New study explains how your brain helps you learn new skills

(Gladstone Institutes) Researchers from the Gladstone Institutes uncovered how a special type of neuron improves the efficiency of procedural learning. They initially wanted to show how the specialized brain cells, called fast-spiking interneurons, cause movement disorders, such as Tourette's syndrome, dystonia, and dyskinesia. As it turns out, that isn't the case. But their work led them to an even greater discovery.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 15 August 2018Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Justin Y. Lu, Arun K. Tiwari, Gwyneth C. Zai, Anjali Rastogi, Sajid A. Shaikh, Daniel J. Mueller, Aristotle N. Voineskos, Steven G. Potkin, Jeffrey A. Lieberman, Herbert Y. Meltzer, Gary Remington, Albert H.C. Wong, James L. Kennedy, Clement C. ZaiAbstractTardive dyskinesia (TD) is an involuntary movement disorder that occurs in ~20% of patients after extended antipsychotic use. Its pathophysiology is unclear; however, familial patterns and gene association studies indicate an inherited component to risk. The disrupted in schizophrenia ...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
ConclusionDBS is a safe surgical option for patients with various neurological and movement disorders. Although the risk of ICH is low, delayed hemorrhages are possible and can be a devastating complication all clinicians must be aware of and be prepared for in order to better manage and treat patients.
Source: Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research
S, Cander B Abstract Acar T, Alkan G, Çaksen H, Ertekin B, Ergin M, Koçak S, Cander B. Phenytoin induced dystonia. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 111-112. The abnormalities of dopaminergic activity in the basal ganglia have been emphasized to be effective in dystonia. We hereby report a case of a 2.5-year-old male patient who presented with tonic-clonic sezures and who developed dystonia after being given phenytoin. Biperidene hydrochloride was administered intramuscularly; primidone was added to the treatment regimen. After a 7-day-follow-up at the hospital, the patient had no dystonia and was discharged....
Source: The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Turk J Pediatr Source Type: research
The neuropsychiatry of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: The état de l'art. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2018 Aug 08;: Authors: Cavanna AE Abstract Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a chronic tic disorder characterised by the presence of multiple motor and vocal tics with onset during development. Tics are the most common hyperkinetic symptoms in childhood and co-morbid behavioural conditions (especially obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder, affective symptoms, and impulsivity) are present in the majority of patients. Although GTS is no longer considered a rare ...
Source: Revue Neurologique - Category: Neurology Tags: Rev Neurol (Paris) Source Type: research
Condition:   Tourette Syndrome Intervention:   Device: Repetitive TMS Sponsor:   Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
AbstractA movement disorder emergency has been defined by Fahn and Frucht as “any neurological disorder evolving acutely or subacutely, in which the clinical presentation is dominated by a primary movement disorder, and in which failure to accurately diagnose and manage the patient may result in significant morbidity or even mortality.” In this review, we discuss the mos t common situations in which hyperkinetic movement disorders, including chorea, ballism, dystonia, myoclonus, tics, as well as psychogenic disorders, can present as emergencies. Some acute hyperkinetic issues that can complicate Parkinson&rsquo...
Source: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
New treatment for Tourette's Tics are common and may present to both paediatric and child psychiatry clinics. For most, reassurance and advice are all that is needed, but for a few they can become seriously disabling and may progress to Tourette's syndrome. Treatment with antipsychotic drugs such as Haloperidol is effective, but can severe side-effects such as sedation, dystonia and tardive dyskinesia. Newer ‘atypical’ antipsychotic drugs are being used increasingly in schizophrenia as they appear to be better tolerated. One such is Aripiprazole: researchers from Jiangsu, China set out to review the literature ...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Category: Pediatrics Tags: Miscellanea Source Type: research
Authors: di Biase L, Munhoz RP Abstract INTRODUCTION: Deep brain stimulation effectiveness is well recognized for different movement disorders including Parkinson's disease, dystonia and essential tremor, however several other diseases in this field may benefit from the technique although experience is sparse and evidences of benefit and risks are not established. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we explored available evidence for effectiveness and safety of DBS in selected hyperkinetic movement disorders, including tardive dyskinesia, Huntington's disease, neuroacanthocytosis, myoclonus-dystonia, Tourette syndro...
Source: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Tags: Expert Rev Neurother Source Type: research
Conclusions: AEs following pvGPi DBS in refractory TS were mostly related to stimulation or hardware, but did not limit therapy. Controlled studies are warranted.Disclosure: Dr. Niemann has nothing to disclose. Dr. Strutt has received personal compensation for activities with Psychology Software Tools as a consultant. Dr. Viswanathan has nothing to disclose. Dr. Jimenez Shahed has received personal compensation for activities with Teva as a consultant. Dr. Jimenez Shahed has received research support from Avid Radiopharmaceutical, Inc., Acadia Pharmaceuticals, US World Meds, and Biotie.
Source: Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Movement Disorders: Tics, Tourette ' s Syndrome, and Other Source Type: research
This article provides an overview of the current status and recent advances in the field of DBS.
Source: Neurology India - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
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