Malnutrition in Gastrointestinal Disorders

All patients with significant gastrointestinal disease should be clinically assessed for protein calorie malnutrition by using the Subjective Global Assessment. Blood tests for anemia, electrolytes, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, ferritin, vitamin B12, and folate should be considered for assessment of major micronutrients. Where malabsorption or inflammatory bowel disease is diagnosed, bone mineral density using dual beam x-ray absorptiometry, 25-OH vitamin D levels, and measurement of other vitamins and trace elements should be considered. In addition, in at-risk patients, vitamin and trace element clinical deficiency syndromes should be considered during patient assessment.
Source: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research

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Purpose of review Immune dysfunction, including severe combined immunodeficiency, has been described in genetic disorders affecting the metabolism of the vitamins cobalamin (vitamin B12) and folate. We have reviewed reports of clinical findings in patients with a number of inborn errors of cobalamin or folate metabolism, specifically looking for immune problems. Recent findings There is little evidence that immune function is affected in most of the disorders. Exceptions are Imerslund–Gräsbeck syndrome and hereditary folate malabsorption (affecting intestinal absorption of cobalamin and folate, respectively...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - Category: Nutrition Tags: GENES AND CELL METABOLISM: Edited by Anastasia Z. Kalea and Dorothy Klimis-Zacas Source Type: research
Purpose of review Genome instability has long been implicated as a primary causal factor in cancer and diseases of aging. The genome is constantly under attack from extrinsic and intrinsic damaging agents. Uracil misincorporation in DNA and its repair is an intrinsic factor resulting in genomic instability and DNA mutations. Additionally, the presence of uracil in DNA can modify gene expression by interfering with promoter binding and transcription inhibition or upregulation of apoptotic proteins. In immune cells, uracil in DNA drives beneficial genomic diversity for antigen-driven immunity. This review addresses disease...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - Category: Nutrition Tags: GENES AND CELL METABOLISM: Edited by Anastasia Z. Kalea and Dorothy Klimis-Zacas Source Type: research
Source: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions: As enteric α-defensins play critical roles in the mucosal antimicrobial barrier, their reduced expression may partly explain the microbial-induced mucosal inflammation in colonic IBD patients, especially in patients carrying rs3129891 and rs77005575 mutant genotypes.
Source: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ONLINE ARTICLE: Original Articles Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our meta-analysis has found that FL is an inexpensive, simple, stable, and useful screening marker with high sensitivity and modest specificity for assessing IBD activity, appearing to have greater ability to evaluate UC rather than CD.
Source: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ALIMENTARY TRACT: Original Articles Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Overall conditional pouch survival improved over time for patients with postoperative anastomotic leak and abscess. These novel findings can be useful to counsel patients regarding expectations for long-term pouch survival even if they develop leaks and abscesses. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B217. SUPERVIVENCIA CONDICIONAL DESPUÉS DE ANASTOMOSIS CON BOLSA ÍLEO ANAL, PARA COLITIS ULCERATIVA E INDETERMINADA: ¿LA SOBREVIDA DE LA BOLSA A LARGO PLAZO, MEJORA O EMPEORA CON EL TIEMPO? ANTECEDENTES: Los factores de riesgo para la sobrevida de la bolsa, pueden o no tener un...
Source: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Contributions: Inflammatory Bowel Disease Source Type: research
BACKGROUND: There is no study to date examining the safety of initiating or restarting biologic therapy after major abdominal surgery for Crohn’s disease. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in the rates of 90-day superficial surgical site infections, intra-abdominal sepsis, and overall postoperative infectious complications among patients who were initiated on or restarted a biologic within 90 days postoperatively compared with those who were not. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at an IBD referral center. PATIENTS: Adult pat...
Source: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Contributions: Inflammatory Bowel Disease Source Type: research
, Mendoza-Anaya D Abstract This work presents results obtained following the preparation of lithium borate by the chemical reaction between lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) and boric acid (H3BO3), doping the host salt of lithium borate (Li2B4O7) with ions of copper, silver and phosphorus. With the obtained material dosimeters were produced in sintered pellet form which were exposed by gamma radiation that emitted from 60Co source. The highest sensitivity was found for the sample of Li2B4O7:Cu,Ag,P (in pellet form) with 0.45, 0.45 and 12 mol% of Cu, Ag and P, respectively, subjected to a thermal treatment at 1123&nb...
Source: Applied Radiation and Isotopes - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Appl Radiat Isot Source Type: research
This article aims to review the most current literature and update readers on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of HTN in heart transplant patients. Recent findings In contrast to the general nontransplant hypertensive patient population, traditional risk factors, including family history of HTN, obesity and diabetes, play a minor role in the genesis of posttransplant HTN. Dysregulation in sodium and water balance, vascular stiffness, endothelial dysfunction, abnormal cardiorenal neural reflexes resulting from immunosuppression and cardiac denervation seem to be the predominant factors leading to posthear...
Source: Current Opinion in Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Tags: HYPERTENSION: Edited by Hector O. Ventura and Carl J. Lavie Source Type: research
ConclusionOur analyses suggest that vitamin D supplementation, with or without calcium, does not reduce breast cancer risk by 30% or more. Future trials with similar designs are unlikely to alter this finding.
Source: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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