Mechanisms of castration resistance: Intratumoral hypoxia stimulates the androgen receptor expression.

CONCLUSION: This demonstration of activation, increased expression and increased transcriptional activity of AR by hypoxia is the first to have been made with an original model of hypoxia, closer to reality than previous models, i.e. close to tissue hypoxia observed in primary prostate cancer. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. PMID: 26896427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Progres en Urologie - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Prog Urol Source Type: research

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Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer affecting men in the United States. The prostate is a hormone-dependent gland in which androgen hormones testosterone and dihydrotestosterone bind to and activate the androgen receptor, initiating nuclear translocation of androgen receptor and a subsequent signaling cascade. Due to the androgen dependency of the prostate, androgen deprivation therapies have emerged as first line treatment for aggressive prostate cancer. Such therapies are effective until the point at which prostate cancer, through a variety of mechanisms including but not limited to generation of ligand...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been linked to genitourinary health-related conditions such as decreased sperm quality, hypospadias, and prostate cancer (PCa). Conventional risk assessment of POPs focuses on individual compounds. However, in real life, individuals are exposed to many compounds simultaneously. This might lead to combinatorial effects whereby the global effect of the mixture is different from the effect of the single elements or subgroups. POP mixtures may act as endocrine disruptors via the androgen receptor (AR) and potentially contribute to PCa de...
Source: Environment International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research
Enzalutamide, approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2018 for the management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), is an androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor. It blocks androgen binding to the AR, AR nuclear translocation, and AR-mediated DNA binding. Unfortunately, a considerable proportion of tumors eventually develop resistance during the treatment. The molecular mechanisms underlying enzalutamide resistance are not completely understood. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunit of polycomb repressor complex 2, has been proposed as a prognostic marker for prostate...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Signal Transduction Source Type: research
The androgen receptor (AR) is often activated in prostate cancer patients undergoing androgen-ablative therapy because of the activation of cellular pathways that stimulate the AR despite low androgen levels. In many of these tumors, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway is activated. Previous studies have shown that PKA can synergize with low levels of androgen to enhance androgen signaling and consequent cell proliferation, leading to castration-resistant prostate cancer. However, the mechanism by which PKA causes AR stimulation in the presence of low/no androgen is not established yet. Here, using immunofluo...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Editors ' Picks Source Type: research
The androgen receptor (AR) is tightly linked to prostate cancer, but the mechanisms by which AR transactivation is dysregulated during cancer progression are not fully explored. Dagar et al. examined AR translocation to the nucleus to identify a link between heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and protein kinase A (PKA). Their findings provide a potential mechanism of the initiation of AR transactivation and potential targets for developing and refining treatments for prostate cancer.
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Editors ' Picks Highlights Source Type: research
In conclusion, RP-010 may be an efficacious and relatively nontoxic anticancer compound for prostate cancer. Future mechanistic and in vivo efficacy studies are needed to optimize the hit compound RP-010 for lead optimization and clinical use.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Conclusion MTDH is pro-oncogenic factor playing multifaceted and diverse roles in cancer progression. Its association and central role in regulating signaling pathways such a MAPK, wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/AkT, NF-κβ pathways in various cancers shows that it plays a vital role in metastasis. MTDH contribution to chemo and radiotherapy resistance provides a new direction for the development of anticancer therapeutics. Multiple mechanisms converge to promote expression of MTDH in cancers. Further studies are therefore warranted to determine whether the elevated MTDH expression has prognostic value for development...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Alla S. Koltsova1,2, Anna A. Pendina1, Olga A. Efimova1*, Olga G. Chiryaeva1, Tatyana V. Kuznetzova1 and Vladislav S. Baranov1,2 1D.O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductology, Saint Petersburg, Russia 2Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia In the present review, we focus on the phenomenon of chromothripsis, a new type of complex chromosomal rearrangements. We discuss the challenges of chromothripsis detection and its distinction from other chromoanagenesis events. Along with already known causes and mechanisms, we introdu...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
AbstractPurposePrimary breast and prostate cancers can be cured, but metastatic disease cannot. Identifying cell factors that predict metastatic potential could guide both prognosis and treatment.MethodsWe used Cell-SELEX to screen an RNA aptamer library for differential binding to prostate cancer cell lines with high vs. low metastatic potential. Mass spectroscopy, immunoblot, and immunohistochemistry were used to identify and validate aptamer targets. Aptamer properties were tested in vitro, in xenograft models, and in clinical biopsies. Gene expression datasets were queried for target associations in cancer.ResultsWe id...
Source: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study we adopted an all-in-one method. Primers designed according to the two gRNA sequences and the tracRNA-U6 vector sequences were used to produce a gRNA1-tracRNA-U6-gRNA2 fragment. Then the proper fragment was ligated into the lentiCRISPRv2 vector and verified by sequencing. Lentiviral Packaging and Stable Cell Line Screening The constructed eukaryotic expression vector and gene knockdown vector were transfected into the 293T cells with the packaging plasmids psPAX2 and pMD2.G using Lipofectamine 2000 (Thermo Fisher, Massachusetts, USA). The lentivirus was harvested 48 h after transfection, and the lentivirus ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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