Risk factors for hospital norovirus outbreaks: Impact of vomiting, genotype and multioccupancy rooms

Conclusions This is the first study to investigate clinical, ward and genotype risk factors for NoV hospital outbreaks. Recognition of these factors may help direct and prioritise infection control actions based on the outbreak risk. The results also suggest that the outbreak association with GII.4 partly may be explained by an enhanced ability to induce vomiting.
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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Abstract In Japan, from 2000 to 2018, for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Salmonella food poisonings, the annual number of the outbreaks and that of the patients decreased exponentially though the size of the individual outbreaks (the number of patients per outbreak) tended to become larger. For food poisonings caused by Campylobacter, the annual number of the outbreaks increased exponentially while the outbreak size became smaller and the annual number of the patients remained almost unchanged. For food poisoning caused by norovirus, both the number of the outbreaks and that of the patients remained high throughout. ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research
AbstractNorovirus is commonly associated with food and waterborne outbreaks. Genetic susceptibility to norovirus is largely dependent on presence of histo-blood group antigens (HBGA), specifically ABO, secretor, and Lewis phenotypes. The aim of the study was to determine the association between HBGAs to norovirus susceptibility during a large norovirus foodborne outbreak linked to genotype GII.6 in an office-based company in Stockholm, Sweden, 2015. A two-episode outbreak with symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting occurred in 2015. An online questionnaire was sent to all 1109 employees that had worked during the first outbreak...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
NOROVIRUS, also known as the winter vomiting bug, is causing havoc across many parts of the UK with outbreaks leading to school and hospital ward closures. Which parts of the UK have been hit, how can you spot symptoms and what ’s the best form of treatment?
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
NOROVIRUS warnings have been issued after suspected outbreaks at a school and hospitals. What are the symptoms of the illness, how long does it last, and how can it be treated?
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Conclusions: Norovirus is a major pathogen causing diarrhea in Shanghainese children. GII.Pe/GII.4-Sydney/2012 strains remained the predominant genotype. The emergence of GII.P17/GII.17 and GII.P16/GII.2 strains in sporadic diarrhea was consistent with norovirus-associated outbreaks attributable to these 2 novel variants in China. Continuous monitoring norovirus genotypes circulating in pediatric population is needed for current vaccine development.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
ConclusionsLocal GXP testing compared to centralized multiplex PCR testing for IF, NV and CD, demonstrated sensitivities, specificities and NPV between 95% and 100%. Turnaround times were faster, enabling quicker infection prevention and control decision making. In our local setting (WCUH), the GXP demonstrated the potential to reduce NV and IFA/B outbreaks.
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Human norovirus (HuNoV) GII.P17-GII.17 (Kawasaki2014 variant) reportedly emerged in 2014 and caused gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. To clarify the evolution of both VP1 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) regions of GII.P17-GII.17, we analyzed both global and novel Japanese strains detected during 2013–2017. Time-scaled phylogenetic trees revealed that the ancestral GII.17 VP1 region diverged around 1949, while the ancestral GII.P17 RdRp region diverged around 2010. The evolutionary rates of the VP1 and RdRp regions were estimated at ~2.7 × 10−3 and ~2.3 × 10−3 substitutions/site/year...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 September 2019Source: Food Science and Human WellnessAuthor(s): Cassandra Suther, Matthew D. MooreAbstractHuman norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne illness globally. Detection and quantification of norovirus commonly involves the use of reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR); however, the presence of inhibitory compounds in foods limit detection and accurate quantification. Although some studies have been done on PCR inhibitors from foods, many of them are over a decade old and do not investigate inhibition in contemporary one-step RT-qPCR-based ...
Source: Food Science and Human Wellness - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Abstract Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most frequently occuring illnesses in children and adults worldwide. In February 2017, two AGE outbreaks occurred in two adjacent schools in Huzhou city, Zhenjiang province of China. We detected high percentages of recombinant norovirus GII.P16/GII.2 in one school and chicken anemia virus (CAV) in another school using next generation sequencing (NGS) and specific PCR. The results highlight the importance of continuous surveillance of GII.P16/GII.2, and suggest the need of further studies on whether CAV causes AGE. Keywords: acute gastroenteritis; norovirus; chicke...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
te; J Abstract Stabilizing paper matrix methods for retaining nucleic acid from inactivated clinical specimens offer a solution for molecular diagnostics when specimens may be stored or shipped at ambient temperature. We developed cellulose disks (UNEXP) saturated with a total nucleic acid extraction buffer (UNEX) modified from a previously developed lysis buffer for multiple enteric pathogens. Infectivity of hepatitis A virus, adenovirus and poliovirus was destroyed after 2-3 hours incubation at room temperature on the UNEXP disks. Norovirus RNA could be detected in UNEXP-eluted nucleic acids by reverse tr...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research
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