Cause-specific life years lost among persons diagnosed with schizophrenia: Is it getting better or worse?
People with schizophrenia have an increased risk of premature mortality compared to the general population. We aimed to quantify which types of causes of death contributed to the excess mortality, and to examine whether there has been an increase in the excess mortality among persons with schizophrenia in the period 1995 to 2015. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Thomas Munk Laursen, Oleguer Plana-Ripoll, Per Kragh Andersen, John J. McGrath, Anita Toender, Merete Nordentoft, Vladimir Canudas-Romo, Annette Erlangsen Source Type: research

Predictors of social functioning in patients with higher and lower levels of reduced emotional experience: Social cognition, social competence, and symptom severity
Deficits in social functioning in schizophrenia are primarily predicted by negative symptoms, social cognition deficits, and social skills deficits. Here we examine those predictive variables across variations in the severity of reduced emotional experience. We hypothesized that in patients with high symptom severity, factors such as social cognition would have reduced importance for predicting social outcomes. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Philip D. Harvey, Elizabeth Deckler, L. Fredrik Jarsksog, David L. Penn, Amy E. Pinkham Source Type: research

Social cognitive group treatment for impaired insight in psychosis: A multicenter randomized controlled trial
In this study, we evaluate a new psychosocial intervention ‘REFLEX’ aimed at improving insight in people with schizophrenia. REFLEX focuses on targeting stigma-sensitivity, perspective taking and self-reflection in people with schizophrenia and low insight. Primary objective is to improve insight and subsequently to improve functional outcome and sympto ms. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: G.H.M. Pijnenborg, A.E. de Vos, M.E. Timmerman, M. Van der Gaag, B.E. Sportel, J. Arends, E.M. Koopmans, L. Van der Meer, A. Aleman Source Type: research

Critical period plasticity-related transcriptional aberrations in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
Childhood critical periods of experience-dependent plasticity are essential for the development of environmentally appropriate behavior and cognition. Disruption of critical periods can alter development of normal function and confer risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. While genes and their expression relevant to neurodevelopment are associated with schizophrenia, the molecular relationship between schizophrenia and critical periods has not been assessed systematically. Here, we apply a transcriptome-based bioinformatics approach to assess whether genes associated with the human critical period for visual cortex plastic...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Milo R. Smith, Ben Readhead, Joel T. Dudley, Hirofumi Morishita Source Type: research

Psychotic like experiences as part of a continuum of psychosis: Associations with effort-based decision-making and reward responsivity
Research examining psychotic disorders typically involves comparison between individuals with a clinical disorder and healthy controls. However, research suggests that psychotic symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, may exist on a continuum ranging from variation in healthy individuals to diagnosable psychotic disorders. On this continuum, some individuals endorse occasional psychotic like experiences (PLEs) that do not cause sufficient impairment or distress to warrant a clinical diagnosis. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Julia A. Ermel, Erin K. Moran, Adam J. Culbreth, Deanna M. Barch Source Type: research

More dampened monocytic Toll-like receptor 4 response to lipopolysaccharide and its association with cognitive function in Chinese Han first-episode patients with schizophrenia
In this study, we aimed to detect the monocytic toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression under basal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated conditions in first-episode (FE) Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia, as well as its association with cognitive function. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Song Chen, Li Tian, Nan Chen, Mei-Hong Xiu, Zhi-Ren Wang, Yue-Chan Wang, Yun-Long Tan, Chuan-Yue Wang Source Type: research

Reward-driven decision-making impairments in schizophrenia
The ability to use feedback to guide optimal decision-making is essential for goal-directed behaviour. While impairments in feedback-driven decision-making have been associated with schizophrenia and depression, this has been examined primarily in the context of binary probabilistic choice paradigms. In real-world decision-making, however, individuals must make choices when there are more than two competing options that vary in the frequency and magnitude of potential rewards and losses. Thus, the current study examined win-stay/lose-shift (WSLS) behaviour on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in order to evaluate the influence ...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sarah Saperia, Susana Da Silva, Ishraq Siddiqui, Ofer Agid, Z. Jeff Daskalakis, Arun Ravindran, Aristotle N. Voineskos, Konstantine K. Zakzanis, Gary Remington, George Foussias Source Type: research

Inflammatory biomarkers in psychosis and clinical high risk populations
In this study we investigated potential contributing inflammatory mechanisms for IL-6 elevation. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 8, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shannon Delaney, Brian Fallon, Armin Alaedini, Robert Yolken, Alyssa Indart, Tianshu Feng, Yuanjia Wang, Daniel Javitt Source Type: research

Prevalence, course and psychosis-predictive value of negative symptoms in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is one of the highest known risk factors for schizophrenia and recent findings have highlighted the clinical relevance of ultra-high risk (UHR) criteria in this population. However, studies in other at-risk populations have shown that the presence of negative symptoms (NS) is also of clinical relevance in predicting transition to psychosis. The present study examined in detail the presence and course of NS in 22q11DS, as well as their value in predicting transition to psychosis. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 7, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Maude Schneider, Marco Armando, Frauke Schultze-Lutter, Maria Pontillo, Stefano Vicari, Martin Debban é, Stephan Eliez Source Type: research

Preliminary data indicating a connection between stress-induced prefrontal dopamine release and hippocampal TSPO expression in the psychosis spectrum
Prolonged stress can cause neuronal loss in the hippocampus resulting in disinhibition of glutamatergic neurons proposed to enhance dopaminergic firing in subcortical regions including striatal areas. Supporting this, imaging studies show increased striatal dopamine release in response to psychosocial stress in healthy individuals with low childhood maternal care, individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) and patients with schizophrenia. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is connected to the hippocampus and a key region to control neurochemical responses to stressful stimuli. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christin Schifani, Sina Hafizi, Huai-Hsuan Tseng, Cory Gerritsen, Miran Kenk, Alan A. Wilson, Sylvain Houle, Pablo M. Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi Source Type: research

Motor cortical plasticity in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation – Electromyography studies
Several lines of investigations converge upon aberrant synaptic plasticity as a potential pathophysiological characteristic of schizophrenia. In vivo experiments using neuromodulatory perturbation techniques like Transcranial Magnetic and Direct Current Stimulation (TMS& tDCS) have been increasingly used to measure ‘motor cortical plasticity’ in schizophrenia. A systematic quantification of cortical plasticity and its moderators in schizophrenia is however lacking. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, Milind Vijay Thanki, Jaya Padmanabhan, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Matcheri S. Keshavan Source Type: research

Altered functional connectivity between sub-regions in the thalamus and cortex in schizophrenia patients measured by resting state BOLD fMRI at 7T
The thalamus is a small brain structure that relays neuronal signals between subcortical and cortical regions. Abnormal thalamocortical connectivity in schizophrenia has been reported in previous studies using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) performed at 3T. However, anatomically the thalamus is not a single entity, but is subdivided into multiple distinct nuclei with different connections to various cortical regions. We sought to determine the potential benefit of using the enhanced sensitivity of BOLD fMRI at ultra-high magnetic field (7T) in exploring thalamo-cortical connectivity in schiz...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - November 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jun Hua, Nicholas I.S. Blair, Adrian Paez, Ann Choe, Anita D. Barber, Allison Brandt, Issel Anne L. Lim, Feng Xu, Vidyulata Kamath, James J. Pekar, Peter C.M. van Zijl, Christopher A. Ross, Russell L. Margolis Source Type: research

Changes in insight over the first 24  months of treatment in schizophrenia spectrum disorders
While insight in schizophrenia improves with treatment, significant impairments often persist. The degree of persistence is not well characterised. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 29, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lebogang Phahladira, Laila Asmal, Sanja Kilian, Bonginkosi Chiliza, Frederika Scheffler, Hilmar K. Luckhoff, Stefan du Plessis, Robin Emsley Source Type: research

Reduced frontal slow wave density during sleep in first-episode psychosis
Sleep disturbances are commonly reported in psychotic patients and often contribute to the manifestation and severity of their symptoms. Slow waves characterize the deepest stage of NREM sleep, and their occurrence is critical for restorative sleep. Slow wave abnormalities have been reported in patient with schizophrenia, especially when experiencing an exacerbation of psychosis. However, their presence and delineation, with an emphasis on topography, in first-episode psychosis patients (FEP) have not yet been characterized. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rachel E. Kaskie, Kathryn M. Gill, Fabio Ferrarelli Source Type: research

Neuropsychological functioning in early and chronic stages of schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder
Neuropsychological impairment is common in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. It has been hypothesized that the pathways leading to impairment differ between disorders. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is believed to result largely from atypical neurodevelopment, whereas bipolar disorder is increasingly conceptualized as a neuroprogressive disorder. The current investigation tested several key predictions of this hypothesis. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Margo W. Menkes, Kristan Armstrong, Jennifer Urbano Blackford, Stephan Heckers, Neil D. Woodward Source Type: research

Persistent negative symptoms in individuals at Ultra High Risk for psychosis
In this study, we examined the prevalence, baseline correlates and outcome of PNS in 363 Ultra High Risk individuals. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alison R. Yung, Barnaby Nelson, Patrick D. McGorry, Stephen J. Wood, Ashleigh Lin Source Type: research

Clinical correlates of subsyndromal depression in African American individuals with psychosis: The relationship with positive symptoms and comorbid substance dependence
Patients with psychosis exhibit subsyndromal depressive symptoms during the course of illness and yet the clinical correlates of these symptoms remain under-investigated. We aimed to investigate the clinical correlates of subsyndromal depression in psychosis including the extent to which they mediate commonly observed comorbid substance dependence. We developed a model of depression in a non-clinical sample recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (N  = 266), and confirmed that model in a locally recruited African-American clinical sample comprising psychotic and non-psychotic individuals (N = 256). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Emma E.M. Knowles, Samuel R. Mathias, Godfrey D. Pearlson, Jennifer Barrett, Josephine Mollon, Dominique Denbow, Katrina Aberzik, Molly Zatony, David C. Glahn Source Type: research

Body mass index trajectories in childhood and adolescence - Risk for non-affective psychosis
Underweight in early adulthood increases risk for schizophrenia, but the effect of early childhood underweight on psychosis risk is not well known. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Elina Sormunen, Maiju M. Saarinen, Raimo K.R. Salokangas, Nina Hutri-K ähönen, Jorma S.A. Viikari, Olli T. Raitakari, Jarmo Hietala Source Type: research

Implementation intention training for prospective memory in schizophrenia: A 3-month follow-up study
This study examined whether a 10-session II programme could improve PM performance, social functioning and functional capacity in patients with schizophrenia immediately after training and at 3-month follow-up. Patients with schizophrenia (n  = 42) recruited from the community were randomly assigned to II training (n = 21) or treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 21). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tao Chen, Lu-lu Liu, Ji-fang Cui, Ying Li, Xiao-jing Qin, Shu-li Tao, David L. Neumann, David H.K. Shum, Eric F.C. Cheung, Ya Wang, Raymond C.K. Chan Source Type: research

Relationship of common variants in CHRNA5 with early-onset schizophrenia and executive function
Altered cholinergic neural transmission is hypothesized to increase susceptibility to cognitive deficits in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia (SCZ). The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α5 subunit gene (CHRNA5) is reported to be associated with cognitive function in nicotine-dependent populations and SCZ in non-smoking SCZ patients. Nevertheless, it is still not clear whether the CHRNA5 gene contributes to susceptibility to the cognitive deficits of SCZ without smoking. To further clarify the role of CHRNA5, we designed a two-stage, case-control study to examine the association between CHRNA5 and SCZ and its ...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Wei Han, Tianxiao Zhang, Tong Ni, Li Zhu, Dan Liu, Gang Chen, Huali Lin, Teng Chen, Fanglin Guan Source Type: research

Current versus recently resolved attenuated psychotic symptoms: Same level of risk for transition to psychosis?
While the at-risk for psychosis mental state approach to identifying emergent psychotic disorders has been catalytic in driving clinical research for youth populations, calls have been made to rethink the operationalisation of the construct (McGorry et al., 2018). The rationale for this is in part due to studies indicating a declining rate of transition to psychosis in recent years, reducing from around 40% in initial research, down to ~10% in more recent work (Morrison et al., 2012). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Simon M. Rice, Patrick D. McGorry, G. Paul Amminger, Barnaby Nelson Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Relationship between allostatic load and clinical outcomes in youth at ultra-high risk for psychosis in the NEURAPRO study
Individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis have an elevated risk of developing psychosis and other psychiatric outcomes. Risk biomarkers can assist in delineating individual risk and allow better prediction of longer-term outcomes. The aim of the present study was to examine if allostatic load (AL), a multisystem index of neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, immune and metabolic dysregulation, is associated with clinical outcomes in youth at UHR for psychosis.AL was measured in 106 participants of the NEURAPRO study (n  = 70 female, n = 36 male; mean age 17.21, SD 2.37), a multicentre randomized-controlled trial...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Maximus Berger, Suzie Lavoie, Patrick D. McGorry, Barnaby Nelson, Connie Markulev, Hok-Pan Yuen, Miriam Schaefer, Zolt án Sarnyai, G. Paul Amminger Source Type: research

Correlation between neurocognitive impairment and DNA methylation of MMP-9 gene in patients with deficit schizophrenia
Deficit schizophrenia (DS) is defined as a homogeneous subtype of schizophrenia characterized by primary and persistent negative symptoms (Carpenter et al., 1988; Kirkpatrick and Galderisi, 2008). Compared to non-deficit schizophrenia (NDS), DS patients exhibited uniqueness in clinical characteristics, such as a higher rate in males, summer birth, poorer treatment responses, and long-term functional outcome. Most evidence suggested more severe neurocognitive impairments were observed in patients with DS relative to NDS (Cascella et al., 2008). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 16, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ju Gao, Xiaowei Tang, Ju Kang, Chunming Xie, Miao Yu, Weiwei Sha, Xiang Wang, Xiaobin Zhang, Hongwei Yi, Xiangrong Zhang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Affective and physiological reactivity to emotional comments in individuals at elevated risk for psychosis
Individuals with schizophrenia are at increased risk of relapse when they live in highly critical (i.e., high expressed emotion; EE) family environments. It remains less clear, however, how individuals at elevated risk for a psychotic disorder react to the social stress of EE. Here we examined whether individuals at elevated risk for developing schizophrenia report greater subjective changes in affect and have increased physiological reactivity after hearing critical, praising and neutral comments. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Marc J. Weintraub, Amy Weisman de Mamani, William J. Villano, Travis C. Evans, Zachary B. Millman, Jill M. Hooley, Kiara R. Timpano Source Type: research

Influence of secondary sources in the Brief Negative Symptom Scale
Negative symptoms are core symptoms of schizophrenia associated with poorer clinical outcome (Strauss et al., 2010). They can be clinically subdivided into primary and secondary features, representing different phenomenology and pathophysiological mechanisms (Miller et al., 1994). Secondary negative symptoms phenotypically present as primary symptoms, but are attributed to external causes. Positive symptom severity, depression and antipsychotic side-effects are known sources of secondary negative symptoms (Carpenter et al., 1985). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Devi Treen, George Savulich, Gisela Mezquida, Maria Paz Garc ía-Portilla, Alba Toll, Clemente García-Rizo, Leticia García-Álvarez, Daniel Bergé, Julio Bobes, Miguel Bernardo, Emilio Fernandez-Egea, Anna Mané Source Type: research

Comparison of prefrontal hemodynamic responses and cognitive deficits between adult patients with autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia share many phenotypic characteristics, but their association with prefrontal function have not been directly compared. The aim of this study is to compare cognitive profiles and their association with the prefrontal function between the two groups. We explored prefrontal dysfunction among adult individuals with ASD (n  = 32), schizophrenia (n = 87), and healthy controls (HCs; n = 50). We assessed cognitive function in all participants using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Shenghong Pu, Kazuyuki Nakagome, Takahiro Satake, Hiroaki Ohtachi, Masashi Itakura, Takehiko Yamanashi, Akihiko Miura, Katsutoshi Yokoyama, Hiroshi Matsumura, Masaaki Iwata, Izumi Nagata, Koichi Kaneko Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Long-term course of negative symptom subdomains and relationship with outcome in patients with a psychotic disorder” [Schizophr. Res. 193 (2018) 173–181]
The authors regret that the GROUP-investigators were not acknowledged for their work due to a missing affiliation in the original publication. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Annemarie P.M. Stiekema, Md Atiqul Islam, Edith J. Liemburg, Stynke Castelein, Edwin R. van den Heuvel, Jaap van Weeghel, Andr é Aleman, Richard Bruggeman, Lisette van der Meer, GROUP investigators, Behrooz Z. Alizadeh, Agna A. Bartels-Velthuis, Nico J. Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Compensatory Cognitive Training for psychosis: Effects on negative symptom subdomains
We examined the effects of Compensatory Cognitive Training (CCT) on expressive deficits and social amotivation in a randomized controlled trial comparing CCT to standard pharmacotherapy alone in 43 individuals with psychosis. ANCOVA analyses demonstrated significant CCT-associated effects on both expressive deficits and social amotivation. Moreover, improvements in both sub-domains were associated with improvements in global life satisfaction, with improvements in social amotivation also related to increased social contact. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zanjbeel Mahmood, Jillian M.R. Clark, Elizabeth W. Twamley Source Type: research

Highlights in this issue
Lindenmayer et al. (2018) propose that the impact of cognitive remediation therapy on cognition in schizophrenia could be augmented by social cognition training. They test that hypothesis in this 12  week, n = 131, parallel group study, and found additional benefits in visual learning, memory, executive functions, and social cognition relative to cognitive training alone. These results suggest a role of combining cognitive remediation therapy and social cognition training in improving out comes in schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 4, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: John Torous, Matcheri Keshavan Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Navigating the co-prescription of clozapine and fluvoxamine
Clozapine is a unique atypical antipsychotic with demonstrated superior efficacy in the medical management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (Siskind et al., 2016). Its effects are attributed to clozapine itself and to its active metabolite N-desmethylclozapine (norclozapine), with the latter being responsible for many side effects encountered with clozapine therapy (L égaré et al., 2013). Clozapine plasma level monitoring is used to optimise clozapine therapy. A clozapine plasma level above 350 microgram/litre (μg/L) should be achieved (Gee and Howes, 2016). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 28, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gordon Shymko, Vaughan Clark, Liana Shymko, Flavie Waters Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

The effects of CACNA1C gene polymorphism on prefrontal cortex in both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls
CACNA1C gene polymorphism rs2007044 has been reported to be associated with schizophrenia, but its underlying brain mechanism is not clear. First, we conducted an exploratory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using an N-BACK task and a Stroop task in 194 subjects (55 schizophrenia patients and 139 healthy controls). Our whole brain analysis found that the risk allele was associated with reduced activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during the Stroop task (cluster size  = 390 voxels, P  (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zhifang Zhang, Yanyan Wang, Qiumei Zhang, Wan Zhao, Xiongying Chen, Jinguo Zhai, Min Chen, Boqi Du, Xiaoxiang Deng, Feng Ji, Chuanyue Wang, Yutao Xiang, Dawei Li, Hongjie Wu, Qi Dong, Chuansheng Chen, Jun Li Source Type: research

Reducing auditory verbal hallucinations by means of fNIRS neurofeedback – A case study with a paranoid schizophrenic patient
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a core symptom of schizophrenias and are associated with increased activation in speech-relevant regions (e.g. Allen et al., 2012). As AVHs can be resistant to antipsychotic medications (25 –30% of patients) (Shergill et al., 1998), alternative intervention methods are needed. Neurofeedback (NF) constitutes an alternative approach, as it can modulate excitation levels and altered brain activity in the long-term (Butnik, 2005; Sterman, 1996). In a curative trial aimed at symptom reduc tion, we conducted a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based NF training of poste...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Helena Storchak, Justin Hudak, Florian B. Haeussinger, David Rosenbaum, Andreas J. Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis Source Type: research

Basic auditory processing deficits and their association with auditory emotion recognition in schizophrenia
Individuals with schizophrenia are impaired in their ability to recognize emotions based on vocal cues and these impairments are associated with poor global outcome. Basic perceptual processes, such as auditory pitch processing, are impaired in schizophrenia and contribute to difficulty identifying emotions. However, previous work has focused on a relatively narrow assessment of auditory deficits and their relation to emotion recognition impairment in schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Michael S. Kraus, Trina M. Walker, L. Fredrik Jarskog, Robert A. Millet, Richard S.E. Keefe Source Type: research

Differences in gut microbiome composition between persons with chronic schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects
This study investigated gut microbiome composition in 50 individuals, including 25 persons with chronic schizophrenia and 25 demographically-matched non-psychiatric comparison subjects (NCs). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tanya T. Nguyen, Tomasz Kosciolek, Yadira Maldonado, Rebecca E. Daly, Averria Sirkin Martin, Daniel McDonald, Rob Knight, Dilip V. Jeste Source Type: research

Deciphering reward-based decision-making in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis and behavioral modeling of the Iowa Gambling Task
Patients with schizophrenia (SZP) have been reported to exhibit impairments in reward-based decision-making, but results are heterogeneous with multiple potential confounds such as age, intelligence level, clinical symptoms or medication, making it difficult to evaluate the robustness of these impairments. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Linda T. Betz, Paolo Brambilla, Andrej Ilankovic, Preethi Premkumar, Myung-Sun Kim, St éphane Raffard, Sophie Bayard, Hikaru Hori, Kyoung-Uk Lee, Seung Jae Lee, Nikolaos Koutsouleris, Joseph Kambeitz Source Type: research

Hearing spirits? Religiosity in individuals at risk for psychosis —Results from the Brazilian SSAPP cohort
In the last decades, biological and environmental factors related to psychosis were investigated in individuals at ultra-risk for psychosis (UHR) to predict conversion. Although religion relates to psychosis in a variety of ways, it is understudied in subclinical samples. Therefore, we assessed the interplay between religion and prodromal symptoms in 79 UHR and 110 control individuals. They were interviewed with the Duke University Religion Index and the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 25, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alexandre Andrade Loch, Elder Lanzani Freitas, Lucas Hort êncio, Camille Chianca, Tania Maria Alves, Maurício Henriques Serpa, Julio Cesar Andrade, Martinus Theodorus van de Bilt, Wagner Farid Gattaz, Wulf Rössler Source Type: research

Using Google Maps to display the pattern of coauthor collaborations on the topic of schizophrenia: A systematic review between 1937 and 2017
This study aimed to investigate the pattern of coauthor collaborations in schizophrenia research. We conducted a bibliometric study of international scientific publications on schizophrenia. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 24, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tsair-Wei Chien, Hsien-Yi Wang, Yu Chang, Wei-Chih Kan Source Type: research

Editorial Board]
(Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Insight and risk of suicidal behaviour in two first-episode psychosis cohorts: Effects of previous suicide attempts and depression
The role of insight dimensions – illness recognition (IR), symptoms relabelling (SR), treatment compliance (TC) - in suicide risk in first-episode psychosis (FEP) remains unclear. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Javier-David Lopez-Morinigo, Marta Di Forti, Olesja Ajnakina, Benjamin D. Wiffen, Kevin Morgan, Gillian A. Doody, Peter B. Jones, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola, Manuel Canal-Rivero, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Robin M. Murray, Paola Dazzan, Craig Morgan, Rina Dutta, A Source Type: research

Left prefrontal high-frequency rTMS may improve movement disorder in schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms – A secondary analysis of a sham-controlled, randomized multicenter trial
Recent research suggests that different first- and second-generation antipsychotics bear risk for extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) including akathisia, acute dystonic reactions, parkinsonism and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, occurring within days or weeks after initiation of an antipsychotic medication or after dosage escalation (Hasan et al., 2013; Leucht et al., 2013). High-frequency rTMS of the primary motor cortex has the potential to improve motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease (Lefaucheur, 2005). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Daniel Kamp, Christina Engelke, Thomas Wobrock, Wolfgang W ölwer, Georg Winterer, Christian Schmidt-Kraepelin, Wolfgang Gaebel, Berthold Langguth, Michael Landgrebe, Peter Eichhammer, Elmar Frank, Göran Hajak, Christian Ohmann, Pablo E. Verde, Marcella Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Metabolic abnormalities and low dietary Omega 3 are associated with symptom severity and worse functioning prior to the onset of psychosis: Findings from the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Studies Consortium
In this study, we evaluate demographic information, cardiometabolic indices, symptoms and functioning in an antipsychotic free cohort at Clinical High Risk (CHR) for psychosis from the NAPLS Omega 3 fatty acid clinical trial. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 21, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kristin S. Cadenhead, Amedeo Minichino, Skylar Kelsven, Jean Addington, Carrie Bearden, Tyrone D. Cannon, Barbara A. Cornblatt, Dan Mathalon, Thomas H. McGlashan, Diana O. Perkins, Larry J. Seidman, Ming Tsuang, Elaine F. Walker, Scott W. Woods, Jeff Yao, Source Type: research

A potential role for adjunctive omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for depression and anxiety symptoms in recent onset psychosis: Results from a 16  week randomized placebo-controlled trial for participants concurrently treated with risperidone
Omega-3 treatment studies for multi-episode schizophrenia or clinical high risk for conversion to psychosis states have had variable, and often negative, results. To examine adjunctive omega-3 treatment for recent onset psychosis, participants aged 15 –40 years with recent onset schizophrenia-spectrum (n = 46) or bipolar (n = 4) disorders and current psychotic symptoms were treated for 16 weeks with risperidone and randomly-assigned omega-3 (EPA 740 mg and DHA 400 mg daily) or matching placebo. The primary outcome measure was th e Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) total score. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Delbert G. Robinson, Juan A. Gallego, Majnu John, Lauren A. Hanna, Jian-Ping Zhang, Michael L. Birnbaum, Jessica Greenberg, Melissa Naraine, Bart D. Peters, Robert K. McNamara, Anil K. Malhotra, Philip R. Szeszko Source Type: research

Oral health in psychosis: An unmet need
Yang et al. (2018) have conducted an important and timely meta-analysis indicating that patients with psychosis are more likely to have missing, decayed or filled teeth, than general population samples. This health disparity is staggering and clearly unacceptable, and yet it has received very little attention in research and clinical arenas, evidenced by the identification of only nine eligible studies in this meta-analysis. It was revealing that none of the studies were conducted in the United States or United Kingdom, areas with otherwise strong psychosis-related research outputs. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: J.E. Palmier-Claus, D. Shiers, P. French, R. Harris, L. Laverty Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Effects of oxytocin on empathy, introspective accuracy, and social symptoms in schizophrenia: A 12-week twice-daily randomized controlled trial
The effects of intranasal oxytocin, a neuropeptide involved in prosocial behavior and modulation of neural networks underlying social cognition and emotion regulation, have been studied in schizophrenia. We tested the hypothesis that twice-daily intranasal oxytocin administered for 12-weeks would improve tertiary and exploratory outcomes of self-reported social symptoms, empathy and introspective accuracy from the Jarskog et al. (2017) randomized controlled trial. Sixty-eight stable outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomized to receive oxytocin (24  IU twice daily) or placebo. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tate Halverson, L. Fredrik Jarskog, Cort Pedersen, David Penn Source Type: research

GLP-1 agonists for metabolic disorders in schizophrenia
Patients with schizophrenia have a 2- to 3-fold higher mortality rate compared with the general population. A high prevalence of obesity, cardiometabolic disorders, and type 2 diabetes among these patients largely explains the increased cardiovascular risk (Correll et al., 2017). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Youssef Kouidrat, Ali Amad Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Loneliness in psychotic illness and its association with cardiometabolic disorders
Loneliness is an established risk factor for poor cardiometabolic health. People with psychotic disorders experience high rates of both cardiometabolic disease and loneliness, but how these factors are associated is poorly understood. Thus, using data from the second Australian National Survey of Psychosis we examined whether loneliness is associated with the likelihood of cardiometabolic disorder in psychotic illness. Loneliness was assessed using a single-item measure, with a 4-point scale (not lonely; lonely occasionally; some friends but lonely for company; socially isolated and lonely) whilst cardiometabolic status wa...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 19, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Johanna C. Badcock, Andrew Mackinnon, Anna Waterreus, Gerald F. Watts, David Castle, John J. McGrath, Vera A. Morgan Source Type: research

A qualitative study of patient experience when switching from paliperidone palmitate once monthly (PP1M) to paliperidone palmitate three monthly (PP3M) long-acting injectable antipsychotic
Paliperidone palmitate 1-month (PP1M) and 3-month (PP3M) are long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics that aim to enhance adherence, efficacy, tolerability and convenience of medication. Hospitalization rates, occupational status, treatment preference, satisfaction and caregiver burden of patients with schizophrenia has been assessed, and the advantages and disadvantages of PP1M vs. PP3M treatment has been evaluated in previous reports (Brasso et al. 2017; Einarson et al. 2017). With knowledge of patients' perspectives, healthcare providers could strengthen patient-provider relationships and better explore patients' rea...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jonathan K. Lai, Howard C. Margolese Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Shared co-expression networks in frontal cortex of the normal aged brain and schizophrenia
Previous studies on the brain of people with schizophrenia have identified structural changes and gene expression changes, suggesting that brain aging maybe accelerated in people with schizophrenia. To better characterize gene expression profiles in schizophrenia and in the aged population we constructed co-expression networks using RNA-Seq data from frontal cortex. The first data set analysed was from 62 subjects with schizophrenia and 51 unaffected controls ranging in age from 19 to 63  years. The second separate data set was from normal control individuals ranging in age from 29 to 106 years. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sanghyeon Kim, Yousang Jo, Maree J. Webster, Doheon Lee Source Type: research

An Interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) haplotype linked with psychosis transition is associated with IL1B gene expression and brain structure
We investigated IL1B genetic variation previously associated with risk for transition to psychosis for its association with gene expression in human post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) from 74 (37 schizophrenia, 37 control) individuals and brain structure in 92 (44 schizophrenia, 48 control) living individuals. The IL1B A-G-T ‘risk for psychosis transition’ haplotype (rs16944|rs4848306|rs12621220) was associated with upregulation of IL1B mRNA expression in the DLPFC as well as reduced total grey matter and left middle frontal volumes and enlarged left lateral ventricular volume. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 14, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Md Shaki Mostaid, Stefanos Dimitrakopoulos, Cassandra Wannan, Vanessa Cropley, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Ian P. Everall, Christos Pantelis, Chad A. Bousman Source Type: research

Federated multi-site longitudinal study of at-risk mental state for psychosis in Japan
There has been recent accumulation of evidence and clinical guidance regarding the at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis. However, most studies have been observational cohort and intervention studies of Western populations. To assess the validity of the ARMS concept and the transition rate to psychosis in a non-Western nation, we retrospectively combined and analyzed clinical data of individuals diagnosed with ARMS who were prospectively followed-up at three specialized clinical services for ARMS in Japan. (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
Source: Schizophrenia Research - September 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kazunori Matsumoto, Masahiro Katsura, Naohisa Tsujino, Shimako Nishiyama, Takahiro Nemoto, Naoyuki Katagiri, Tsutomu Takahashi, Yuko Higuchi, Noriyuki Ohmuro, Hiroo Matsuoka, Michio Suzuki, Masafumi Mizuno Source Type: research