Electroencephalography at the time of Covid-19 pandemic in Italy
AbstractObjectiveDuring the Covid-19 pandemic, government restrictions limited health care to urgent needs. Neurophysiology centers had to suddenly reschedule their activities, with a lack of specific recommendations about electroencephalography (EEG) execution. During the pandemic phase 1, we launched an online survey to understand the flaws and strengths of the EEG management in Italy at the time of Covid-19 pandemic.MethodsA 45-item online survey (published from April 16 to 30, 2020), endorsed by the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology (SINC), the Italian League Against epilepsy (LICE), and the Italian Associati...
Source: Neurological Sciences - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 25, Pages 2898: Marrubium vulgare L.: A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Overview
Tijana Zeremski Marrubium vulgare is a plant with high bioactive potential. It contains marrubiin, a labdane diterpene that is characteristic for this genus, as well as a complex mixture of phenolic compounds. According to numerous studies, M. vulgare acts as a good antioxidant agent, and due to this, it could potentially be useful in treatments of cancer, diabetes mellitus, and liver diseases. In addition, its anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, and sedative potential are discussed. Apart from that, its antimicrobial activity, especially against Gram+ bacteria, fungi, herpes simplex viru...
Source: Molecules - June 24, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Milica A ćimović Katarina Jeremi ć Neboj ša Salaj Neda Gavari ć Biljana Kiprovski Vladimir Sikora Tijana Zeremski Tags: Review Source Type: research

Salmon lice survive the straight shooter: a commercial scale sea cage trial of laser delousing
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2020Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Samantha Bui, Lena Geitung, Frode Oppedal, Luke T. Barrett (Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine)
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - June 20, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

First evidence of the mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in head lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from Honduras
The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is a cosmopolitan blood-sucking ectoparasite affecting mostly schoolchildren in both developed and developing countries. In Honduras, chemical pediculicides are th... (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - June 16, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kelsey Larkin, Carol A. Rodriguez, Shabana Jamani, Georgina Fronza, Gonzalo Roca-Acevedo, Ana Sanchez and Ariel C. Toloza Tags: Research Source Type: research

Digital narrative medicine for the personalization of epilepsy care pathways.
Abstract Among neurological conditions, epilepsy is the disorder best suited to a narrative approach. In epilepsy, the disease, i.e., the condition from the clinical and therapeutic point of view, the illness, the personal experience and impact of the condition, and the sickness, the representations, and social imaginary of epilepsy, are strongly interdependent. Within this context, the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE) has launched a multiyear narrative program in Italy resulting in the foundation of a specific Study Group on Narrative Medicine in Epileptology. The Epimena Study is part of this program and i...
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - June 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Cenci C, Mecarelli O Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research

Managing plague on prairie dog colonies: insecticides as ectoparasiticides
ABSTRACTHuman health practitioners and wildlife biologists use insecticides to manage plague by suppressing fleas (Siphonaptera), but insecticides can also kill other ectoparasites. We investigated effects of deltamethrin and fipronil on ectoparasites from black ‐tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus, BTPDs). In late July, 2018, we treated three sites with 0.05% deltamethrin dust and 5 sites with host ‐fed 0.005% fipronil grain. Three non‐treated sites functioned as experimental baselines. We collected ectoparasites before treatments (June‐July, 2018) and after treatments (August‐October, 2018, June‐July, 2...
Source: Journal of Vector Ecology - June 3, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: David A. Eads, Alexis C. Yashin, Lauren E. Noble, Michele C. Vasquez, Miranda H.J. Huang, Travis M. Livieri, Phillip Dobesh, Eddie Childers, Dean E. Biggins Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A Case of Linognathus setosus (von Olfers, 1816) (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) Infestation in a Dog.
uml;, Dik B Abstract This case report was prepared to give information about Linognathus setosus (von Olfers, 1816) detected on a 2-year-old male Rottweiler breed dog which was brought to a private veterinary clinic due to restlessness and itching. Lice were found especially on the head, neck and back regions of the dog in the examination for ectoparasites. Four female, 2 male and 9 nymph lice were collected from dog. The collected lice were preserved in eppendorf tubes containing 70% ethanol (C2H5OH) and were sent to the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Selçuk University for speci...
Source: Turkish Society for Parasitology - June 2, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ceylan O, Ceylan C, Öztürk Ö, Dik B Tags: Turkiye Parazitol Derg Source Type: research

Primary Care Accessibility Effects on Health Care Utilization among Urban Children
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2020Source: Academic PediatricsAuthor(s): Abigail E Mudd, Yvonne L. Michael, Ana V. Diez-Roux, Mitchell Maltenfort, Kari Moore, Steve Melly, Félice Lê-Scherban, Christopher B. Forrest (Source: Academic Pediatrics)
Source: Academic Pediatrics - June 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Diagnosis of mange in West African Dwarf (WAD) and Red Sokoto (RS) goats
AbstractThe diagnosis of mange is problematic in the absence of mites in skin scrapings because many skin diseases present similar gross features as mange. The study evaluated the stepwise procedure for herd diagnosis of mange in the West African Dwarf (WAD) and Red Sokoto (RS) goats with greater specificity and sensitivity. Twenty-seven WAD goats (n = 27) and forty RS goats (n = 40) goats with mange-like skin lesions (alopecia, scabs, crusts, and scratch injuries) out of a total herd population of 114 WAD goats and 317 RS goats respectively in Nsukka, Eastern Nigeria, were examined by directed ...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - May 24, 2020 Category: Pathology Source Type: research

Negative impacts of the sea lice prophylactic emamectin benzoate on the survival of hatchery released salmon smolts in rivers
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2020Source: Aquatic ToxicologyAuthor(s): Robert J. Lennox, Anne Gro Vea Salvanes, Bjørn T. Barlaup, Elisabeth Stöger, Abdullah Madhun, Turid M. Helle, Knut Wiik Vollset (Source: Aquatic Toxicology)
Source: Aquatic Toxicology - May 23, 2020 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Negative impacts of the sea lice prophylactic emamectin benzoate on the survival of hatchery released salmon smolts in rivers.
KW Abstract Emamectin benzoate (EB) is a prophylactic pharmaceutical used to protect Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts migrating out of rivers and into the ocean against sea lice parasites. Randomized control trials comparing the marine survival of smolts treated with EB to a control group is used to calculate the fraction of marine mortality attributable to sea lice parasitism. However, it is assumed that there is no baseline difference in survival induced by the application of EB treatment. We used a combined laboratory and field study approach to investigate the potential impacts of EB treatment on behaviou...
Source: Aquatic Toxicology - May 23, 2020 Category: Toxicology Authors: Lennox RJ, Salvanes AGV, Barlaup BT, Stöger E, Madhun A, Helle TM, Vollset KW Tags: Aquat Toxicol Source Type: research

Global Trends in Genetic Markers of Pediculus humanus capitis Resistance Mechanisms
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHead lice infestations remain an important public health problem, albeit poorly defined in most endemic countries. Reports of increasing resistance to first-line treatment have renewed scientific research into this neglected ectoparasitosis. Mapping and understanding resistance mechanisms are essential for the development of more effective treatments, as well as for prolonging the life of existing pediculicides. This review aims to synthetize recent data on the type, frequency, and distribution of genetic mutations associated with head lice resistance to chemical treatments.Recent FindingsHead lice...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - May 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research

Estimating sea lice infestation pressure on salmon farms: Comparing different methods using multivariate state-space models
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2020Source: EpidemicsAuthor(s): Adel Elghafghuf, Raphael Vanderstichel, Larry Hammell, Henrik Stryhn (Source: Epidemics)
Source: Epidemics - May 11, 2020 Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Physical illnesses associated with childhood homelessness: a literature review
ConclusionThis literature review summarized the physical illnesses prevalent among homeless children and the contributing factors leading to them. Gaps in the literature were also identified and included a dearth of studies focusing on younger children compared with adolescents.Further research into prevention and intervention programs for this vulnerable population is urgently needed. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - May 8, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Benzyl alcohol accelerates recovery from Achilles tendon injury, potentially via TGF- β1/Smad2/3 pathway
Benzyl alcohol (BnOH), an aromatic alcohol produced by plants, is frequently used as a bacteriostatic preservative at 5% concentration in the treatment of head lice [1]. It is also used as an alternative local anesthetic [2] and attenuates acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury [3]. Research on the use of BnOH in wound healing is scarce, although its derivatives are widely used in wound healing. Benzoyl alcohol together with glycyl-1-histidyl-1-lysine copper complex was shown to increase wound healing and skin re-epithelialization, although benzoyl alcohol was known to inhibit the function of wound fibroblasts. (Source: Injury)
Source: Injury - May 5, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tian You, Shufang Yuan, Lu Bai, Xintao Zhang, Peng Chen, Wentao Zhang Source Type: research

Essential Oils as a Potential Treatment Option for Pediculosis
In this study, we focus on the essential oils derived from 22 plant genera, their constituents, and the major factors that play important roles in the effectiveness of these oils in the treatment of pediculosis. Furthermore, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the mentioned essential oils, and ultimately suggest those demonstrating the most effective in vitro pediculicidal activities. The genera such as Aloysia, Cinnamomum, Eucalyptus, Eugenia, Lavandula, Melaleuca, Mentha, Myrcianthes, Origanum, Pimpinella, and Thymus appear to be more efficient against lice. These genera are rich in anethole, 1,8-cineole, c...
Source: Planta Medica - May 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Candy, Kerdalidec Akhoundi, Mohammad Andriantsoanirina, Val érie Durand, R émy Bruel, Christiane Izri, Arezki Tags: Reviews Source Type: research

Molecular Evidence of Bacteria in Clothes Lice Collected from Homeless People Living in Shelters in Marseille
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Ahead of Print. (Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases)
Source: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases - May 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tran Duc Anh Ly Nadia Amanzougaghene Van Thuan Hoang Thi Loi Dao Meriem Louni Oleg Mediannikov Philippe Gautret Source Type: research

The impact of anti-sea lice pesticides, azamethiphos and deltamethrin, on European lobster (Homarus gammarus) larvae in the Norwegian marine environment.
t AL Abstract Anti-sea lice pesticides, used in the salmonid aquaculture industry, are a growing environmental concern due to their potential to adversely affect non-target crustaceans. Azamethiphos and deltamethrin are two bath treatment pesticides used on salmon farms in Norway, however, limited information is available on their impact on European lobster (Homarus gammarus) larvae in the Norwegian marine environment. Here, we firstly report the lethal (LC50) and effective (EC50) concentrations of azamethiphos and deltamethrin for stage I and stage II larvae, following 1-h exposures. Using a hydrodynamic model, w...
Source: Environmental Pollution - May 3, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Parsons AE, Escobar-Lux RH, Sævik PN, Samuelsen OB, Agnalt AL Tags: Environ Pollut Source Type: research

Rotenone: from modelling to implication in Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Radad K, Al-Shraim M, Al-Emam A, Wang F, Kranner B, Rausch WD, Moldzio R Abstract Rotenone ([2R-(2α,6aα,12aα)]-1,2,12,12a-tetrahydro-8,9-dimethoxy-2-(1-methylethenyl)-[1]benzopyran[3,4-b]furo [2,3-h][1]benzopyran-6(6aH)-one) is a naturally occurring compound derived from the roots and stems of Derris, Tephrosia, Lonchocarpus and Mundulea plant species. Since its discovery at the end of the 19th century, rotenone has been widely used as a pesticide for controlling insects, ticks and lice, and as a piscicide for management of nuisance fish in lakes and reservoirs. In 2000, Betarbet et al. r...
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - April 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Coxiella-Like Endosymbiont of Rhipicephalus sanguineus Is Required for Physiological Processes During Ontogeny
Obligatory hematophagous arthropods such as lice, bugs, flies, and ticks harbor bacterial endosymbionts that are expected to complement missing essential nutrients in their diet. Genomic and some experimental evidence support this expectation. Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are associated with several lineages of bacterial symbionts, and very few were experimentally shown to be essential to some aspects of tick’s fitness. In order to pinpoint the nature of interactions between hard ticks and their symbionts, we tested the effect of massive elimination of Coxiella-like endosymbionts (CLE) by antibiotics on the developme...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 22, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Molecular investigation and genetic diversity of Pediculus and Pthirus lice in France
Humans are parasitized by three types of lice: body, head and pubic lice. As their common names imply, each type colonizes a specific region of the body. The body louse is the only recognized disease vector. H... (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - April 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nadia Amanzougaghene, Oleg Mediannikov, Tran Duc Anh Ly, Philippe Gautret, Bernard Davoust, Florence Fenollar and Arezki Izri Tags: Research Source Type: research

Interleukin-1 Ligands and Receptors in Lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.): Molecular Characterization, Phylogeny, Gene Expression, and Transcriptome Analyses
The interleukin (IL)-1 family play a fundamental role as immune system modulators. Our previous transcriptome-analyses of leukocytes from lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) showed that IL-1β was among the most highly upregulated genes following bacterial exposure. In the present study, we characterized IL-1 signaling pathways, identified and characterized four ligands of the IL-1 family in lumpfish; IL-1β type I and type II, IL-18, and the novel IL-1 family members (nIL-1F), both at mRNA and gene levels. The two IL-1β in lumpfish is termed IL-1β1 (type II) and IL-1β2 (type I). Furthermore, a comprehe...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - April 2, 2020 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Emergence of a New [NNN] Pincer Ligand via Si-H-Bond Activation and b-Hydride Abstraction at Tetravalent Cerium.
r R Abstract The  cerium(IV) pyrazolate complexes [Ce(Me 2 pz) 4 ] 2  and [Ce(Me 2 pz) 4 (thf)] initiate  b -hydride abstraction of the bis(dimethylsilyl)amido moiety, to afford heteroleptic cerium(IV) species containing a dimethylpyrazolyl-substituted silylamido ligand, namely [Ce(Me 2 pz) 3 (bpsa)] (bpsa = bis((3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)dimethylsilyl)amido)), along with other cerium(III) species. Remarkably, the nucleophilic attack of the pyrazolyl at the silicon atom and concomitant Si-H-bond cleavage is restricted to the tetravalent cerium oxidation state and appears to proceed via the formation ...
Source: Chemistry - April 2, 2020 Category: Chemistry Authors: Werner D, Bayer U, Schädle D, Anwander R Tags: Chemistry Source Type: research

ProteinVR: Web-based molecular visualization in virtual reality
by Kevin C. Cassidy, Jan Šefčík, Yogindra Raghav, Alexander Chang, Jacob D. Durrant Protein structure determines biological function. Accurately conceptualizing 3D protein/ligand structures is thus vital to scientific research and education. Virtual reality (VR) enables protein visualization in stereoscopic 3D, but many VR molecular-visualization programs are expensive and challe nging to use; work only on specific VR headsets; rely on complicated model-preparation software; and/or require the user to install separate programs or plugins. Here we introduce ProteinVR, a web-based application that works on va...
Source: PLoS Computational Biology - March 31, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Kevin C. Cassidy Source Type: research

Recruiting (Dis)Advantage: Men ’s Versus Women’s Evaluations of Gender-Based Targeted Recruitment
AbstractOrganizations use targeted recruitment to attract applicants with specific demographic characteristics to diversify the workforce. Research reports mixed findings regarding the extent to which beneficiaries (i.e., those specifically targeted) are attracted to organizations. We explore this inconsistency by investigating how U.S. college men and women (in Studies 1a,n = 239, and 1b,n = 223) and working adults (in Study 2,n = 128) respond to recruitment materials targeted toward members of the traditionally underrepresented gender—a police department that recruits women...
Source: Sex Roles - March 27, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

Forest edges affect ectoparasite infestation patterns of small mammalian hosts in fragmented forests in Madagascar.
This study aims to investigate if and how habitat fragmentation affects the composition of ectoparasite communities on small mammalian hosts in two networks of dry deciduous forest fragments in northwestern Madagascar. Forest sites differing in size, proportion of edge habitat and host density were studied in the Ankarafantsika National Park and in the Mariarano region. A total of 924 individuals of two mouse lemur species, Microcebus murinus (n=200) and Microcebus ravelobensis (n=426), and two rodent species, endemic Eliurus myoxinus (n=114) and introduced Rattus rattus (n=184), were captured to assess ectoparasite infest...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - March 26, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kiene F, Andriatsitohaina B, Ramsay MS, Rakotondramanana H, Rakotondravony R, Radespiel U, Strube C Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

The chronic toxicity of emamectin benzoate to three marine benthic species using microcosms.
Abstract The commercial farming of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, may require the periodic application of emamectin benzoate (EB) treatments to reduce the effects of biological pests, such as sea lice. As a result, EB is detected in sediments beneath these fish farms at considerable levels. Literature sediment toxicity data for EB for marine benthic species is only available for 10-day sediment toxicity tests, which might be too short to assess field effects. Here, we present a sediment toxicity test to determine 28-day mortality and growth effect concentrations for the non-target polychaete worm Arenicola marina, ...
Source: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety - March 12, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Cheng B, Van Smeden J, Deneer J, Belgers D, Foekema E, Roessink I, Matser A, Van den Brink PJ Tags: Ecotoxicol Environ Saf Source Type: research

Infestations, Bites, and Insect Repellents.
Abstract Infestations and arthropod bite reactions in children are common reasons for presentation to pediatric health care providers. Infestations in children include head lice, scabies, and other mites. Fleas and bed bugs are common causes of bite reactions in children, and papular urticaria is a chronic, recurrent eruption resulting from delayed hypersensitivity to a variety of insect bites. Both infestations and bite reactions may result in severe pruritus with associated sleep disturbance and can be a source of significant distress for patients and families. In this review, we discuss infestations and bite re...
Source: Pediatric Annals - March 1, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kamath S, Kenner-Bell B Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Use of afoxolaner for the treatment of lice (Goniodes pavonis) in different genera (Chrysolophus spp, Lophura spp, Phasianus spp, and Syrmaticus spp) and species of pheasants and West Mexican Chachalacas (Ortalis poliocephala)
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2020Source: Veterinary ParasitologyAuthor(s): Enrique Yarto Jaramillo, Camilo Romero Núñez, María de los Á. Álvarez Zavala, Eduardo Cruz López, Josué Rangel Díaz, Laura Miranda Contreras, Evelyn Galicia Franco, Rafael Heredia Cárdenas (Source: Veterinary Parasitology)
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - February 27, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Tick-borne pathogens in dogs, wild small mammals and their ectoparasites in the semi-arid Caatinga biome, northeastern Brazil
We report a variety of ectoparasites infesting small mammals and domestic dogs in the Caatinga biome, where these ectoparasites probably act as vectors of rickettsiae, ehrlichial agents (E. canis and Ehrlichia sp. strain Natal) and C. burnetii. Our results highlight to the potential risks of human infection by these tick-borne agents in the Caatinga biome. (Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases)
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - February 23, 2020 Category: Zoology Source Type: research

Vaccuuming method as a successful strategy in the diagnosis of active infestation by Pediculus humanus capitis.
Abstract Most human epidemiological and clinical studies use visual inspection of the hair and scalp to diagnose Pediculus humanus capitis , however this method has low sensitivity to diagnose active infestations (presence of nymphs and adult lice). Vacuuming the hair and scalp has been used as a diagnostic method, but there are no previous data comparing its effectiveness with visual inspection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overall infestation (nits and trophic stages), of active infestation by Pediculus humanus capitis , and to evaluate the effectiveness of vacuuming in comparison wit...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - February 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Lustosa BPR, Haidamak J, Oishi CY, Souza AB, Lima BJFS, Reifur L, Shimada MK, Vicente VA, Aleixandre MAV, Klisiowicz DDR Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research

John Donne, Spanish Doctors and the epidemic typhus: fleas or lice?
We describe the infections that appeared in the life and work of John Donne (1572-1631), the English metaphysical poet, mainly the exanthematic typhus that suffered and gave arise to his work Devotions upon emergent occasions, and several steps in my sickness. We discuss the vector of transmission of this disease, in comparison of other infections in that period, that Donne´s scholars have related to the flea without mentioning the body louse, the true vector of the exanthematic typhus. Likewise, we mention the exanthematic typhus´s symptoms in his Devotions in comparison with the Luis de Toro´s or Alfons...
Source: Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia - February 7, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Vázquez-Espinosa E, Laganà C, Vazquez F Tags: Rev Esp Quimioter Source Type: research

Optimizing Low-Cost Genotyping and Imputation Strategies for Genomic Selection in Atlantic Salmon
Genomic selection enables cumulative genetic gains in key production traits such as disease resistance, playing an important role in the economic and environmental sustainability of aquaculture production. However, it requires genome-wide genetic marker data on large populations, which can be prohibitively expensive. Genotype imputation is a cost-effective method for obtaining high-density genotypes, but its value in aquaculture breeding programs which are characterized by large full-sibling families has yet to be fully assessed. The aim of this study was to optimize the use of low-density genotypes and evaluate genotype i...
Source: G3: Genes Genomes Genetics - February 6, 2020 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tsairidou, S., Hamilton, A., Robledo, D., Bron, J. E., Houston, R. D. Tags: Genomic Prediction Source Type: research

Effect of cleaner fish on sea lice in Norwegian salmon aquaculture: a national scale data analysis.
Abstract The salmon aquaculture industry has adopted the use of invertivorous 'cleaner fishes' (CF) for biological control of sea louse infestations on farmed salmon. At present, ∼50 million CF are used annually in Norway alone, with variable success in experimental and industrial contexts. We used a national scale database of louse counts, delousing treatments and CF stocking events on Norwegian salmon farms to test for evidence of CF efficacy at 488 sites that completed a grow-out cycle within 2016-2018. Our analysis revealed that sites using more CF over the duration of a grow-out cycle did not have fewer l...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 6, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Barrett LT, Overton K, Stien LH, Oppedal F, Dempster T Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research

Ectoparasites of Cattle
Diverse groups of ectoparasitic arthropods cause significant morbidity and mortality in most of the approximately 1.49 billion head of cattle worldwide. Hematophagous ectoparasites (ie, blood-feeding flies, myiasis-causing flies, lice, mites, ticks) are the most important in cattle. Intense use of ectoparasiticides to treat infestations can result in ectoparasite populations becoming resistant to this treatment method. Approaches integrating the use of different technologies are required to manage cattle ectoparasites effectively while addressing societal expectations regarding food safety and environmental health. Assessi...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice - February 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Adalberto A. P érez de León, Robert D. Mitchell, David W. Watson Source Type: research

Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea) infestation in neonatal dairy calves managed with deltamethrin pour-on in Australia
We report successful improvement of welfare and reduction of flea counts post application of pour-on deltamethrin on the property. In the absence of registered flea product for cattle in Australia, deltamethrin pour-on product is a suitable option, because of its registration for control of lice and flies on cattle. (Source: Veterinary Parasitology)
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - February 1, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Is Allopreening a Stimulus-Driven Defense Against Ectoparasites?
Abstract Allopreening occurs when 1 bird preens another bird. The behavior is normally directed at the head and neck of the recipient, i.e., regions that the bird cannot self-preen. Studies of penguins, pigeons, and other groups of birds suggest that allopreening plays a role in the control of ectoparasites, such as ticks and feather lice. However, it is not known whether allopreening increases in response to increases in parasite load, or whether it is a programmed response that occurs independently of parasite load. We conducted a laboratory experiment using wild-caught rock pigeons (Columba livia) to test the r...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - February 1, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Goodman GB, Conner SA, Bush SE, Clayton DH Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Detection of Permethrin Resistance and Phylogenetic Clustering of Turkish Head Lice (Pediculus humanus capitis; De Geer 1767 Populations.
Abstract Head lice infestation caused by Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, 1767 is one of the most common public health problems. The relationship between humans and head lice dates back millions of years ago that differentiated into different phylogenetic clades. Treatment of head lice infestation usually based on insecticide-based products, which promotes the resistance in the head lice populations. In the present study, we aimed to screen the presence of permethrin resistance among collected P. h. capitis specimens in Turkey. Three mutation sites (T917I, L920F, and M815I) were screened using real-time PCR and ...
Source: Acta Tropica - January 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Karakuş M, Atıcı T, Karabela ŞN, Baylan O, Limoncu ME, Balcıoğlu İC Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Entomopathogenic fungi (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) infecting bark lice (Psocoptera) in Dominican and Baltic amber
. (Source: Mycology)
Source: Mycology - January 26, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: George Poinar Fernando E. Vega Source Type: research

Perceptions of Violent Encounters between Police and Young Black Men across Stakeholder Groups
AbstractViolence between police and young black men is a longstanding issue that has gained national attention in recent years due to high-profile violent encounters. We conducted 48 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders from different groups (young black men aged 14 –24 years, parents, educators, police officers, and staff in youth serving organizations). Stakeholders were asked to (1) identify causes of violent encounters between police and young black men; (2) describe police officers who serve in their communities; and (3) describe interactions between po lice and young black men. Data were collec...
Source: Journal of Urban Health - January 23, 2020 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Microbiome Differences Between Human Head and Body Lice Ecotypes Revealed by 16S RRNA Gene Amplicon Sequencing.
Abstract Human head lice and body lice (Pediculus humanus) are neglected ectoparasites. Head lice continue to be prevalent in children worldwide, and insecticide resistance in these insects has complicated their treatment. Meanwhile, body lice, which are most common in the developing world, are resurging among marginalized populations in developed nations. Today, the microbiome is being increasingly recognized as a key mediator of insect physiology. However, the microbial communities that inhabit human lice have remained unknown beyond only a few species of bacteria. Knowledge of the microbiomes of head and body l...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - January 22, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Agany DDM, Potts R, Hernandez JLG, Gnimpieba EZ, Pietri JE Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Where Are We With Human Lice? A Review of the Current State of Knowledge
Pediculus humanus is an obligate bloodsucking ectoparasite of human that includes two ecotypes, head louse and body louse, which differ slightly in morphology and biology, but have distinct ecologies. Phylogenetically, they are classified on six mitochondrial clades (A, B, C, D, E, and F), head louse encompasses the full genetic diversity of clades, while body louse belongs to clades A and D. Recent studies suggested that not only body louse, but also head louse can transmit disease, which warrants greater attention as a serious public health problem. The recent sequencing of body louse genome confirmed that P. humanus has...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Prevalence and genetic profiles of isoniazid resistance in tuberculosis patients: A multicountry analysis of cross-sectional data
ConclusionsIn this study, the prevalence of Hr-TB among TB patients was higher than the prevalence of rifampicin resistance globally. Many patients with Hr-TB would be missed by current diagnostic algorithms driven by rifampicin testing, highlighting the need for new rapid molecular technologies to ensure access to appropriate treatment and care. The low prevalence of resistance to pyrazinamide and fluoroquinolones among patients with Hr-TB provides further justification for the recommended modified treatment regimen. (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - January 21, 2020 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Anna S. Dean Source Type: research

A molecular prevalence survey on Anaplasma infection among domestic ruminants in Khartoum State, Sudan
This study was conducted in Khartoum State, Sudan to determine the prevalence and the risk factors associated withAnaplasma andEhrlichia species infections in domestic ruminants. Blood samples were collected from a total of 594 animals from 32 different farms distributed in the three provinces of Khartoum State. Among the 196 cattle, 200 sheep, and 198 goats examined using PCR, 13.27%, 32.50%, and 35.86% were infected withAnaplasma spp., respectively, with an overall prevalence of 27.27%. Cattle were infected withA. marginale (10.71%),A. centrale (2.04%), andA. ovis (0.51%), while sheep and goats were infected withA. ovis ...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - January 14, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Molecular detection of Rickettsia spp., Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis in ectoparasites of endemic and domestic animals in southwest Madagascar.
This study presents the detection of a broad spectrum of vector-borne bacteria including potential pathogens, and an unexpected finding of Y. pestis far off the known plague foci in Madagascar. PMID: 31935354 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)
Source: Acta Tropica - January 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Julian E, Andreas K, Solofomalala Jacques R, Rakotomalala Yedidya R, Jörg Ulrich G, Dennis T Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Body lice and bed bug co-infestation in an emergency department patient, Ohio, USA
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2020Source: IDCasesAuthor(s): Jose E. Pietri, Justin A. Yax, Diing D.M. Agany, Etienne Z. Gnimpieba, Johnathan M. SheeleAbstractBody lice and bed bugs are hematophagous insects that parasitize humans. Body lice are established vectors of several bacterial pathogens (e.g. Bartonella quintana, Borrelia recurrentis). Bed bugs are biologically competent vectors of some of the same agents, but their vectorial capacity for these in nature is unclear. In particular, a lack of exposure to louse-borne pathogens in bed bugs in the field could be a factor that limits their contribution to ...
Source: IDCases - January 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Stigma resulting from head lice infestation: A concept analysis and implications for public health
ConclusionThe concept of stigma in the context of head lice management is multifaceted. Further research is required to understand the magnitude of stigma as well as other factors associated with optimal treatment of children with head lice. (Source: Nursing Forum)
Source: Nursing Forum - January 9, 2020 Category: Nursing Authors: Sheila K. Hurst, Jo Ann Walsh Dotson, Patricia Butterfield, Cynthia F. Corbett, Gail Oneal Tags: CONCEPT ANALYSIS Source Type: research

Immunologic detection of Lyme disease and the related borrelioses
Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Methods in MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Charles S. PaviaAbstractLyme disease and the relapsing fever borrelioses are caused by spirochetal bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia. They have a partially restricted worldwide distribution depending upon their species. They are transmitted to people following exposure to the following arthropod vectors: ticks (for Lyme disease and endemic relapsing fever) and lice (for epidemic relapsing fever). Soon after a cutaneous infection becomes established, these spirochetes disseminate via the haematogenous route and are capable of...
Source: Methods in Microbiology - January 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Entomopathogenic fungi (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) infecting bark lice (Psocoptera) in Dominican and Baltic amber
. (Source: Mycology)
Source: Mycology - December 23, 2019 Category: Biology Authors: George Poinar Fernando E. Vega Source Type: research