Burch Colposuspension
The Burch colposuspension has a 50-plus year history demonstrating strong long-term outcomes with minimal complications. Iterations of the procedure, including laparoscopic, robotic, and mini-incisional approaches, appear to have equal efficacy to the open procedure. Although the current use of the Burch colposuspension has waned with the growing shift toward sling surgery, it continues to have a role in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. Specifically, a Burch procedure should be considered when vaginal access is limited, concurrent intra-abdominal surgery is planned, or mesh is contraindicated. (Source: Urologi...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ericka M. Sohlberg, Christopher S. Elliott Source Type: research

Management of the Exposed or Perforated Midurethral Sling
This article highlights preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative fac tors to minimize the chance of vaginal wall mesh exposure or perforation of mesh into the lower urinary tract. It also summarizes common presenting symptoms, suggested evaluation and a range of treatment options. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Laura L. Giusto, Patricia M. Zahner, Howard B. Goldman Source Type: research

Transvaginal Suture-Based Repair
An estimated 300,000 women undergo pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery in the United States every year at a cost of more than 1 billion dollars per year. The prevalence of POP is approximately 2.9% to 8%, and increases with age. Apical support is required to achieve successful prolapse repair. As the search for the safest, most durable, surgical repair continues, transvaginal native tissue repairs have the advantage of providing minimally invasive surgical repairs without the added risk of abdominal, laparoscopic, or robotic surgery while avoiding the risk of mesh augmentation. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ekene A. Enemchukwu Source Type: research

Surgery for Apical Vaginal Prolapse after Hysterectomy
Several transvaginal mesh products have been marketed to address vaginal vault prolapse. Although data are limited, prolapse recurrence rates and subjective outcome measures seem to be equivalent for vaginal mesh compared with native tissue apical prolapse repair, and the different vaginal meshes have not proven superior to one another. Given the known unique complications specific to vaginal mesh with equivalent outcomes for the apical vaginal prolapse, it is reasonable to reserve mesh use for specific high-risk cases, such as patients with large apical prolapse recurrence after native tissue repair who are not candidates...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shannon L. Wallace, Raveen Syan, Eric R. Sokol Source Type: research

Surgery for Apical Vaginal Prolapse After Hysterectomy
The number of surgeries for pelvic organ prolapse in the United States is increasing. Abdominal sacrocolpopexy has become the gold standard for women desiring a restorative repair of their apical pelvic organ prolapse. Despite the associated morbidity of abdominal sacrocolpopexy, advances in minimally invasive approaches have safely increased the number of these surgeries performed, especially among urologists. Moreover, a number of studies have demonstrated superior objective outcomes after abdominal sacrocolpopexy when compared with vaginal approaches. Variations in the technique are described, but no consensus exists on...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wai Lee, Justina Tam, Kathleen Kobashi Source Type: research

Posterior Vaginal Wall Prolapse
This article reviews the management strategies and draws conclusions about suture-based and site-specific techniques. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Juan M. Guzman-Negron, Michele Fascelli, Sandip P. Vasavada Source Type: research

Surgery for Anterior Compartment Vaginal Prolapse
Native tissue anterior compartment prolapse repair remains an important surgical procedure for pelvic prolapse. Native tissue repair has been well-studied and is successful in relieving vaginal bulge symptoms and reducing prolapse within the vagina. Native tissue cystocele repair has been performed safely since the advent to modern vaginal surgery for prolapse. Reoperation rates are low and the contribution of apical support in the durability of vaginal wall defect repair surgery has been well-established. Native tissue cystocele repair addresses symptom relief for women, and should continue to be a part of pelvic floor re...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Katherine Amin, Una Lee Source Type: research

Surgery for Anterior Compartment Prolapse Synthetic Graft-Augmented Repair
Pelvic organ prolapse is a common and bothersome problem that affects women's work, traveling, physical exercise, sleep, and sexual function. Synthetic implants show superiority in reducing recurrence of pelvic organ prolapse. However, inserting foreign materials carries an increased risk of complications. In this article containing the most updated available literature, we look back at the history of synthetic mesh repair, examine its efficacy and advantages, assess common complications, review current opinions, and look at the future for ways to improve the use of mesh for better results and fewer complications in an att...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Osnat Israeli, Adi Y. Weintraub Source Type: research

Vaginal Approach to Vesicovaginal Fistula
Vesicovaginal fistula is the most commonly encountered sequela of genitourinary trauma. Although the etiology differs between developed and developing countries, the principles of fistula repair must be strictly adhered to for success. Timing and route of repair remain contentious, because of a lack of randomized data. Evaluation and management is dictated by the surgeon ’s experience. Minimally invasive techniques with laparoscopy and robotic technology are generating wider interest with reduced postoperative morbidity, but a transvaginal technique should be in the arsenal of all pelvic reconstructive surgeons. More...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Dominic Lee, Philippe Zimmern Source Type: research

Abdominal Approach to Vesicovaginal Fistula
Principles of abdominal vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) repair include good exposure of the fistulous tract, double-layer bladder closure, retrograde fill of the bladder to ensure a water-tight seal, tension-free closure and continuous postoperative bladder drainage. Minimally invasive approaches, particularly robot-assisted laparoscopy, have demonstrated shorter operative times, decreased blood loss, improved visibility, and similar cure rates without increased adverse events. These techniques are therefore rising in popularity among surgeons. Ultimately, surgical approach to VVF repair depends upon the individual characteris...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Elishia McKay, Kara Watts, Nitya Abraham Source Type: research

Injection of Urethral Bulking Agents
This article aims to describe the mechanism of action and properties of various agents, patient selection factors, available techniques for injection, outcomes of urethral injections, and complications associated with the procedure. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hanhan Li, Ouida Lenaine Westney Source Type: research

Synthetic Midurethral Slings
Synthetic midurethral sling placement is the most studied anti-incontinence procedure available. Multiple randomized trials demonstrate its safety and efficacy, with results out to 5  years. With long-term follow-up, it seems there may be some benefit in efficacy to retropubic sling placement compared with the transobturator approach. Single-incision slings are a newer modification to multi-incision sling placement, and the data regarding safety and efficacy are not as mature a s other forms of sling placement. Complications may occur with mesh midurethral sling placement and surgeons performing these procedures shoul...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Brian J. Linder, Daniel S. Elliott Source Type: research

Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence
This article describes the operative technique of autologous fascial pubovaginal sling (AFPVS) surgery, examines the senior author ’s outcomes with AFPVS, compares these outcomes with those of other large studies and meta-analyses, and compares the safety and efficacy of AFPVS with those of the synthetic midurethral sling (SMUS). Recently, the SMUS has become the treatment of choice for most surgeons. The efficacy of the SMUS remains unchallenged and comparable with that of AFPVS, but SMUS are associated with more severe complications. In the author's opinion, the AFPVS should remain the gold standard for treating SU...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jerry G. Blaivas, Vannita Simma-Chiang, Zeynep Gul, Linda Dayan, Senad Kalkan, Melissa Daniel Source Type: research

Surgery for Posterior Compartment Vaginal Prolapse: Graft Augmented Repair
Posterior compartment vaginal prolapse can be approached with multiple surgical techniques, including transvaginally, transperineally, and transanally, repaired with either native tissue or with the addition of an augment. Augment material for posterior compartment prolapse includes biologic graft (dermal, porcine submucosal), absorbable mesh (Vicryl polyglactin), or nonabsorbable synthetic mesh (polypropylene). Anatomic success rates for posterior compartment repair with augment has ranged from 54% to 92%. Augmented posterior compartment repair has not been shown to have superior outcome to native tissue repair. The focus...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sunchin Kim, Grant R. Pollock, Christian O. Twiss, Joel T. Funk Source Type: research

Controversies in Vaginal Surgery
Over the past 20 years, there has been a substantial rise in the use of surgery for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. While the incidence of stress incontinence and vaginal prolapse does increase with age, and the proportion of senior citizens has increased steadily during that time period, the use of surgery has increased more dramatically than is explained by simple increase in disease prevalence. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Craig V. Comiter Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Reconstruction of the Female Pelvis: A Fundamental Pillar of Urology
Female pelvic medicine has evolved from a niche subspecialty practiced by a few urologists in select programs to a fundamental component of urology, essential for comprehensive training in the “core curriculum” of urologic surgery. The subspecialty has gracefully negotiated the overlapping interests of gynecologists and urologists in the field and has emerged with a fully integrated subspecialty, recognized by both specialties and their boards. In this way, the field has benefited gre atly from a diversity of perspective in surgical approach to female incontinence and pelvic dysfunction. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Samir S. Taneja Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Surgical Advances in Female Pelvic Reconstruction
UROLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Craig V. Comiter Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contributors
SAMIR S. TANEJA, MD (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contents
Samir S. Taneja (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Emerging Technologies in Renal Stone Management (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

CME Accreditation Page
(Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Pediatric Urology
Even if you are on the right track, you ’ll get run over if you just sit there.—Will Rogers, quoted in the Sandusky –Register, The Week, May 2, 2016Pediatric urology is a relatively young subspecialty, having received its accreditation as a subspecialty in the United States in 2007. Over the course of the last 30 years or so, there have been dramatic changes in our understanding of common pediatric urologic problems, which has influenced our management. One example is our understanding and management of vesicoureteral reflux and urinary tract infections in children. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hillary L. Copp, Armando J. Lorenzo, Aseem R. Shukla, Anthony A. Caldamone Tags: Preface Source Type: research

CME Accreditation Page
(Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Pediatric Urology
UROLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hillary L. Copp, Armando J. Lorenzo, Aseem R. Shukla, Anthony A. Caldamone Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contributors
SAMIR S. TANEJA, MD (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contents
Hillary L. Copp, Armando J. Lorenzo, Aseem R. Shukla, and Anthony A. Caldamone (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Surgical Advances in Female Pelvic Reconstruction (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 11, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Continuous Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Pediatric Urology
Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) for urinary tract infection prevention in children with vesicoureteral reflux, hydronephrosis, and hydroureteronephrosis is reviewed. A more selective use of CAP is advocated based on a review of known individual risk factors in each of these conditions that subsequently helps identify the children most likely to benefit from CAP. Both short-term and potential long-term side effects of CAP are reviewed, including the impact of prophylactic antibiotics on bacterial resistance and the microbiome. Alternatives to continuous antibiotic prophylaxis including Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranber...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 7, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Douglas W. Storm, Luis H. Braga, Christopher S. Cooper Source Type: research

Pediatric Stone Disease
Once considered rare, pediatric nephrolithiasis has become a critical field of study in the last decade due to the rapid increase in incidence. Understanding the changing epidemiology and lifelong implications of pediatric stone disease is critically important to effectively manage the individual patient as well as identify risk factors for childhood onset that could be modified. Determining the role of diagnostic imaging in children is a unique challenge as limiting radiation and imaging stewardship should be priorities. Approaches to management have also changed, as technology continues to evolve and both medical and sur...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 7, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Diana K. Bowen, Gregory E. Tasian Source Type: research

Anesthesia in the Pediatric Patient
Improvements in anesthetic drugs and monitoring techniques over the past several decades have significantly reduced the anesthetic risks for pediatric patients. Neonates and infants are at increased risk for cardiovascular and pulmonary complications, and recent reports have led to concern that these young patients may be at risk for long-term detrimental neurodevelopmental effects as well. Although studies are currently under way to answer the question of anesthetic neurotoxicity in children, surgeons and anesthesiologists must work with parents to determine the best course of action for these vulnerable patients. (Source...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 7, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Megan A. Brockel, David M. Polaner, Vijaya M. Vemulakonda Source Type: research

Urologic Evaluation and Management of Pediatric Kidney Transplant Patients
Urologic causes of end-stage renal disease are estimated between 25% and 40% of causes. The goal of renal transplantation in chronic kidney disease patients is to provide renal replacement therapy with less morbidity, better quality of life, and improved overall survival compared with dialysis. A patient ’s urologic history can be a significant source of problems related to infections, recurrence of disease, and surgical complications. Many of the urologic risks are modifiable. Proper evaluation and management can mitigate the potential problems after transplantation, and these patients with compl ex urologic problem...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 7, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Blake Palmer, Brad Kropp Source Type: research

Neuropathic Bladder and Augmentation Cystoplasty
Surgical indications for individuals with neuropathic bladder include unsafe urinary storage pressures, progressive upper tract deterioration, and continued urinary incontinence that is recalcitrant to oral pharmacologic or intradetrusor injection therapy and intermittent catheterization. Bladder augmentation is currently the gold standard surgical procedure used to increase bladder capacity and reduce storage pressures but has significant long-term risks. The medical and surgical management of neuropathic bladder, as well as long-term consequences of bladder augmentation, are reviewed. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 7, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Joshua D. Roth, Mark P. Cain Source Type: research

Fertility Issues in Pediatric Urology
Improved understanding of the pathogenesis and natural history of many urologic disorders, as well as advances in fertility preservation techniques, has increased the awareness of and options for management of fertility threats in pediatric patients. In children, fertility may be altered by oncologic conditions, by differences in sexual differentiation, by gonadotoxic drugs and other side effects of treatment for nonurologic disorders, and by urologic conditions, such as varicocele and cryptorchidism. Although fertility concerns are best addressed in a multidisciplinary setting, pediatric urologists should be aware of the ...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 7, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kathleen Kieran, Margarett Shnorhavorian Source Type: research

Transitional Urology
This article reviews the transitional process itself including barriers to successful transition and the consequences of failing to properly transition. Also provided is a broad overview of the urologic issues faced by patients who may benefit from lifelong care and the providers who will be helping them with transition and assuming their care. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 7, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Robert Caleb Kovell, Alexander J. Skokan, Dan N. Wood Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Surgery in Pediatric Urology
As the frontiers of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) continue to expand, the availability and implementation of new technology in pediatric urology are increasing. MIS is already an integral part of pediatric urology, but there is still much more potential change to come as both recent and upcoming advances in laparoscopic and robotic surgery are surveyed. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 7, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kunj R. Sheth, Jason P. Van Batavia, Diana Bowen, Chester J. Koh, Arun K. Srinivasan Source Type: research

Pediatric Urology and Global Health
Global health programs in pediatric surgical fields are needed more than ever to ease the global burden of congenital anomalies. Pediatric urology is an ideal field for global health programs because genitourinary diseases account for a large proportion of congenital diseases and access to surgical subspecialists is lacking in most low- and middle-income countries. By following several key guidelines with particular emphasis on team building, visiting and local team collaboration, long-term commitment, and surgical training, global health partnerships can lead to a sustainable model for increasing surgical capacity. (Sourc...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 7, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jason P. Van Batavia, Aseem R. Shukla, Rakesh S. Joshi, Pramod P. Reddy Source Type: research

Bladder Bowel Dysfunction
Bladder bowel dysfunction (BBD) describes a spectrum of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with bowel complaints. The true incidence of BBD is unknown; however, BBD symptoms represent approximately 40% of pediatric urology consultations. Given the close interaction between the bladder and bowel due to their common innervation as well as associated pelvic floor muscles, patients often present with bowel complaints as well. Increasing awareness of BBD over the past 30  years has led to better diagnostic criteria and treatment methods. In this article, we review the clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, pathop...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 7, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Liza M. Aguiar, Israel Franco Source Type: research

Prenatal Urinary Tract Dilatation
This article focuses on the prenatal detection of UTD and the postnatal evaluation and management based on the UTD grading system risk assessment. Prophylactic antibiotics and postnatal imaging are discussed. The recent management trend is for a more conservative approach to minimize unnecessary testing and exposures to the fetus and neonate while detecting those who may have clinically significant disorder. The renal bladder US remains a critical part of the evaluation and helps guide further investigations. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 7, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrea Balthazar, C.D. Anthony Herndon Source Type: research

Surgery of Anomalies of Gonadal and Genital Development in the “Post-Truth Era”
This article aims to examine the current issues of debate concerning the management of atypical gonadal and genital development (AGD). Understanding this complex subject begins with defining the distinct AGD conditions, the aims and nature of surgical treatments, and the perceptions of affected individuals and their families. The evolving societal and medical contexts in this field are confronting facts and opinions, leading to a significant change in attitudes and approaches. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 7, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Daniela B. Gorduza, Charmian A. Quigley, Anthony A. Caldamone, Pierre D.E. Mouriquand Source Type: research

Diffusion-Weighted Genitourinary Imaging
This review article aims to provide an overview on of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MR imaging) in the urogenital tract. Compared with conventional cross-sectional imaging methods, the additional value of DW-MR imaging in the detection and further characterization of benign and malignant lesions of the kidneys, bladder, prostate, and pelvic lymph nodes is discussed as well as the role of DW-MR imaging in the evaluation of treatment response. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 19, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Martin H. Maurer, Kirsi Hannele H ärmä, Harriet Thoeny Source Type: research

Upper and Lower Tract Urothelial Imaging Using Computed Tomography Urography
This article focuses on the appropriate protocols for optimizing CT urography acquisitions, including contrast administration and the timing of imaging acquisitions, as well as the use of ancillary techniques to increase collecting system distention. In addition, imaging findings are discussed that should raise concern for urothelial carcinoma at each of the 3 segments of the urinary tract: the intrarenal collecting systems, ureters, and bladder. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 19, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Siva P. Raman, Elliot K. Fishman Source Type: research

Practical Approach to Adrenal Imaging
This article reviews a spectrum of adrenal pathologies. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 19, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Khaled M. Elsayes, Sally Emad-Eldin, Ajaykumar C. Morani, Corey T. Jensen Source Type: research

Imaging of Cystic Renal Masses
This article provides an updated review on the imaging evaluation of cystic renal masses with focus on the Bosniak classification system, discusses current imaging techniques for evaluating these lesions, reviews benign and malignant etiologies of cystic renal masses, describes pitfalls in the evaluation of these lesions, and discusses current and future directions in the management of cystic renal masses. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 19, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nicole M. Hindman Source Type: research

Imaging of Prostate Cancer Using 11C-Choline PET/Computed Tomography
This article reviews the role of 11C-choline-PET/computed tomography (CT) in patients with prostate cancer for diagnosis, staging, and restaging the disease in case of biochemical recurrence after primary treatment. The main application of this imaging procedure is restaging of the disease in case of biochemical recurrence. 11C-Choline-PET/CT proved its value for metastases-directed salvage therapies and for monitoring therapy response in castration-resistant patients. Prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen kinetics values confirmed their correlation with 11C-choline PET/CT sensitivity.11C-CholinePET/CT, d...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 19, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Paolo Castellucci, Francesco Ceci, Stefano Fanti Source Type: research

Technique of Multiparametric MR Imaging of the Prostate
Multiparametric MR imaging provides detailed anatomic assessment of the prostate as well as information that allows the detection and characterization of prostate cancer. To obtain high-quality MR imaging of the prostate, radiologists must understand sequence optimization to overcome commonly encountered technical challenges. This review discusses the techniques that are used in state-of-the-art MR imaging of the prostate, including imaging protocols, hardware considerations, and important aspects of patient preparation, with an emphasis on the recommendations provided in the prostate imaging-reporting and data system vers...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 19, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrei S. Purysko, Andrew B. Rosenkrantz Source Type: research

Multiparametric MR imaging of the Prostate
This article discusses the interpretation of the pulse sequences recommended in the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 guidelines, reviews advanced quantitative imaging tools, and discusses future directions. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 19, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alessandro Furlan, Amir A. Borhani, Antonio C. Westphalen Source Type: research

Multiparametric Prostate MR Imaging: Impact on Clinical Staging and Decision Making
This article focuses on the evolving paradigm of prostate cancer staging, with emphasis on the role of mpMRI on staging and its integration into clinical decision making. Current prostate cancer staging systems are defined and mpMRI ’s role in the detection of non–organ-confined disease and how it has an impact on the selection of appropriate next steps are discussed. Several imaging pitfalls, limitations, and future directions of mpMRI also are discussed. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 19, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Petar Duvnjak, Ariel A. Schulman, Jamie N. Holtz, Jiaoti Huang, Thomas J. Polascik, Rajan T. Gupta Source Type: research

Prostate MR Imaging for Posttreatment Evaluation and Recurrence
Prostate multiparametric MR imaging (mpMRI) plays an important role in local evaluation after treatment of prostate cancer. After radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, and focal therapy, mpMRI can be used to visualize normal post-treatment changes and to diagnose locally recurrent disease. An understanding of the various treatments and expected changes is essential for complete and accurate post-treatment mpMRI interpretation. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 19, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sonia Gaur, Baris Turkbey Source Type: research