From surgery to laboratory and back again
(University of York) A University of York scientist's experience in seeing his partner in hospital recovering from a double lung transplant prompted him to design and synthesise new chemical agents that could revolutionise post-operative patient care.
Gene therapy and gene editing (functional modification of genes) represent a future direction for treatment of human diseases. Viral vector-based gene delivery or gene transfer is crucial for this purpose. Thoracic and cardiovascular surgery provides great opportunities for translating experimental discoveries toward clinical applications. Awareness of the challenges and limitations of gene delivery is essential for clinician investigators in this field.
We read with great interest the article published by Oishi and colleagues,1 which reported that lentiviral-mediated interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene therapy decreased allograft lung rejection. We would like to congratulate Oishi and colleagues1 for this elegant study. In addition, we admire the work that has been done by that laboratory (led by Dr Keshavjee) regarding gene delivery in lung transplantation, and personally we2 share the overall enthusiasm of Oishi and colleagues.1 We would like to add several discussion points that we believe will increase the interest in this emerging topic.
Discussion: Both fetoscopic and US-guided IUHCT were technically feasible, but fetoscopy caused more intraoperative complications in our pilot series. The discrepancy in chimerism detection predicts the challenges in long-term surveillance of donor-cell chimerism. Further studies of long-term outcomes in the non-human primate are valuable for the development of clinical protocols for IUHCT.Fetal Diagn Ther
ConclusionsDespite a certain extent of risk associated with full-dose heparinization, use of CPB does not undermine survival outcomes after ECD LTx surgery if protective allograft reperfusion is securely performed.
A study by UCLA researchers is the first to demonstrate a technique for coaxing pluripotent stem cells — which can give rise to every cell type in the body and which can be grown indefinitely in the lab — into becoming mature T cells capable of killing tumor cells.The technique uses structures called artificial thymic organoids, which work by mimicking the environment of the thymus, the organ in which T cells develop from blood stem cells.T cells are cells of the immune system that fight infections, but also have the potential to eliminate cancer cells. The ability to create them from self-renewing pluripotent ...
Kevin Budding, Jessica van Setten, Eduard A. van de Graaf, Oliver A. van Rossum, Tineke Kardol-Hoefnagel, Johanna M. Kwakkel-van Erp, Erik-Jan D. Oudijk, C. Erik Hack, Henderikus G. Otten
Despite advances in device technology and treatment strategies infection remains a major cause of adverse events (AE) in mechanical circulatory support (MCS) patients. To characterize the epidemiology of MCS infection we examined the type, location, and timing of infection in the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Registry (ISHLT) for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (IMACS) over 3 years, 2013-2015.
Specialized T cells in induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue regulate alloimmune responses in the lung allograft.
We read with great interest the review by Yanagawa et al, entitled Surgery for tumors of the heart,1 where the authors thoroughly review cardiac tumors classification, diagnosis sequence as well as the suggested method of treatment for the different kinds of tumors. The authors address sarcoma's as one of the rare malignant tumors and suggest a two-step surgical approach to sarcoma that involve the heart and lung.
PMID: 30648883 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]