Promising decision aid could help cut needless antibiotic prescriptions
Designed to identify children with respiratory tract infections/cough at low risk of serious illness Related items fromOnMedica Point-of-care diagnostics needed to curb antimicrobial resistance GPs welcome NICE advice on bronchiolitis in children Evidence launched to improve antibiotic prescribing
This study aimed to determine prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, virulence genes, and Class 1 integrons of Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) from pigs, pork and humans in Thailand-Laos border provinces.MethodsSix hundred and forty-eight rectal and carcass swab samples from border provinces of Thailand (n = 359) and Lao PDR (n = 289) were collected and examined from September 2013 to October 2014.ResultsThe overall prevalence of Enterococcus species was 483 of 648 (75%), comprising E. faecium (359 of 483, 74.3%) and E. faecalis (124 of 483, 25.7%). The occurrenc...
In 2 multicenter cohort studies of 2912 infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis during 2007–2014, the 5 most common pathogens were RSV (76.5%), rhinovirus (23.8%), coronavirus (6.9%), adenovirus (6.4%) and human metapneumovirus (6.0%). Hospitalization months significantly differed for these common pathogens (P ≤ 0.01), except for coronavirus (P = 0.30). There was a significant heterogeneity in temporal patterns by region in RSV-A and -B (both P
Humboldt County has a pertussis vaccination rate of more than 90 percent, but health officials are urging anyone who has not received the booster vaccination to get it immediately.
ConclusionProteomic analysis pointed to impairment of lipid metabolism as a major change in septic patients secondary to HAP, which was further validated by the reduced levels of cholesterol moieties and apolipoproteins in plasma. Our results stress the involvement of lipids in the pathogenesis of sepsis, which is in accordance with previous reports supporting the role of lipid moieties in pathogen toxin clearance and in modulating inflammatory responses.
AbstractCigarettes are well-recognized risk factors responsible for the emergence of a variety of pathologic conditions affecting both the airways and the lungs. Smoking-related lung diseases can be classified as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and several types of interstitial diseases, such as pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, bronchiolitis, desquamative interstitial pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, and interstitial fibrosing lung diseases. The evidence of combined lower lung fibrosis and predominant upper lung emphysema is renowned as a distinct clinical entity, named combined pulmonary fib...
ConclusionsThe successful performance of a 4-field test with viruses demonstrated that the existing wiping method with bacteria and fungi can be used in addition for measuring virucidal efficacy. The virus-inactivating properties of surface disinfectants could be evaluated therefore with a test simulating practical conditions with mechanical action resulting in more reliable data than the existing quantitative suspension tests and/or a carrier test without any mechanical action.
ConclusionsThe prevalence of providing antibiotics over-the-counter for pediatric illnesses in Addis Ababa is markedly high. Further studies into factors encouraging this malpractice are required. Enhancing education of personnel dispensing antibiotics and strict enforcement of national regulations are needed.
ConclusionsRoutine use of POCTs for viruses should be introduced into diagnostic pathways for acute respiratory illness, especially at the front door of hospitals.
AbstractMicrobial resistance to classical antibiotics and its rapid progression have raised serious concern in the treatment of infectious diseases. Recently, many studies have been directed towards finding promising solutions to overcome these problems. Phytochemicals have exerted potential antibacterial activities against sensitive and resistant pathogens via different mechanisms of action. In this review, we have summarized the main antibiotic resistance mechanisms of bacteria and also discussed how phytochemicals belonging to different chemical classes could reverse the antibiotic resistance. Next to containing direct ...