Researchers chucked litter on the streets of New York and Bern to see if anyone would intervene

By Alex Fradera To maintain pleasant public spaces requires that we all implicitly agree to certain civil behaviours, like pocketing our chocolate wrappers rather than leaving them strewn on the pavement, or turning the stereo down after eleven. But when these implicit agreements are too frequently ignored they can lose their force entirely, jeopardising the social order. To keep things together, one or more of us need to hold any miscreants to account… but who wants that hassle? A new paper in the journal Rationality and Society explores real-life littering norm enforcers, taking us from the streets of Switzerland to the New York underground. The sociologists Joël Berger and Debra Hevenstone convened at various crowded city transit stops, and waited for a transit service (a tram in Bern, Switzerland or a New York subway train) to deposit a load of commuters. Then one researcher would perform an act of littering in front of the commuters, tossing an empty bottle near, but not into, a rubbish bin, while the other researcher observed how people responded. Berger and Hevenstone were particularly interested in whether there would be any instances of social sanctioning – that is, a commuter directly confronting the offending researcher – an act also sometimes labelled “costly punishment”, because the individual has to inconvenience themselves to enforce the social rules. Social sanctioning has been studied frequently in laboratory conditio...
Source: BPS RESEARCH DIGEST - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: environmental Forensic Social Source Type: blogs

Related Links:

Authors: Cesaro A, Moscarella E, Gragnano F, Perrotta R, Diana V, Pariggiano I, Concilio C, Alfieri A, Cesaro F, Mercone G, Falato S, Esposito A, Di Girolamo D, Limongelli G, Calabrò P Abstract Introduction: The radial artery is currently the most widely used access site for PCI procedures both acute and stable patient settings. Thanks to advantages in pharmacological therapy as well as in interventional devices, the rate of ischemic complications following PCI has significantly decreased. Nevertheless, this has been counterbalanced by an increased risk of periprocedural and late bleeding event, that can occ...
Source: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy - Category: Cardiology Tags: Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther Source Type: research
This report is important to gain more information about corneal perforation clinical presentation in neonates, Investigation, and management.
Source: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
Publication date: June 2019Source: Pathology - Research and Practice, Volume 215, Issue 6Author(s):
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
We report a 58-year-old man who presented with perineal nuchal-type fibroma originating in the perirectal region. This tumor was surgically excised; however, the fibrous band from tumor reached into levator ani muscle and was resected incompletely. Continuous follow up is needed even though this tumor is benign.
Source: Human Pathology: Case Reports - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
We present a case of mantle cell lymphoma with the typical phenotype, which transformed to a blastic morphology with loss of expression of CD20, CD5 and BCL2, and gain of CD10 and TdT. In cases presenting with blastic morphology, the use of CD10 and TdT in addition to the usual mantle cell lymphoma markers is essential since cases of mantle cell lymphoma with B-lymphoblastic features may require innovative treatment.
Source: Human Pathology: Case Reports - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The present study provides a corpus of knowledge considered essential for patients in the self-management of their arthritis. The selection of many items reflects recent emphasis on professional recommendations and the patients’ perspective. Future work should lead to the development of new updated KQs for patients with inflammatory arthritis.
Source: Joint Bone Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Publication date: April 2019Source: Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, Volume 23, Issue 2Author(s):
Source: Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research
Online pharmacy Valisure reported that it found a new carcinogenic impurity in some lots of blood pressure medicine valsartan, but the amount is still well below levels the FDA deemed potentially harmful.
Source: - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
The objective was to provide a minimally invasive neovaginoplasty technique to construct a nearly physiological vagina to facilitate sexual functioning and appropriate vaginal length in patients with congenital vaginal agenesis. This is a retrospective study at a tertiary care hospital. 52 patients with congenital vaginal agenesis owing to Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome or androgen insensitivity syndrome presented for vaginal reconstruction. Modified McIndoe vaginoplasty was done in all patients between 2010 and 2018using a vaginal mold created with glove, nonadherent petroleum gauze, and Interceed absorbable...
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
Publication date: May 2019Source: Best Practice &Research Clinical Obstetrics &Gynaecology, Volume 57Author(s):
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
More News: Criminology | Environmental Health | Forensic Medicine | Laboratory Medicine | Psychiatrists and Psychologists | Study