, Emily A. Blanco, Sehba Husain-Krautter, E. Madeline Fagen, Paula Moreno-Merino, Juan A. del Ojo-Jim énez, Anthony Ahmed, Thomas L. Rothstein, Todd Lencz, Anil K. Malhotra Source Type: research

Abnormalities of eye movement are associated with work hours in schizophrenia
Eye movement abnormalities have been reported in schizophrenia; however, their influences on everyday life remain unknown. From data on 69 subjects with schizophrenia and 246 healthy subjects, we found positive correlations between eye movement measures and work hours, which were only significant in subjects with schizophrenia. This relationship was also confirmed in a multi-site dataset including 118 subjects with schizophrenia and 280 healthy subjects. These findings further strengthen our understanding of eye movement abnormalities and their relevance in clinical recovery. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kentaro Morita, Kenichiro Miura, Michiko Fujimoto, Emiko Shishido, Tomoko Shiino, Junichi Takahashi, Hidenaga Yamamori, Yuka Yasuda, Noriko Kudo, Yoji Hirano, Daisuke Koshiyama, Naohiro Okada, Manabu Ikeda, Toshiaki Onitsuka, Norio Ozaki, Kiyoto Kasai, Ry Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Social cognition and metacognition contribute to accuracy for self-evaluation of real-world functioning in patients with schizophrenia
Enhancement of social function is an important goal in the treatment of schizophrenia. To designate appropriate measures of real-world functioning, the Validation of Everyday Real-World Outcomes initiative recommended the Specific Levels of Functioning-Scale (SLOF). The SLOF has been developed as an interview-based assessment tool; the scores by clinicians are based on information from both patients and caregivers (Leifker et al., 2009). The SLOF covers interpersonal functioning, everyday activities, and vocational functioning (Schneider and Struening, 1983). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Keiichiro Nishida, Atsuhito Toyomaki, Yosuke Koshikawa, Hidehito Niimura, Tsubasa Morimoto, Masayuki Tani, Ken Inada, Taiga Ninomiya, Hikaru Hori, Jun Manabe, Asuka Katsuki, Takamitsu Kubo, Masanao Shirahama, Kentaro Kohno, Toshihiko Kinoshita, Ichiro Kus Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Psychotic disorder symptom rating scales: Are dichotomous or multi-point scales more clinically useful? —An ICD-11 field study
This study investigated clinicians' use of dichotomous versus multi-point scales for rating these six domains. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jared W. Keeley, Wolfgang Gaebel, Michael B. First, Destiny L. Peterson, Tahilia Rebello, Pratap Sharan, Geoffrey M. Reed Source Type: research

Sex differences in DEK expression in the anterior cingulate cortex and its association with dementia severity in schizophrenia
DEK is a chromatin-remodeling phosphoprotein found in most human tissues, but its expression and function in the human brain is largely unknown. DEK depletion in vitro induces cellular and molecular anomalies associated with cognitive impairment, including down-regulation of the canonical Wnt/ β-catenin signaling pathway. ToppGene analyses link DEK loss to genes associated with various dementias and age-related cognitive decline. To examine the role of DEK in cognitive impairment in severe mental illness, DEK protein expression was assayed by immunoblot in the anterior cingulate cortex ( ACC) of subjects with schizoph...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sinead M. O'Donovan, Ana Franco-Villanueva, Valentina Ghisays, Jody L. Caldwell, Vahraim Haroutunian, Lisa M. Privette Vinnedge, Robert E. McCullumsmith, Matia B. Solomon Source Type: research

Stability in basic self-disturbances and diagnosis in a first treated psychosis: A seven year follow-up study
Basic self-disturbances (BSDs) are considered core features of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and are present in the prodromal, early psychotic and chronic phases. Considerable levels of BSDs are also present at first treatment in some patients with psychotic disorders outside the schizophrenia spectrum. There is limited knowledge about the stability of self-disturbances over time. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ingrid Hartveit Svendsen, Merete G. Øie, Paul Møller, Barnaby Nelson, Ingrid Melle, Elisabeth Haug Source Type: research

Olfactory deficits and psychosis-spectrum symptoms in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
Olfactory functioning is a promising biomarker for psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) but has not been well studied to date. This is a pilot effort to evaluate the potential for tests of olfactory functioning to contribute to risk and resilience prediction in 22q11DS, and is the first study to evaluate relationships among olfactory deficits, cognition and psychosis-spectrum symptoms. Odor identification and discrimination were evaluated in 32 individuals with 22q11DS and 110 healthy comparison subjects (HC). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sunny X. Tang, Paul J. Moberg, James J. Yi, Andrew S. Wiemken, Erich M. Dress, Tyler M. Moore, Monica E. Calkins, Donna M. McDonald-McGinn, Elaine H. Zackai, Beverly S. Emanuel, Ruben C. Gur, Raquel E. Gur, Bruce I. Turetsky Source Type: research

A meta-analysis of factors associated with quality of life in first episode psychosis
Improving quality of life for people with first episode psychosis is an important aspect of recovery. Our objective was to review the associative factors on quality of life in first episode psychosis. A meta-analysis was conducted on the associations between quality of life, symptom severity, and duration of untreated psychosis. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Philip Watson, Jian-Ping Zhang, Asra Rizvi, Jonathan Tamaiev, Michael L. Birnbaum, John Kane Source Type: research

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for antipsychotic-free schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Does therapy dose influence outcome?
This study investigated the effect of “dose” and the components of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) on treatment effects. It is a secondary analysis of the ACTION (Assessment of Cognitive Therapy Instead of Neuroleptics) trial which investigated CBT for people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders that chose not to take antipsycho tic medication. Using instrumental variable methods, we found a “dose-response” such that each CBT session attended, reduced the primary outcome measure (the PANSS total score) by approximately 0.6 points (95% CI −1.20 to −0.06, p = 0.031). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Helen M. Spencer, Martina McMenamin, Richard Emsley, Douglas Turkington, Graham Dunn, Anthony P. Morrison, Alison Brabban, Paul Hutton, Robert Dudley Source Type: research

Surprising conservation of schizophrenia risk genes in lower organisms reflects their essential function and the evolution of genetic liability
Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness that affects approximately 1% of the population. Genetic variation in multiple genes causes elevated risk for the disorder, but the molecular basis is inadequately understood and it is not clear how risk genes have evolved and persisted in the genome. To address these issues, we have identified orthologs/homologs of 344 schizophrenia risk genes (from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium dataset) in lower organisms, including C. elegans, Drosophila and zebrafish, along with phenotypes produced by genetic disruption in C. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Merve Kasap, Vivek Rajani, Jackie Rajani, Donard S. Dwyer Source Type: research

Cooperation and sensitivity to social feedback during group interactions in schizophrenia
Patients with schizophrenia show reduced cooperation and less sensitivity to social cues in pairwise interactions, however, it remains unclear whether these mechanisms are also present in interactions within social groups. We used a public goods game to investigate cooperation and sensitivity to social feedback in group interactions in 27 patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls. Participants played 40 trials in two conditions: 1) no fine (20 trials): participants had the choice of investing into the public good (i.e. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Esther Hanssen, Anne-Kathrin Fett, Thomas P. White, Caroline Caddy, Stian Reimers, Sukhi S. Shergill Source Type: research

Role of frontal white matter and corpus callosum on social function in schizophrenia
Patients with schizophrenia show severe impairment in social function and have difficulty in their daily social life. Although a recent large-scale multicenter study revealed alterations in white matter microstructures, the association between these anatomical changes and social dysfunction in schizophrenia remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the association between the white matter integrity of regions of interest and social function in schizophrenia. A total of 149 patients with schizophrenia and 602 healthy comparison subjects (HCS) underwent DTI and completed the Picture Arrangement subtest of the Wechsler Adul...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Daisuke Koshiyama, Masaki Fukunaga, Naohiro Okada, Kentaro Morita, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Fumio Yamashita, Hidenaga Yamamori, Yuka Yasuda, Michiko Fujimoto, Sinead Kelly, Neda Jahanshad, Noriko Kudo, Hirotsugu Azechi, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Gary Donohoe, Paul M. T Source Type: research

Comment on ‘Conceptual disorganization and dissociative symptoms in women with first episode psychosis’ (Touskova et al., 2018)
Touskova, T.P. et al., are to be commended for mounting an impressive study assessing the relationship between dissociative symptoms and cognitive disorganization in women with first episode psychosis. Among the strengths of this study are the use of two dissociation measures – not only the frequently used Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), but also the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ-20), an important complement. One of the key findings was an inverse relationship between PANSS-measured cognitive disorganization (CD) and dissociation, of moderate strengt h (CD/DES = −0.35, CD/SDQ = &minus...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Andrew Moskowitz Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Second-generation LAI are associated to favorable outcome in a cohort of incident patients diagnosed with schizophrenia
Investigate the associations of long-acting injectable (LAI) second generation antipsychotic drugs with number of relapses, psychiatric admissions, days hospitalized, intentional self-harm events, and costs linked to hospitalizations in incident patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ren é Ernst Nielsen, Kristian Bjørn Hessellund, Jan Brink Valentin, Rasmus W. Licht Source Type: research

Revisiting the persistent negative symptoms proxy score using the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms
The present study aimed to validate a severity cut-off of negative symptoms for persistent negative symptoms (PNS) identification using the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ying Li, Wen-xiu Li, Ying-min Zou, Zhuo-ya Yang, Dong-jie Xie, Yin Yang, Simon S.Y. Lui, Gregory P. Strauss, Eric F.C. Cheung, Raymond C.K. Chan Source Type: research

The centrality of cognitive symptoms and metacognition within the interacting network of symptoms, neurocognition, social cognition and metacognition in schizophrenia
Schizophrenia involves a range of interrelated impairments in functioning due to symptoms and deficits in varying domains of cognition including neurocognition, social cognition and metacognition. Yet little is known whether certain symptoms or cognitive impairments play a more central role than others. To explore, we conducted a network analysis of five types of symptoms, six domains of neurocognition and multiple aspects of both social cognition and metacognition. Participants were 81 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder in a non-acute phase of the disorder. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Gil Goldzweig, Adi Lavi-Rotenberg, Lauren Luther, Paul H. Lysaker Source Type: research

Shorter telomere length in schizophrenia: Evidence from a real-world population and meta-analysis of most recent literature
Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic mental disorder. Schizophrenia is visualized as an accelerated cellular aging syndrome characterized by early onset of cardiovascular disease causing premature mortality. In human aging involves alterations in telomere length (TL). To investigate the presence of TL shortening in schizophrenia and psychiatric syndromes associated, this condition was studied in leukocytes (LTL) of a sample of patients suffering from schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, and compared with a group of non-psychiatric controls. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Patrizia Russo, Giulia Prinzi, Stefania Proietti, Palma Lamonaca, Alessandra Frustaci, Stefania Boccia, Rosarita Amore, Maria Lorenzi, Graziano Onder, Emanuele Marzetti, Vanessa Valdiglesias, Fiorella Guadagni, Maria Giovanna Valente, Gerland Lo Cascio, S Source Type: research

Congenital blindness is protective for schizophrenia and other psychotic illness. A whole-population study.
Congenital/early blindness is reportedly protective against schizophrenia. Using a whole-population cohort of 467,945 children born in Western Australia between 1980 and 2001, we examined prevalence of schizophrenia and psychotic illness in individuals with congenital/early blindness. Overall, 1870 children developed schizophrenia (0.4%) while 9120 developed a psychotic illness (1.9%). None of the 66 children with cortical blindness developed schizophrenia or psychotic illness. Eight of the 613 children with peripheral blindness developed a psychotic illness other than schizophrenia and fewer had developed schizophrenia. (...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Vera A. Morgan, Melanie Clark, Julie Crewe, Giulietta Valuri, David A. Mackey, Johanna C. Badcock, Assen Jablensky Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Impact of lifestyle modification on some components of metabolic syndrome in persons with severe mental disorders: A meta-analysis
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is reportedly associated with high mortality from mostly cardiovascular causes in patients with severe mental disorders (SMD). Lifestyle interventions augment effective management of MS in patients with SMD. The present meta-analysis aims at updating the recent evidence on the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention for MS in patients with SMD. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - July 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Vinit Kumar Singh, Sneha Karmani, Palash Kumar Malo, H.G. Virupaksha, Daliboina Muralidhar, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Kesavan Muralidharan Source Type: research