Maternal education, empowerment, economic status and child polio vaccination uptake in Pakistan: a population based cross sectional study

Objectives To explore the association of maternal education and empowerment with childhood polio vaccination using nationally representative data of Pakistani mothers in a reproductive age group. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Secondary analysis of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS), 2012–2013 data was performed. Participants Of the 13 558 mothers included in the survey sample, 6982 mothers were able to provide information regarding polio vaccinations. Main outcome measures Polio vaccination coverage among children aged up to 5 years was categorised as complete vaccination (all four oral polio vaccine (OPV) doses), incomplete vaccination, and no vaccination (zero OPV dose received). Mothers' empowerment status was assessed using standard ‘Measure DHS’ questions regarding their involvement in decision-making related to health, household possessions and visits among family and friends. Education was categorised as no education, primary, secondary and higher education. Results of multinomial regression analyses were reported as adjusted OR with 95% CI. We adjusted for age, wealth index, urban/rural residence, place of delivery, and antenatal and postnatal visits. Results Only 56.4% (n=3936) of the children received complete polio vaccination. Women with no education had significantly higher odds of their child receiving no polio vaccination (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.05 to 5.18; p
Source: BMJ Open - Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Infectious diseases, Public health Research Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: IPV-OPV compared to OPV may reduce VAPPs without affecting vaccination coverage, safety or humoral response, except P2 with sequential schemes without P2 components, but increase poliovirus faecal excretion after OPV challenge for some polio serotypes. Compared to IPV-only schedules, IPV-OPV may have little or no difference on SAEs, probably has little or no effect on persons with protective humoral response, may increase neutralising antibodies, and probably reduces faecal excretion after OPV challenge of certain polio serotypes. Using three IPV doses as part of a IPV-OPV schedule does not appear to be better...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
This article provides information on these and other travel vaccinations against hepatitis A, typhoid fever, rabies, Japanese encephalitis and cholera.Yellow fever endemic areas are located in Africa and in South America; there is no yellow fever in Asia. The meningococcal vaccine (A, C, W, Y) is required for pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. Additionally, it is recommended for travellers visiting the African "meningitis belt" during the dry season. A polio booster is required for countries with endemic wild-type polio virus (WPV) or circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV).Hepatitis A is a common vaccine-prev...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
Abstract Immunization has made an enormous contribution to global health. Global vaccination coverage has dramatically improved and mortality rates among children due to vaccine-preventable diseases have been significantly reduced since the creation of the Expanded Programme of Immunization in 1974, the formation of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, in 2000, and the development of the Global Vaccine Action Plan in 2012. However, challenges remain and persisting inequities in vaccine uptake contribute to the continued occurrence and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Inequalities in immunization coverage by geogr...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
(Natural News) The World Health Organization (WHO) is finally coming clean about the fact that oral polio vaccines, which government officials claim prevent polio infection, are actually spreading polio all throughout Africa. Nigeria, Congo, Central African Republic, and Angola are all reporting new cases of polio caused by the oral polio vaccine, which is causing children...
Source: NaturalNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
[SNA] Al-Fula -The partial campaign of vaccination against polio and Vitamin(A) deficiency was launched Monday allover localities of West Kordofan State.
Source: AllAfrica News: Polio - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
New cases of highly infectious disease that should be ‘consigned to the history books’ reported in Nigeria, the DRC, CAR and AngolaNew cases of polio linked to the oral vaccine have been reported in four African countries and more children are now being paralysed by vaccine-derived viruses than those infected by viruses in the wild, according to global health numbers.The World Health Organization (WHO) and partners identified nine new cases caused by the vaccine in Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic and Angola last week. Along with seven other African countries with outbreak...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Global development Polio Infectious diseases Health Medical research Children Africa Nigeria Democratic Republic of the Congo Central African Republic Angola Source Type: news
[ANGOP] Luanda -The Health Ministry last Wednesday denied allegations of a surge in polio cases caused by the antidote (vaccine) being given to children under the age of five.
Source: AllAfrica News: Polio - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
MONDAY, Nov. 25, 2019 -- More children worldwide are being paralyzed by polio viruses from vaccines than from viruses in the wild, according to new data. The World Health Organization and partners last week noted nine new vaccine-linked polio cases...
Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
In rare instances, the live virus in oral polio vaccines can mutate and become infectious, causing new outbreaks.
Source: The Scientist - Category: Science Tags: News & Opinion Source Type: news
More children in Africa being paralyzed by viruses originating in polio vaccines than in the wild, according to a new report.
Source: CBC | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: News/Health Source Type: news
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