Bacillus Calmette-Gu érin Salvage Therapy
This article provides a historical context relevant to the development of the BCG-unresponsive def inition, an overview of current clinical trial expectations, and an introduction to this issue of Urologic Clinics. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Badrinath R. Konety, Vikram M. Narayan, Colin P.N. Dinney Source Type: research

Salvage Therapies for Non –muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: Who Will Respond to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin? Predictors and Nomograms
The best predictors of response to intravesical immunotherapy are tumor grade and stage, tumor recurrence pattern, nomograms, panels of urinary cytokines, and fluorescent in situ hybridization patterns of urine cytology examinations. Future investigations on predictors of Bacillus Calmette-Gu érin efficacy are needed to better select those patients who will really benefit from a conservative treatment. Hardly any of the proposed nomograms were designed to precisely predict the outcome of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy. A new nomogram for NMIBC recurrence and progression based o n all non–muscle-...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Óscar Rodríguez Faba, Francesca Pisano, Wojciech Krajewski, Alberto Breda, Joan Palou Source Type: research

Identification of Candidates for Salvage Therapy
This article describes historical definitions of BCG failu re, as well as recent efforts to better delineate and refine the clinical criteria for identifying individual patients who will not benefit from further intravesical BCG therapy. It also reviews guidance from the most recent expert consensus panels and professional association guidelines regarding w hich patients should not receive additional BCG therapy. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Russell E.N. Becker, Max R. Kates, Trinity J. Bivalacqua Source Type: research

Predictors of Response to Intravesical Therapy
Despite the 40-year reign of bacillus Calmette-Gu érin (BCG) as the most effective immunotherapy in urologic cancers, a lack of clinical tools to predict treatment response has hampered progress in the field. Acting as an immunostimulatory agent against a multitude of phenotypically diverse non–muscle-invasive bladder cancers, response to BCG li kely depends on both tumor characteristics as well as host factors. With a deeper understanding of the tumor biology as well as the mechanism of action underpinning immunotherapy, newer and more effective clinical tools are being constructed to improve patient selectio...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Roger Li, Ashish M. Kamat Source Type: research

Genomic and Therapeutic Landscape of Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer
Non –muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is heterogeneous, but current diagnostic and treatment strategies rely primarily on clinical parameters, lacking individualization to tumor and host genetics and biology. The heterogeneity of NMIBCs is derived from mutations, mutation signatures, chromosomal loss, and disruption of molecular pathways, which ultimately affects tumor progression, recurrence, and responsiveness to intravesical and systemic chemotherapy. Although research is still underway, advances in sequencing technology, insight into differential bacillus Calmette-Guérin responses, an d new investiga...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lauren Folgosa Cooley, Kimberly A. McLaughlin, Joshua J. Meeks Source Type: research

Salvage Therapy Using Bacillus Calmette-Gu érin Derivatives or Single Agent Chemotherapy
Despite therapy with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Gu érin, roughly 50% of patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer will recur. Although cystectomy is the oncologic gold standard in BCG unresponsive disease, salvage intravesical therapies are valuable treatment options that aim to preserve quality of life while decreasing the risk of cancer recurrence and progression. Single-agent intravesical chemotherapy has been a mainstay salvage treatment and foundational to future trials of combination therapy. Treatment with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin derivative therapies has shown promise with respons...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Christopher R. Haas, James M. McKiernan Source Type: research

Heated Intravesical Chemotherapy
Non –muscle-invasive bladder cancer can be a challenging disease to manage. In recent years, hyperthermia therapy in conjunction with intravesical therapy has been gaining traction as a treatment option for bladder cancer, especially if Bacillus Calmette-Guerin might not be available. Trials of intrav esical chemotherapy with heat are few and there has been considerable heterogeneity between studies. However, multiple new trials have accrued and high-quality data are forthcoming. In this review, we discuss the role of combined intravesical hyperthermia and chemotherapy as a novel approach for the treatment of bladder...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wei Phin Tan, Thomas A. Longo, Brant A. Inman Source Type: research

Apaziquone for Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer
Apaziquone is an interesting drug for intravesical use in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer; however, more research is needed to prove its actual benefit. Although the apaziquone trials demonstrate the potential of this new drug, the singular phase 3 trials did not reach their primary endpoint. To date, no new trials are recruiting, so the development of apaziquone seems to have stopped. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tom J.H. Arends, Johannes Alfred Witjes Source Type: research

Combination Intravesical Therapy
After Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) failure, there is likely a 6- to 24-month window whereby salvage intravesical therapy might allow for preservation of the bladder without disease worsening. Combination intravesical, salvage therapy for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer represents a promising avenue for treatment in patients unfit or unwilling to undergo cystectomy. BCG with concomitant immune stimulating agents or immune checkpoint inhibitors, combination chemotherapy regimens, such as gemcitabine and docetaxol, and novel agents currently in clinical trials provide hope for a bladder-sparing alternative for patients af...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nathan A. Brooks, Michael A. O ’Donnell Source Type: research

Intravesical Gene Therapy
Non –muscle-invasive bladder cancer is a challenging disease to treat, with few effective salvage intravesical options available for patients who develop bacillus Calmette-Guerin–unresponsive disease. Although radical cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy remains the gold standard treatment for the se patients, there remains an unmet need for other options for those who are unable or unwilling to undergo surgery. To this end, intravesical gene therapy is emerging as a potential alternative with promising early data and ongoing efforts to better understand the mechanisms of action to optimize t herapy. (Source:...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Vikram M. Narayan, Colin P.N. Dinney Source Type: research

Immuno-Oncology Approaches to Salvage Treatment for Non-muscle invasive Bladder Cancer
This article provides a comprehensive review of the available data for immunotherapy being used as a salvage treatment in non –muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The literature demonstrates that the immune system has an important role in bladder cancer progression. Initial results from studies using checkpoint inhibitors, recombinant interferon-α2b protein, and oncolytic adenoviruses have shown promising responses with acc eptable toxicities. However, the majority of the current data arises from small trials with limited follow-up. There are currently several ongoing studies in this setting, which we await complet...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Niranjan J. Sathianathen, Subodh Regmi, Shilpa Gupta, Badrinath R. Konety Source Type: research

Role of Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase Inhibitors in Salvage Therapy for Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer
Due to significant risks of cancer recurrence and progression, and limited options after intravesical Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) therapy, there is a critical unmet need to identify novel treatments for those patients with BCG-unresponsive bladder cancer. There is active investigation of immunotherapies which provide both biologic and clinical rationales for indoleamine-2,3- dioxygenase inhibitors in salvage therapy for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Carissa E. Chu, Sima P. Porten, Gary D. Grossfeld, Maxwell V. Meng Source Type: research

Salvage Therapy for Non –muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-refractory high-grade non –muscle-invasive bladder cancer remains a challenging problem. Radical cystectomy is standard of care, but carries significant morbidity. Therefore, there is a need for effective treatments. Previous salvage intravesical therapies have had disappointing results with long-term follow-up; however, a wide array of novel agents is currently under investigation. These include novel combinations of existing intravesical agents, novel modes of delivery such as hyperthermia, viral mediated therapies, and immunotherapy. We review the need for novel treatment with existi...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Dunia Khaled, John Taylor, Jeffrey Holzbeierlein Source Type: research

Intravesical Therapy for Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: Twenty-First Century Edition
Since its approval in the 1980s, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been the key agent for management of high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, response rates are about 50%, and those who do respond do not always have a durable response. Repeat intravesical instillation with BCG and chemotherapy can salvage a small proportion of the nonresponders or those who recur later during the disease course. Patients deemed unresponsive to BCG or chemotherapy are particularly hard to treat and often require radical cystectomy. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Badrinath R. Konety Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Salvage Therapies for Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer
UROLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Badrinath R. Konety Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contributors
SAMIR S. TANEJA, MD (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contents
Badrinath R. Konety (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Male Infertility (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Considerations in Gender-Affirming Surgery
The transgender and nonbinary (TGNB) population is a significant minority, comprising at least 0.6% of the population. Visibility is growing rapidly, especially in younger generations. Gender affirming health care must adapt to this population ’s needs. Demographic data regarding TGNB health care are limited, but several disparities are clear, stemming from sociopolitical factors, such as external discrimination and insensitive and/or uninformed care. Most self-identifying TGNB patients receive some type of nonsurgical care, including h ormonal and/or mental health. Gender-affirming surgery is highly prevalent as wel...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ian T. Nolan, Geolani W. Dy, Nathan Levitt Source Type: research

Orchiectomy as Bridge or Alternative to Vaginoplasty
This article describes a technique that serves as a step in definitive phenotypic transition while maximally preserving healthy tissue for future sex reassignment surgery. Orchiectomy should be offered routinely as a bridge or alternative to vaginoplasty, particularly in the setting of limited access to specialized centers for transgender surgery. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Marah C. Hehemann, Thomas J. Walsh Source Type: research

Penile Inversion Vaginoplasty Technique
This article presents present the authors ’ techniques and other contemporary techniques for this surgery, with particular attention to neovaginal canal construction, neoclitoral construction, and urethroplasty. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Poone Shoureshi, Daniel Dugi Source Type: research

Laparoscopic Intestinal Vaginoplasty in Transgender Women
This article provides an update on surgical indications of intestinal vaginoplast y, operative technique, perioperative care, and short- and long-term postoperative issues. A review of recent literature is performed.” (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wouter B. van der Sluis, Jurriaan B. Tuynman, Wilhelmus J.H.J. Meijerink, Mark-Bram Bouman Source Type: research

Vaginoplasty Modifications to Improve Vulvar Aesthetics
This article describes improvements made to overcome substantial limitations of the widely used traditional penile inversion vaginoplasty technique, with emphasis on creating a realistic vulvar aesthetic appearance in all respects, without compromising sexual sensation or vaginal depth. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Suporn Watanyusakul Source Type: research

Single-Stage Phalloplasty
Single-stage phalloplasty may be accomplished by having both the microsurgical and the reconstructive urology team operate simultaneously. Phalloplasty with pars pendulans urethroplasty is completed by the microsurgeons, and pars fixa urethroplasty, vaginectomy, scrotoplasty, and perineal reconstruction are performed by the reconstructive urologist. Some surgeons prefer separating phalloplasty from the urologic portions of the procedure. The single-staged approach is favored in patients whose ultimate goal is to have an aesthetic, sensate, and functional phallus and scrotum. Complications remain high but are predictably lo...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mang L. Chen, Bauback Safa Source Type: research

“Staging” in Phalloplasty
This article reviews current techniques for phalloplasty staging and proposes that a staged urethral reconstruction is a reliable technique that allows for potential complications to be managed individually, while minimizing the severity of complications and their impact on the outcome of the final reconstruction. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sara Danker, Nick Esmonde, Jens Urs Berli Source Type: research

Prosthetic Placement After Phalloplasty
Significant developments have enabled the transformation of phalloplasty to a functional organ. Differences exist in the surgical placement of a prosthesis when within a phallus, such as the lack of corpora, pubic fixation requirement, distal sock placement, and the consideration of a vascular pedicle. Increased complications compared with nonphalloplasty cohorts remain one of the biggest challenges, including rates of infection, erosion, mechanical malfunction, and malposition. Nonetheless, the placement of penile prosthesis within a phalloplasty enables trans men to achieve a once near-impossible goal of penetrative sexu...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gideon A. Blecher, Nim Christopher, David J. Ralph Source Type: research

A Discussion of Options, Outcomes, and Future Recommendations for Fertility Preservation for Transmasculine Individuals
This article discusses the options for fertility preservation for transmen. The barriers and outcomes in this unique population are also considered. In addition, insights are provided on the future of fertility preservation and suggestions are made for how to build a comprehensive team for male transgender patients. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jennifer K. Blakemore, Gwendolyn P. Quinn, M. Elizabeth Fino Source Type: research

Gender Reassignment Surgery: A New Frontier for Urologists
Throughout the history of this specialty, urologists have continued to expand the scope and magnitude of their work. As we learn of new approaches to urologic disease, we often seek out new applications for such approaches, thereby broadening the umbrella of our care. Similarly, we have learned that surgical techniques developed to address one problem may be very applicable in approaching new challenges, allowing us to participate in the advancement of surgery, both within confines of conventional urologic disease and in new areas not previously considered to be urologic in nature. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Samir S. Taneja Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Preface
Due to changing social mores and insurance coverage, gender-affirming surgery for transgender patients is becoming more common worldwide. In this issue of Urologic Clinics, we have assembled authors from around the world to review the current status of gender-affirming surgery pertinent to Urologic practice. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lee C. Zhao, Rachel Bluebond-Langner Source Type: research

Gender Affirming Surgery
UROLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lee C. Zhao, Rachel Bluebond-Langner Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contributors
SAMIR S. TANEJA, MD (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contents
Samir S. Taneja (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Urologic Clinics of North America
Salvage Therapies for Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Management of Vaginoplasty and Phalloplasty Complications
This article focuses on the most common complications as well as the evaluation and management of those complications. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - August 31, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica N. Scahrdein, Lee C. Zhao, Dmitriy Nikolavsky Source Type: research

Metoidioplasty
Gender affirmation surgery for transmale patients is still challenging, as creation of the neophallus is one of the most demanding steps in surgical treatment. Metoidioplasty, as a one-stage procedure, can be considered in patients who desire gender affirmation surgery without undergoing a complex, multistage procedure with creation of an adult-sized neophallus. Metoidioplasty presents one of the variants of phalloplasty for patients in whom the clitoris is large enough under testosterone treatment. Advanced urethral reconstruction provides low complication rates with satisfying results of standing micturition. (Source: Ur...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - August 30, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Marta R. Bizic, Borko Stojanovic, Ivana Joksic, Miroslav L. Djordjevic Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of the Psychological Benefits of Gender-Affirming Surgery
This article uses a systematic review to examine the existing literature on the psychological benefits of GAS. Findings from this review indicate that GAS can lead to multiple, significant improvements in psychological functioning. Methodological differences in the literature demonstrate the need for additional research to draw more definitive conclusions about the psychological benefits of GAS. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - August 21, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jeremy A. Wernick, Samantha Busa, Kareen Matouk, Joey Nicholson, Aron Janssen Source Type: research

Hormone Therapy for Transgender Adults
Transgender people have a gender identity that differs from their sex assigned at birth. For many transgender individuals accessing gender affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) is an important and medically necessary step in their gender transition. Both feminizing and masculinizing regimens are safe when used within established hormone protocols and are associated with significant improvements in mental health outcomes, including reduction in depression, anxiety and gender dysphoria. Clinicians should be aware of the current best practice guidelines for initiating and maintaining patients on GAHT. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - August 19, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Asa Radix Source Type: research

Fertility Preservation in Male to Female Transgender Patients
Discussion of fertility preservation (FP) is paramount because many treatments compromise future fertility, and although transgender patients demonstrate desire for children, use of FP remains low for a plethora of reasons. In transgender women, established FP options include ejaculated sperm cryopreservation, electroejaculation, or testicular sperm extraction. Further research is needed regarding reproductive health and FP in transgender patients. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - August 16, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wen Liu, Michael L. Schulster, Joseph P. Alukal, Bobby B. Najari Source Type: research

Management of Primary Testicular Tumor
In any man with a solid testicular mass, cancer should be considered until proven otherwise. Radical inguinal orchiectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with testis mass. Placement of a testicular prosthesis is safe with a very low complication rate and should be offered to all patients undergoing radical orchiectomy. In patients with widespread or life-threatening advanced disease, delayed orchiectomy following chemotherapy is recommended. Testis-sparing surgery can be performed in highly selected patients with solitary testicle mass, bilateral testicular tumors, or strong suspicion of a benign lesion. (Source: Ur...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 3, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alireza Ghoreifi, Hooman Djaladat Source Type: research

Complications of Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection
This article discusses the known surgical complications related to this operation and their relative incidence reported throughout the literature. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 3, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Clint Cary, Richard S. Foster, Timothy A. Masterson Source Type: research

The Role of Imaging in the Diagnosis, Staging, Response to Treatment, and Surveillance of Patients with Germ Cell Tumors of the Testis
This article reviews the indications for imaging and performance characteristics of modalities in the diagnosis, staging, surveillance, and follow-up of patients with GCTs. We also highlight the current guideline recommendations for imaging in treatment of patients with GCTs. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 3, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Lewis J. Thomas, Michael A. Brooks, Andrew J. Stephenson Source Type: research

Preface
At first glance, it may appear that we have compiled another round of redundant articles on a topic that has for the most part been rather stagnant over the past 2 decades. The pioneering work of investigators and institutions in the 1970s and 1980s led the path to what we now enjoy as an era of very high cure rates in testicular cancers. The last decade has seen a reduction in adjuvant therapies in stage I disease and a shift toward patient-centered management with resultant decrease in the burden of treatment. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 3, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Siamak Daneshmand Source Type: research

Modern Management of Testicular Cancer
UROLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 3, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Siamak Daneshmand Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 3, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contributors
SAMIR S. TANEJA, MD (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 3, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contents
Siamak Daneshmand (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 3, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Considerations in Gender Reassignment Surgery (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - July 3, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Management, Treatment, and Molecular Background of the Growing Teratoma Syndrome
Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is a rare clinical phenomenon in patients with nonseminomatous germ cell cancer defined by growing metastatic mass during ongoing or directly after completed chemotherapy with timely decreasing tumor markers and postpubertal teratoma exclusively after resection. GTS was first described in 1982, and few reports have been published. The limited number of studies and the resulting lack of exact knowledge about development, differentiation, and treatment of GTS leaves several clinical problems regarding treatment and follow-up unsolved. This review provides an overview of clinical diagnosis and ...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - May 29, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andreas Hiester, Daniel Nettersheim, Alessandro Nini, Achim Lusch, Peter Albers Source Type: research