3D Printing of Organs for Transplantation: Where Are We and Where Are We Heading?

Abstract In the field of transplantation, the demand for organs continues to increase and has far outpaced the supply. This ever-growing unmet need for organs calls for innovative solutions in order to save more lives. The development of new technologies in the field of biomedical engineering might be able to provide some solutions. With the advent of 3D bioprinting, the potential development of tissues or organ grafts from autologous cells might be within the reach in the near future. Based on the technology and platform used for regular 3D printing, 3D bioprinters have the ability to create biologically functional tissues by dispensing layer after layer of bioink and biogel that if left to mature with the proper environment will produce a functional tissue copy with normal metabolic activity. In the present day, 3D-bioprinted bladders, tracheal grafts, bone, and cartilage have proven to be functional after development and implantation in animal models and humans. Promising ongoing projects in different institutions around the world are focused on the development of 3D-bioprinted organs such as the livers and kidneys with integrated vasculature, in order for the tissue to be able to thrive once it has been transplanted. This review focuses on the background, the present, and the future of 3D bioprinting and its potential role in transplantation.
Source: Current Transplantation Reports - Category: Transplant Surgery Source Type: research

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H, Steer CJ, Low WC Abstract Blastocyst complementation combined with gene editing is an emerging approach in the field of regenerative medicine that could potentially solve the worldwide problem of organ shortages for transplantation. In theory, blastocyst complementation can generate fully functional human organs or tissues, grown within genetically engineered livestock animals. Targeted deletion of a specific gene(s) using gene editing to cause deficiencies in organ development can open a niche for human stem cells to occupy, thus generating human tissues. Within this review, we will focus on the pancreas, liv...
Source: Cell Transplantation - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Transplant Source Type: research
Abstract Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after solid-organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Here, we report a 57-year-old man with hepatitis B virus-related decompensated liver cirrhosis, huge splenic artery aneurysm, and hypersplenism who underwent liver transplant from a deceased brain-dead donor. Recipient sputum surveillance showed carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae when he entered the intensive care unit, and combined tigecycline, meropenem, and fosfomycin were administered. At 1 week posttransplant, the recipient's hep...
Source: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Exp Clin Transplant Source Type: research
Chronic inflammation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is partly attributed to gut bacterial translocation (GBT) due to loss of intestinal epithelium integrity. Increased levels of circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) –a surrogate marker of GBT– contribute to maintain a chronic inflammatory state. However, circulating LPS can be neutralized by lipoproteins and transported to the liver for elimination. While ESRD-associated GBT has been widely described, less is known about its changes and impact on clinical outcome after kidney transplantation (KT). One hundred and forty-six renal transplant recipients with ser...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Although frequently challenging, surgical revisions for ureteral complications after renal transplantation give good results, with a low rate of graft loss and mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. PMID: 31400962 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Progres en Urologie - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Prog Urol Source Type: research
We examined 9293 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements of total cholesterol, free- and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and particle concentration. Fourteen subclasses of decreasing size and their lipid constituents were analysed: six subclasses were very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), one intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), three low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and four subclasses were high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Remnant lipoproteins were VLDL and IDL combined. Mean nonfasting cholesterol concentration was 72â...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Since the early days of heart transplantation, the benefits and risks of retransplantation have been debated. Indeed, it has been known since the 1970s that retransplantation can be done,1 but whether it should be done has remained a question due to the donor shortage and the fact that many analyses have shown that outcomes following retransplantation are compromised compared to initial transplantation. In the United States in 2018, 3.1% of heart transplants were retransplants, compared to 2.5% of lung transplants, 4.3% of liver transplants, and (perhaps surprisingly in light of the large number of patients awaiting kidney...
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
ard E Abstract Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of the peroxisomal enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), which leads to overproduction of oxalate by the liver and results in urolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis and renal failure. The only curative treatment for PH1 is combined liver and kidney transplantation, which is limited by the lack of suitable organs, significant complications, and the life-long requirement for immunosuppressive agents to maintain organ tolerance. Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) generated from CRISPR/Cas9 genome-edited human-ind...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: In conclusion, easily available and easy to use in clinical practice C/D and C/D/kg ratios cannot be considered as parameters directly reflecting the rate of generation of major metabolites of cyclosporine and tacrolimus both in liver and kidney transplant recipients. PMID: 31395739 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Bioscience Reports - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Biosci Rep Source Type: research
Ascites occurs in up to 70% of patients during the natural history of cirrhosis. Management of uncomplicated ascites includes sodium restriction and diuretic therapy, whereas that for refractory ascites (RA) is regular large-volume paracentesis with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt being offered in appropriate patients. Renal impairment occurs in up to 50% of patients with RA with type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) being most severe. Liver transplant remains the definitive treatment of eligible candidates with HRS, whereas combined liver and kidney transplant should be considered in patients requiring dialysis ...
Source: Clinics in Liver Disease - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: GP after SOT is associated with a high risk of PTLD, allograft loss and poor survival. The combination of SPE, SIFE, SFLC and UIFE is optimal for GP detection. These methods aid in identifying patients who are at risk for PTLD or allograft damage and should be included in regular post-Tx follow-up. PMID: 31398462 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Transplant Immunology - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: Transpl Immunol Source Type: research
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