Ischemic lesions and superficial siderosis in CAA: Partners in crime or innocent bystanders?

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), first described in 1927 as a congophilic angiopathy associated with amyloid plaque in brains of patients with Alzheimer dementia,1 has an association with large and small intracranial hemorrhages (ICH). The differential diagnosis of ICH therefore includes CAA, especially in older patients or those without hypertension. The widely used Boston Criteria for diagnosis of CAA in vivo rely on the hemorrhagic characteristics of the disease.2 The pathophysiology of ICH in CAA remains uncertain. Thus, its prognosis, risk stratification, and clinical management present a challenge. Additional imaging features of CAA have contributed potential new perspectives on pathophysiology. The report of ischemic lesions in CAA may represent a novel concept for most clinicians accustomed to thinking about CAA as a hemorrhagic disease. The observation that Alzheimer dementia brains with severe amyloid angiopathy had more prevalent infarcts3–5 prompted subsequent investigations suggesting that amyloid deposition in small and medium-sized cortical vessels may play an active role in ischemia through pathologic thickening of the vessel wall, producing reduction or obliteration of the vessel lumen.6,7 Cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), easy to detect with modern MRI, is a striking and common feature of CAA. How these additional imaging features fit into a larger model of CAA remains unclear. Are they an epiphenomenon or can they teach us about the disease? In ...
Source: Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: EDITORIALS Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 19 January 2019Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Bettina Maria Foidl, Christian HumpelAbstractAlzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative brain disorder and the most common form of dementia coming along with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in more than 70% of all cases. However, CAA occurs also in pure form without AD pathology. Vascular life style risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, stress or an old age play an important role in the progression of CAA. So far, no animal model for sporadic CAA has been reported,...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In this study, scientists screened cells from old animals to identify any RBPs that change upon aging. The screening showed that one particular protein, Pumilio2 (PUM2), was highly induced in old animals. PUM2 binds mRNA molecules containing specific recognition sites. Upon its binding, PUM2 represses the translation of the target mRNAs into proteins. Using a systems genetics approach, the researchers then identified a new mRNA target that PUM2 binds. The mRNA encodes for a protein called Mitochondrial Fission Factor (MFF), and is a pivotal regulator of mitochondrial fission - a process by which mitochondria break u...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
By Sandee LaMotte, CNN (CNN) — Here’s another reason why getting a good night’s sleep should be on your must-do list: Sleeping fewer than six hours a night or waking frequently raises your risk of developing damaging plaque in arteries throughout your body, not just your heart. Previous research has shown poor sleep to be strongly associated with coronary heart disease, but “This is the first study to show that objectively measured sleep is independently associated with atherosclerosis throughout the body,” José Ordovás, director of nutrition and genomics at the Jean Mayer USDA H...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Boston News Health CNN Heart Disease Sleep Tufts University Source Type: news
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, we found a gradient of increasing blood pressure with higher levels of BMI. The fact that this gradient is present even in the fully adjusted analyses suggests that BMI may cause a direct effect on blood pressure, independent of other clinical risk factors. PRRX1 as a Possible Point of Control for Remyelination https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2018/12/prrx1-as-a-possible-point-of-control-for-remyelination/ Researchers here outline what is possibly a new point of intervention in the processes that maintain the myelin sheath that wraps nerves. This sheath is vital to the correct operatio...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
By Sandee LaMotte, CNN (CNN) — Worried about your aging brain? Getting your heart pumping with something as simple as walking or cycling just three times a week seems to improve thinking skills, new research says. Add a heart-healthy diet, and you maximize the benefits, possibly shaving years off your brain’s functional age, according to the study published Wednesday in the journal Neurology. “Our operating model was that by improving cardiovascular risk, you’re also improving neurocognitive functioning,” said lead study author James Blumenthal, a clinical psychologist at Duke Univer...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News CNN Dementia Excercise Source Type: news
In this study, we found that TNF-α resulted in an impairment of autophagic flux in microglia. Concomitantly, an increase of M1 marker expression and reduction of M2 marker expression were observed in TNF-α challenged microglia. Upregulation of autophagy via serum deprivation or pharmacologic activators (rapamycin and resveratrol) promoted microglia polarization toward M2 phenotype, as evidenced by suppressed M1 and elevated M2 gene expression, while inhibition of autophagy with 3-MA or Atg5 siRNA consistently aggravated the M1 polarization induced by TNF-α. Moreover, Atg5 knockdown alone was suffic...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
These days, an ever larger fraction of the research community is waking to the idea that the effective treatment of age-related disease requires approaches that target the mechanisms of aging. This is a good thing, as it begins to narrow the scope of advocacy within the research community to the task of steering scientists towards better rather than worse ways of going about targeting the mechanisms of aging. It remains the case that most of the better supported lines of work related to aging are, in effect, very challenging ways to produce only small benefits at the end of the day - most researchers are working on methods...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
This article, however, is more of a commentary on high level strategy and the effects of regulation, coupled with a desire to forge ahead rather than hold back in the matter of treating aging, thus I concur with much more of what is said than is usually the case. For decades, one of the most debated questions in gerontology was whether aging is a disease or the norm. At present, excellent reasoning suggests aging should be defined as a disease - indeed, aging has been referred to as "normal disease." Aging is the sum of all age-related diseases and this sum is the best biomarker of aging. Aging and its d...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Diffusion-tensor MRI (DTI-MRI) could become a valuable way to assess a person's...Read more on AuntMinnie.comRelated Reading: MRI links lifestyle factors to stroke, dementia risk MRI can aid diagnosis of major depressive disorder MRI ties high blood pressure to dementia risk DTI-MRI ties lack of fitness to cognitive decline Court rules that DTI-MRI scans are not 'junk science'
Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines - Category: Radiology Source Type: news
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