Genetic Analysis of Small-Subunit Ribosomal RNA, Internal Transcribed Spacer 2, and ATP Synthase Subunit 8 of Trichuris trichiura Ancient DNA Retrieved from the 15th to 18th Century Joseon Dynasty Mummies' Coprolites from Korea.
This report characterizes T. trichiura aDNA of pre-20th century East Asia, and in so doing, it also proves the potential of aDNA analysis for differential diagnosis of T. trichiura in cases where ancient parasite eggs are morphologically indeterminate for species identification. PMID: 31310584 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Journal of Parasitology)
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - July 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hong JH, Seo M, Oh CS, Shin DH Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Infection by and Molecular Features of Learedius learedi (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) on the Ogasawara Islands, Japan.
In this study we surveyed 46 green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, on the Ogasawara Islands, Japan, and blood flukes were detected in the heart and blood vessels of 26 turtles. The flukes were identified as L. learedi based on a detailed morphological description. In addition, molecular identification and characterization of the parasite were performed. The nucleotide sequences of nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) regions were almost identical to those of L. learedi reported previously, but not to those of Hapalotrema spp., which is the closest related genus. The nucleotide sequences of the 28S ribosomal DNA region...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - July 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kitayama C, Hayashi K, Ohari Y, Kondo S, Kuroki T, Shibahara T, Itagaki T Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

A New Species of Ascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) Parasitizing Clinocottus analis (Pisces: Cottidae) from Baja California, Mexico.
ino A Abstract A new species of nematode, Ascarophis morronei n. sp. (Cystidicolidae), is described from the stomach wall of the woolly sculpin Clinocottus analis (Cottidae) collected in the rocky intertidal from northwestern Baja California, Mexico. Collected nematodes were studied using both light and scanning electron microscopy. Sequence fragments for 18S rDNA molecular markers were obtained from the new nematode species, in order to test its position within the family Cystidicolidae under a phylogenetic context. Main characters distinguishing this new species include the reduced labia and the morphology of th...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - July 13, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Aguilar-Aguilar R, Ruiz-Campos G, Martorelli S, Montes MM, Martínez-Aquino A Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Neotropical Turtle Blood Flukes: Two New Genera and Species from the Amazon River Basin with a Key to Genera and Comments on a Marine-Derived Parasite Lineage in South America.
Abstract Two new genera and species of freshwater turtle blood flukes (TBFs) are described herein based on specimens infecting the nephritic and mesenteric blood vessels of "matamatas" (a side-necked turtle, Chelus fimbriata [Schneider, 1783] [Pleurodira: Chelidae]) from the Amazon River Basin, Peru. These taxa comprise the first-named species and the first-proposed genera of freshwater TBFs from the continent of South America. A new comparison of all TBF genera produced 6 morphologically diagnosed groups that are discussed in light of previous TBF classification schemes and a novel phylogenetic hypothes...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - July 10, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bullard SA, Roberts JR, Warren MB, Dutton HR, Whelan NV, Ruiz CF, Platt TR, Tkach VV, Brant SV, Halanych KM Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

First Evidence of Teladorsagia circumcincta Infection in Sheep from Egypt.
Abstract Trichostrongylid nematodes are a common cause of gastroenteritis in sheep. Despite its worldwide distribution, Teladorsagia circumcincta has not been included in reports listing the various trichostrongyles infecting sheep from Egypt. Herein, we describe the presence of 2 T. circumcincta haplotypes infecting small ruminants from Egypt. For this study, fresh fecal samples were collected from 340 sheep and 115 goats reared at 5 districts in Dakahlia governorate and its surroundings, Egypt. Trichostrongyle eggs were harvested from the samples, and then subjected to DNA isolation and analysis. Polymerase chai...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - July 5, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Elseadawy R, Abbas I, Al-Araby M, Hildreth MB, Abu-Elwafa S Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Clinical Occurrence of Canine Babesiosis in the Coastal Area of the Black Sea (Dobrogea) in Southeastern Romania and Associated Epidemiological Implications.
Abstract Canine babesiosis (CB) is a significant tick-borne disease caused by intra-erytrocytic protozoa of the genus Babesia (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) and is currently emerging or re-emerging in many European countries. Despite the increasing incidence of clinical CB, little is known of the epidemiology of this disease in Romania. Therefore, the present study was conducted to provide epidemiological data on CB in the coastal area of the Black Sea (Dobrogea), southeastern Romania. For this, 306 owned dogs presented during 2016-2018 at a veterinary clinic in the area and clinically suspected for CB were tested fo...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - July 5, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Leica L, Mitrea IL, Ionita M Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Molecular Survey for Pathogens and Markers of Permethrin Resistance in Human Head Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from Madagascar.
Abstract Human infestation with head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, is the most prevalent ectoparasitic condition in the modern world. The purpose of this study was to test human head lice from Madagascar for infection with 2 louse-borne bacteria, Bartonella quintana and Acinetobacter spp. including Acinetobacter baumannii, to assess the potential risk of exposure to these pathogens in rural populations experiencing head-louse pediculosis. A second aim was to determine the occurrence of a biomarker for permethrin resistance in head lice from 6 isolated human communities in Madagascar. Deoxyribonucleic ac...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - June 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Eremeeva ME, Warang SS, Anderson ML, Capps D, Zohdy S, Durden LA Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

A New Species of Sucking Louse from the Long-tailed Ground Squirrel, Urocitellus undulatus, from Mongolia, with a Key to Species, and a Review of Host Associations and Geographical Distributions of Members of the Genus Linognathoides (Psocodea: Anoplura: Polyplacidae).
Abstract Members of the genus Linognathoides are ectoparasites of ground squirrels and marmots (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in the Nearctic, Palearctic, and Afrotropical regions. Linognathoides urocitelli n. sp. is described based on adult male and female and third-instar nymphal specimens collected from the long-tailed ground squirrel (Urocitellus undulatus) in Mongolia. The new species is compared morphologically to other members of the genus Linognathoides. Additionally, DNA sequences of a 610-base pair (bp) fragment of the nuclear 18S rDNA gene, a 452-bp fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rrnS gene, and a 363-bp fragm...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - June 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Durden LA, Robinson C, Cook JA, McLean BS, Nyamsuren B, Greiman SE Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Evaluation of a Flotation Adapted Parasep ® for Stool Ova and Parasite Examination.
In this study, the Parasep® device was adapted to the Faust technique flotation method. In addition, the performance between conventional techniques (MIF concentration and Faust) and techniques using this device was evaluated on 25 formalin-preserved stools and 3 fresh stools. With the Parasep device, the main parasites (protozoa or helminths) were isolated, and the technical requirements such as hygiene control for the operator and realization according to good laboratory practice were improved due to the filtration device. PMID: 31251704 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Journal of Parasitology)
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - June 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lefaure B, Kebbabi C, Monnin N, Machouart M, Debourgogne A Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Bird Tissues from Museum Collections Are Reliable for Assessing Avian Haemosporidian Diversity.
NH, Weckstein JD Abstract Birds harbor a diverse group of haemosporidian parasites that reproduce and develop in the host blood cells, muscle tissue, and various organs, which can cause negative effects on the survival and reproduction of their avian hosts. Characterization of the diversity, distribution, host specificity, prevalence patterns, and phylogenetic relationships of these parasites is critical to the study of avian host-parasite ecology and evolution and for understanding and preventing epidemics in wild bird populations. Here, we tested whether muscle and liver samples collected as part of standard or...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - June 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Fecchio A, Collins MD, Bell JA, García-Trejo EA, Sánchez-González LA, Dispoto JH, Rice NH, Weckstein JD Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Gregarine Oocyst Production is a Function of Gametocyst Size.
This study addresses the effects of gametocyst size on oocyst production. For each of 3 gregarine species, gametocyst size was determined, and the subsequent oocyst production of each gametocyst was quantified. Gregarine species with larger gametocysts produced more oocysts per gametocyst than species with smaller gametocysts. Likewise, within species, larger gametocysts produced more oocysts. The effect was stronger in larger gregarine species, probably as a reflection of the lower overall range of gametocyst size in the smaller gregarine species. PMID: 31237483 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Journal of Parasitology)
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - June 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Borengasser K, Clopton RE Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Occurrence of Liver Hydatid Cysts in a Donkey and Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus equinus.
Abstract Larval tapeworms of Echinococcus granulosus have been viewed as the etiological agent for the zoonotic disease cystic echinococcosis, but the species is a complex readily divided into several species and genotypes. Cystic echinococcosis is an important public health issue. Here, the case of liver hydatid cyst in a donkey and molecular characterization of the cyst is presented. The fluid-filled hydatid cyst materials were obtained from the liver of a necropsied donkey. Genomic DNA was extracted and PCR amplification of mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene as well as partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c ...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - June 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kesik HK, Kilinc SG, Simsek S, Gul A Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Recognizing the Causes of Parasite Morphological Variation to Resolve the Status of a Cryptogenic Pentastome.
Abstract Exotic species can threaten biodiversity by introducing parasites to native hosts. Thus, it is critical to identify if the same parasite species infects both native and exotic hosts. However, developmental- or environmental-induced morphological variation may render species identification ambiguous. Our study reports a range expansion in the southern United States of the pentastome Raillietiella indica from the Mediterranean gecko, Hemidactylus turcicus, as well as a host expansion into the green anole, Anolis carolinensis, in the anole's native range. Species identification was based on sequence data and...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - June 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sakla AJ, Detwiler JT, Caballero IC, Kelehear C, Criscione CD Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Hirudin and Decorsins of the North American Medicinal Leech Macrobdella decora: Gene Structure Reveals Homology to Hirudins and Hirudin-like Factors of Eurasian Medicinal Leeches.
JP Abstract Blood-sucking leeches, some of which are referred to as medicinal leeches, have caught attention not only because of their medical purposes, but also as study organisms to conduct research within fields as diverse as neurobiology, osmoregulation, ecology, and phylogeny. Of particular interest is the question whether hemophagy in leeches is of single origin or evolved independently several times. A key component in the saliva of hematophagous leeches is hirudin, a strong natural inhibitor of thrombin and hence the blood coagulation cascade. Multiple isoforms of hirudin have been described within and am...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - June 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Müller C, Lukas P, Lemke S, Hildebrandt JP Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Within-Lineage Divergence of Avian Haemosporidians: A Case Study to Reveal the Origin of a Widespread Haemoproteus Parasite.
sch S Abstract Avian haemosporidian parasites are particularly diverse and widespread. To date, more than 3,000 distinct cytochrome b lineages have been recorded, of which some present extremely wide geographical distributions, even including multiple continents. Whether these isolates represent one or several cryptic species remains unknown. Here we carried out a case study of SISKIN1, a common haemosporidian parasite lineage belonging to the morphologically described species Haemoproteus tartakovskyi. To shed light on its evolutionary origin, we investigated the divergence between SISKIN1 isolates obtained from ...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - June 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Huang X, Rapševičius P, Chapa-Vargas L, Hellgren O, Bensch S Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Zygocaulus nagoensis n. gen. and n. sp. (Trichostrongyloidea: Dictyocaulidae), a Peculiar Bursate Nematode Collected from an Alien Frog, Polypedates leucomystax, in Nago, Okinawa Island, Japan.
Abstract A peculiar bursate nematode, Zygocaulus nagoensis n. gen. and n. sp. (Trichostrongyloidea: Dictyocaulidae: Mertensinematinae), was described from an alien frog, Polypedates leucomystax (Anura: Rhacophoridae), collected on Okinawa Island, Japan. It is related to Mertensinema and Borrellostrongylus, the only hitherto known genera of Mertensinematinae, but is readily distinguished from them by having only 2 pairs of lateral rays and simple distal ends of the dorsal ray branches. PMID: 31116078 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Journal of Parasitology)
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - May 24, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hasegawa H Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Erratum … Author Address Correction.
Erratum … Author Address Correction. J Parasitol. 2019 Jun;105(3):408 Authors: PMID: 31112064 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Journal of Parasitology)
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - May 23, 2019 Category: Parasitology Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Experimental Cerebral Malaria Alters Blood Lipid Levels During Pathogenesis.
Abstract Malaria infection threatens millions of people worldwide. Sequestering of Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes within the blood vessels of the brain may lead to a more severe form of disease called cerebral malaria (CM), which is difficult to diagnose and treat. Here we used C57BL/6 mice to establish a model of experimental CM (ECM). Comparing the dosage dependence of ECM induction, we found that inoculation with 1×103 parasitized erythrocytes had higher efficiency at establishing ECM than 1×106 parasitized erythrocytes. However, the percentage of ECM varied in different experimental batches. Infe...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - May 17, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lv L, Hai L, Wang Q, Shi X Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Prevalence of Eimeria Species in Camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Egypt and Variability in Structure of Eimeria cameli Oocysts.
Abstract Coccidiosis is a common disease of camels, and camels are important for the economy of Asia and the Arabian Peninsula. Little is known regarding the prevalence of coccidian parasites in camels in Egypt. Fecal samples collected from the rectums of 200 camels at the Cairo slaughterhouse were processed using the sucrose flotation technique. Eimeria species oocysts were found in 38%. Three Eimeria species were identified: Eimeria cameli-like in 31%, Eimeria rajasthani in 18%, and Eimeria dromedarii in 14%. The morphology of E. rajasthani and E. dromedarii oocysts was identical to that in literature. However, ...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - May 7, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Abbas IE, El-Alfy E, Al-Araby M, Al-Kappany Y, El-Seadawy R, Dubey JP Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Tissues of Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in Pennsylvania.
ey JP Abstract Toxoplasmosis in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) is of epidemiological interest because turkeys feed from the ground, and detection of infection in turkeys indicates contamination by oocysts in the environment. During the 2018 spring hunting season in Pennsylvania, fresh (unfixed, not frozen) samples were obtained from 20 harvested wild turkeys and tested for Toxoplasma gondii infection. Hearts from all wild turkeys and skeletal muscle from 1 were bioassayed for T. gondii by inoculation in outbred Swiss Webster (SW) and interferon-gamma gene knockout (KO) mice. Antibodies to T. gondii were detect...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - May 7, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Cerqueira-Cézar CK, da Silva AF, Murata FHA, Sadler M, Abbas IE, Kwok OCH, Brown JD, Casalena MJ, Blake MR, Su C, Dubey JP Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Prevalence and molecular characterization of dirofilaria immitis (filarioidea: onchocercidae) in dogs from endemic areas of rio de janeiro state, brazil.
This study aims to estimate the prevalence of infection with a modified Knott's test and to perform molecular characterization of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy, 1856) Railliet and Henry, 1911, in dogs from endemic areas of Maricá and Niterói municipalities, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Molecular characterization was performed in 33 blood samples from dogs positive for microfilariae and 4 adult worms obtained from 2 other dogs. DNA extraction followed by PCR for mitochondrial target 12S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) of D. immitis were performed, and the amplified products were sequenced. All sequen...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - April 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Silva MSG, Leles D, Sudré AP, Millar PR, Uchôa F, Brener B Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Anoplocephala perfoliata Infection in Horses in Iceland: Investigation of Associations Between Intensity of Infection and Lesions.
obertson LJ Abstract In Iceland, there is at least 1 horse for every 5 human inhabitants, mostly kept on uncultivated rangelands. Although the Icelandic horse is considered robust compared with other breeds, it is nevertheless susceptible to disease. Few studies have investigated the prevalence of intestinal parasites in horses in Iceland. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of the tapeworm, Anoplocephala perfoliata, in horses in Iceland and to explore associations between intensity of infection and the severity of macroscopic pathological lesions in this population. In addition, the relation...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - April 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hreinsdóttir I, Hreinsdóttir A, Eydal M, Tysnes KR, Robertson LJ Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Myeloencephalitis Relapse Following Anticoccidial Treatment.
Abstract Sarcocystis neurona is a ubiquitous parasite in the eastern United States, which is the principal causative agent in the neurologic disorder equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). While much is known about this protozoa's life cycle in its natural host, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana), little is known of how it acts in the aberrant equine host, which displays a high incidence of exposure with a relatively low rate of morbidity. For this study, we employed the popular interferon gamma knockout mouse model to determine the potential for recrudescence of S. neurona infection after treatment with the an...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - April 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hay AN, Witonsky SG, Lindsay DS, LeRoith T, Zhu J, Kasmark L, Leeth CM Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Effect of Two Different Isolates of Leishmania mexicana in the Production of Cytokines and Phagocytosis by Murine Dendritic Cells.
utiérrez-Kobeh L Abstract Species of the genus Leishmania are the causal agents of leishmaniasis, a disease with diametrically different clinical manifestations that have been attributed to the species and host immune response. Some Leishmania species, including Leishmania mexicana, are capable of causing both localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL). Therefore, it is possible that intraspecific differences may exist that contribute to the development of distinct clinical forms. Dendritic cells (DC) are important host cells of Leishmania spp. parasites, and cytokine ...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - April 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Rivera-Fernández I, Argueta-Donohué J, Wilkins-Rodríguez AA, Gutiérrez-Kobeh L Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

New Observations Allowing the Differentiation of Late Asexual Stages of Cystoisospora canis from Developing Microgamonts in the Intestines of Experimentally Infected Dogs.
We examined the late asexual and sexual development of C. canis in 2 dogs necropsied 10 days after oral inoculation with 100,000 sporulated C. canis oocysts; both dogs had excreted oocysts 9 days PI. Asexual and sexual stages were seen in the lamina propria, throughout the small intestine in sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin from both dogs. In other studies of the C. canis life cycle, little attention has been given to distinguishing the last asexual generation of meronts and early microgamonts that can appear similar due to their stage of maturation and both having multiple nuclei. Here we report newly identifie...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - April 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dubey JP, Lindsay DS Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

The Influence of Host Body Size and Food Guild On Prevalence and Mean Intensity of Chewing Lice (Phthiraptera) On Birds In Southern China.
This study was carried out to determine species richness, abundance, and prevalence of chewing lice of wild forest birds in the southern region of China. Between July 2012 and June 2016, 2,210 birds (belonging to 8 orders, 45 families, and 215 species) were captured by mist nets and examined for chewing lice. In total, 622 birds of 117 species were parasitized by lice belonging to 89 species in 25 genera from 2 suborders (Amblycera and Ischnocera). Of these, 28 louse species represent new host-louse records for China and 10 worldwide. Chewing louse prevalence varied significantly among host species. There was no evidence o...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - April 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Chu X, Dik B, Gustafsson DR, Che X, Zhang Q, Zou F Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Cercarial Behavior Determines Risk of Predation.
Abstract The potential for local biodiversity to affect transmission success of parasites has been shown to be particularly important in trematodes, where non-host organisms can feed on and 'dilute' free-living infective stages (cercariae). Earlier studies have analyzed the effects of various predators on transmission stages of single trematode species, but not how cercariae of different species react to predation pressure. Here, we tested whether cercariae with different host-searching movement patterns show varying susceptibility to predation by non-host species with different feeding habits. For this study, we ...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - April 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Selbach C, Rosenkranz M, Poulin R Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

DNA Barcoding as a Diagnostic Tool of a Rare Human Parasitosis: The First Case of Lagochilascaris minor in Quintana Roo, Mexico.
In this study, we present the first COI barcode sequence of a rare parasite from tropical regions, Lagochilascaris minor, which parasitized a human host from Quintana Roo, southern Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Destruction of the mastoid apophysis in the lateral sinus and cerebellar involvement were observed at the site of infection. After a radical mastoidectomy and a treatment with 200 mg oral albendazole for 63 days, the patient completely recovered. Lagochilascaris minor was identified based on the ratio between length of spicules and ejaculatory duct, shape of eggs, and host, as well as comparison with its congene...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - April 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: González-Solís D, Elías-Gutiérrez M, Prado-Bernal JA, García-de la Cruz MA Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Purification of Adult Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) Mitochondrial NADPH →NAD+ Transhydrogenase.
Purification of Adult Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) Mitochondrial NADPH→NAD+ Transhydrogenase. J Parasitol. 2019 Apr;105(2):321-329 Authors: Fu Q, Ma R, Fioravanti CF Abstract The mitochondrial, inner-membrane-associated, reversible NADPH→NAD+ transhydrogenase of the energetically anaerobic adult cestode Hymenolepis diminuta connects NADPH generation, via a mitochondrial NADP+-specific "malic" enzyme, with NADH formation needed for electron transport. In reducing the pyridine nucleotide, the enzyme concomitantly catalyzes transmembrane proton translocation, thereby coupling NADH f...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - April 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Fu Q, Ma R, Fioravanti CF Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Neuroprotection During Neospora caninum Infection Is Related To the Release of Neurotrophic Factors BDNF and NGF.
In this study, we investigated the role of soluble neurotrophic factors released by glial cells on neuronal integrity during N. caninum infection in vitro. Primary cultures of rat glial cells enriched in astrocytes were infected with N. caninum tachyzoites (1:1) for 24 hr. Neuron-glia co-cultures were cultured for 24 hr with conditioned medium from glial cells infected with N. caninum (CMNc) and from uninfected cultures (control). Cell viability was determined through a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test; astrocyte morphology and reactivity were determined through immunocytochemistry fo...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - April 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Grangeiro MS, Santos CCD, Borges JMP, Sousa CDS, Freitas S, Argolo D, de Jesus LB, Cunha EFS, de Oliveira DM, El-Bachá RDS, Costa SL, de Fátima Dias Costa M Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

A New Species of Pentaloculum (Cestoda: "Tetraphyllidea") from the Taiwan Saddled Carpetshark, Cirrhoscyllium formosanum (Orectolobiformes: Parascylliidae).
A New Species of Pentaloculum (Cestoda: "Tetraphyllidea") from the Taiwan Saddled Carpetshark, Cirrhoscyllium formosanum (Orectolobiformes: Parascylliidae). J Parasitol. 2019 Apr;105(2):303-312 Authors: Eudy E, Caira JN, Jensen K Abstract Collection of cestodes from the Taiwan saddled carpetshark, Cirrhoscyllium formosanum, for the first time led to the discovery of Pentaloculum hoi n. sp. This species provided important insights into the identity of the heretofore monotypic Pentaloculum-known previously only from the blind electric ray, Typhlonarke aysoni, in New Zealand. The new species di...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - April 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Eudy E, Caira JN, Jensen K Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria During Pregnancy in Mali.
This study identifies that women less than 20 yr of age were significantly associated with taking lower than 3 doses of IPTp-SP. PMID: 30969162 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Journal of Parasitology)
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - April 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Diarra SS, Konaté D, Diawara SI, Tall M, Diakité M, Doumbia S Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Morphological, Molecular, and Histopathological Data for Sebekia mississippiensis Overstreet, Self, and Vliet, 1985 (Pentastomida: Sebekidae) in the American Alligator, Alligator mississippiensis Daudin, and the Spotted Gar, Lepisosteus oculatus Winchell.
Abstract Novel molecular data from both mitochondrial ( cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) and ribosomal regions ( 18S, ITS1-5.8S, ITS2, and 28S) are provided for Sebekia mississippiensis Overstreet, Self, & Vliet, 1985 , a pentastome infecting the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis Daudin, 1801, and the spotted gar, Lepisosteus oculatus Winchell, 1864. Adult and nymphal pentastomes are described from the lungs and liver of the type host, A. mississippiensis, collected from Mississippi, while additional nymphs are described from the esophageal lining of L. oculatus specimens collected from Louisiana. ...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - April 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Woodyard ET, Baumgartner WA, Rosser TG, Bodin EN, Ferrara AM, Noto TW, Ford LM, Rush SA Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

First Myxozoan Infection (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) in a Marine Polychaete from North America and Erection of Actinospore Collective Group Saccimyxon.
ron I Abstract In a survey of marine annelids for myxosporean infection in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, we collected 3,214 polychaetes from 21 families and found infections in 6 spionid individuals. Based on gross morphology and COI sequencing, all infected spionids were identified as Streblospio benedicti. Infection prevalence was 0.8% (6/734) of that species of spionid, and 0.2% of all 3,214 polychaetes examined. Pansporocysts contained 8 actinospores and developed in the tegument of the annelid host. This is the first myxozoan infection recorded from this polychaete species, second in the family, and the ...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - April 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Atkinson SD, Hallett SL, Díaz-Morales D, Bartholomew JL, de Buron I Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Redescription of Dichelyne ( Cucullanellus) Dichelyneformis (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and Description of a New Congeneric Species in Eleginops maclovinus (Pisces: Eleginopsidae) Collected in the Bay of Corral, Chile.
Abstract Dichelyne ( Cucullanellus) dichelyneformis ( Szidat, 1950 ) Petter, 1974 , was collected in the intestine of the rock cod, Eleginops maclovinus, in the Bay of Corral, Chile, and redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopy. The correct arrangement of caudal papillae and post deirids, the shape of gubernaculum, and the morphology and number of denticles surrounding the oral opening are described for the first time. These characteristics along with the excretory pore position, size of spicules, and presence of a nodular thickening near the distal end of the spicules differentiate D. ( C.) dic...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - April 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Cerna O, Torres P, Silva R Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Metacommunity Structure of Helminths of Necromys lasiurus (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) in Different Land Use Areas in the Brazilian Cerrado.
This study aimed to describe the composition and structure of the helminth metacommunity in the rodent N. lasiurus in the Brazilian Cerrado, Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, using the analysis of metacommunity structure. Rodents were sampled in 3 habitat types: borders of soybean and corn plantations, pasturelands, and preserved areas of Cerrado borders. Adult helminths of 8 species were found in the gastrointestinal tract: Protospirura numidica criceticola, Physaloptera sp., Pterygodermatites ( Paucipectines) zygodontomis (Spirurida), Stilestrongylus freitasi (Rhabditida), Trichuris navonae (Trichurida) and Syphac...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - April 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Costa NA, Dos Santos Cardoso T, da Costa Neto SF, Maldonado A, Gentile R Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Increasing the Efficiency of Spontaneous Sedimentation for the Diagnosis of Intestinal Protozoa.
e; AP Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between a longer sedimentation time, the reading of a larger number of slides, and the collection of multiple samples on the efficiency of the spontaneous sedimentation technique. Twenty-two patients with a previous parasitological exam positive for intestinal protozoa were recruited to collect new fecal samples (3 samples per patient) before the beginning of antiparasitic treatment. All collected fecal samples were used for spontaneous sedimentation and centrifuge-flotation techniques. Of these, all 22 patients were positive based on spontaneous...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - March 30, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Raso CNDS, Millar PR, Brener B, de Mattos DPBG, Leles D, Fonseca ABM, Sudré AP Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

First Record of A Species of Mermithidae Braun, 1883 Infecting a Decapod, Palaemon paludosus (Palaemonidae).
Abstract The hemocoel of 26 of 30 (86%) eastern grass shrimps, Palaemon paludosus (Gibbes, 1850) (Decapoda: Palaemonidae), captured during June 2017 from several freshwater lakes near Leesburg and Lake Kissimmee, Florida, was infected by juveniles of a nematode species (Mermithidae sp.). Some infected eastern grass shrimps were preserved whole for histopathology, whereas others were dissected to excise parasitic juvenile nematodes, and still others were kept alive in glass aquaria such that post-parasitic (emerged) juvenile nematodes could be opportunistically observed alive and ultimately preserved. Parasitic and...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - March 28, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Warren MB, Dutton HR, Whelan NV, Yanong RPE, Bullard SA Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Haemosporidian Parasite Infections In the Dickcissel ( Spiza americana): Prevalence and Costs.
We examined the prevalence and costs of haemosporidian parasites in a wild population of dickcissels ( Spiza americana; n = 170) breeding in central Illinois. Over 2 breeding seasons, prevalence of haemosporidian parasites was 41% and was similar between sexes and years. Within each sex, there was no association between proxies of fitness (body condition and number of fledglings produced) and infection status. While we found no evidence that haemosporidian parasites have a direct, negative impact on dickcissels, we discuss how extra-pair paternity and changes across the life cycle of dickcissels and haemosporidian parasite...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - March 27, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jones TM, Merrill L, Zachar SE, Brawn JD, Ward MP Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Species of Contracaecum Parasitizing the Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Spheniscidae) from the Argentinean Coast.
Abstract Anisakid nematodes have a worldwide distribution and are associated with fishes, birds, and marine mammals from freshwater, brackish, and marine systems. The aims of this work are to report for the first time Contracaecum mirounga parasitizing the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus, to report another Contracaecum species in the same host species, and to discuss the validity of Contracaeceum spheniscus. Several dead chicks, juveniles, and adults of S. magellanicus were collected along the Argentinean coast from 2002 to 2009. Nematodes were removed from digestive tracts and studied using both light ...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - March 24, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Garbin LE, Diaz JI, Navone GT Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

A New Species of Neoalbionella (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Lernaeopodidae) From Skin of the Gulper Shark, Centrophorus granulosus (Squaliformes: Centrophoridae) In the Northern Gulf of Mexico.
Abstract Using light and scanning electron microscopy of male and female copepods, we herein describe a new species of Neoalbionella Özdikmen, 2008 (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae), Neoalbionella benzipirata n. sp., infecting the skin of the gulper shark, Centrophorus granulosus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801), in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Females of the new species were assigned to Neoalbionella by having 3 setae on the maxillule lateral palp (vs. 2 setae in Lernaeopoda Nordmann, 1832) and a single accessory denticle on the maxilliped subchela claw (vs. ≥2 denticles in Lernaeopoda). Females of the new species re...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - March 16, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ruiz CF, Iii WBD, Bullard SA Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis Infections In Dogs and Cats In Hainan Island/Province and Three Other Coastal Cities of China Based On Antigen Testing and PCR.
Abstract Canine and feline heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis is a serious and sometimes fatal infection transmitted by mosquitos. Little is known about the prevalence or distribution of D. immitis infection in dogs and cats on the island of Hainan island/province or coastal cities of China. The present study examined the occurrence of D. immitis infections in dogs (n = 869) and cats (n = 51) in Hainan island/province and prevalence in dogs from 3 coastal cities (Shenzhen [n = 55], Shanghai [n = 69], and Hangzhou [n = 45]) in southern and eastern China. A commercial antigen detection (AD) test and 2 P...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - March 14, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Wang J, Zhu X, Ying Z, Han Q, Liao C, Wang J, Zhao J, Sun J, Lindsay DS Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Molecular Typing of Cryptosporidium Species Identified in Fecal Samples of Yaks ( Bos grunniens) of Qinghai Province, China.
Abstract The frequency of Cryptosporidium infection in yaks from Qinghai province, People's Republic of China, was determined from examination of 1,027 fecal samples collected from 979 adult yaks and 48 yak calves during 4 seasons from 7 geographic areas within the province. PCR amplification of extracted DNA was used to characterize the different species of Cryptosporidium oocysts isolated by fecal examination. Twenty-six (2.53%) positive samples were identified and successfully sequenced: 17 Cryptosporidium ryanae (65.38%), 8 Cryptosporidium bovis (30.77%), and 1 Cryptosporidium baileyi (3.85%). The results of t...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - March 7, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ren M, Wu F, Wang D, Li LY, Chang JJ, Lin Q Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal Patterns of Infection for Emerging Larval Liver Fluke ( Dicrocoelium dendriticum) in Three Species of Land Snail in Southern Alberta, Canada.
Abstract The control of emerging parasites requires a fundamental knowledge of where and when rates of transmission are high. Data on spatiotemporal patterns of infection are challenging to obtain, particularly for complex life cycle parasites that involve transmission into multiple obligate hosts. The lancet liver fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, has a long history of colonization outside its native host and geographical range in continental Europe. Infection patterns involving adult and metacercarial stages have been characterized for this trematode in a region of emergence in western Canada within co-grazing he...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - February 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dempsey ZW, Burg TM, Goater CP Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

In Vitro and in Vivo Effect of MAPK Signal Transduction Pathway Inhibitors on Echinococcus multilocularis.
Abstract To evaluate the effect of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway inhibitors against alveolar echinococcosis in vitro and in vivo, Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode cysts and protoscolices were obtained from infected mice. Protein chip technology was utilized to screen for key highly expressed target proteins in the MAPK pathway in this parasite and their corresponding inhibitors. Four-week-old Balb/c female mice used for the in vivo experiment underwent inoculation of E. multilocularis by intraperitoneal injection, as well as intragastric administration of MAPK inhibitor...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - February 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Gui WF, Xu S, Dang ZS, Zhao YM Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Klossiella equi Infecting Kidneys of Ontario Horses: Life Cycle Features and Multilocus Sequence-Based Genotyping Confirm the Genus Klossiella Belongs In the Adeleorina (Apicomplexa: Coccidia).
N, Barta JR Abstract Species in the genus Klossiella Smith and Johnson, 1902 are unique among the suborder Adeleorina because they are monoxenous in mammals exclusively, whereas all other reported members of the Adeleorina use invertebrates as definitive hosts. Unlike other coccidia, all members of the Adeleorina undergo syzygy, the association of microgamonts and macrogamonts before maturation to gametes and syngamy. After fertilization, many members of the Adeleorina produce thin-walled polysporocystic oocysts. Despite being biologically similar to other members of the Adeleorina, the phylogenetic placement of t...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - February 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Léveillé AN, Bland SK, Carlton K, Larouche CB, Kenney DG, Brouwer ER, Lillie BN, Barta JR Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

First Report of Cryptosporidium molnari-Like Genotype and Cryptosporidium parvum Zoonotic Subtypes (IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA18G3R1) in Brown Trout ( Salmo trutta).
This study reports for the first time the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in Salmo trutta. A total number of 613 brown trout was captured by local anglers in 44 Galician rivers within 10 river basins (NW Spain) during the 2015 fishing season (March-August) and classified into groups according to their size. The gastrointestinal tracts were dissected and differentiated in pyloric ceca and intestine, which were homogenized and concentrated in phosphate-buffered saline 0.04 M pH 7.2/diethyl ether (2:1). Cryptosporidium oocysts were observed by immunofluorescence microscopy in 103 of 613 specimens (16.8%), w...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - February 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Couso-Pérez S, Ares-Mazás E, Gómez-Couso H Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Sinistral, Dextral, and Mixed Coiling Patterns Observed in Heligmonellid Nematodes (Trichostrongyloidea).
Abstract Coiling patterns of heligmonellid nematodes were examined for 520, 208, and 33 individuals of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Orientostrongylus tenorai, and Sabanema sp., respectively, collected from murine rodents of Indonesia. Besides typical sinistral coiling, complete dextral coiling was found in 3.3% of N. brasiliensis and 12.1% of Sabanema sp. Mixed coiling with partial sinistral and dextral patterns was also observed in 38.8% of N. brasiliensis, 60.7% of Sabanema sp., and 3.4% of O. tenorai. In dextral coils, the left ventral area with large ridges was located inside as in sinistral coils, keeping th...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - February 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hasegawa H, Dewi K Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification In Microchambers On A Cell Microarray Chip For Identification of Plasmodium Species.
In conclusion, the parasites can be detected quantitatively with high sensitivity, and the species can be identified with the use of cell microarray chips. PMID: 30807712 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Journal of Parasitology)
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - February 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ido Y, Hashimoto M, Yatsushiro S, Tanaka M, Yokota K, Kajimoto K, Kataoka M Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research

Acanthocephalan Parasites of the Oarfish, Regalecus russelii (Regalecidae), With A Description of A New Species of Gymnorhadinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Gymnorhadinorhynchidae).
Abstract Oarfish are rarely seen and seldom studied, which makes their parasite fauna even more enigmatic. Necropsy of 12 oarfish, Regalecus russelii (Regalecidae) (Cuvier, 1816), from Japan yielded 2 species of acanthocephalans. One species was found in 2 oarfish and a total of 76 specimens was collected, but only a single, immature specimen of the second species was found. The former represents an undescribed species from the order Echinorhynchida and is described here. Morphological and phylogenetic analyses of the small subunit ( SSU) rDNA place this species in the family Gymnorhadinorhynchidae, and genus Gymn...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - February 1, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Steinauer ML, Garcia-Vedrenne AE, Weinstein SB, Kuris AM Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research