The Potential Role for Immunotherapy in Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer
Biochemically recurrent prostate cancer represents a stage of prostate cancer where conventional (continued on next page) computed tomography and technetium Tc 99m bone scan imaging are unable to detect disease after curative intervention despite rising prostate-specific antigen. There is no clear standard of care and no systemic therapy has been shown to improve survival. Immunotherapy-based treatments potentially are attractive options relative to androgen deprivation therapy due to the generally more favorable side-effect profile. Biochemically recurrent prostate cancer patients have a low tumor burden and likely lymph ...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Marijo Bilusic, David J. Einstein, Fatima H. Karzai, William L. Dahut, James L. Gulley, Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching, Ravi A. Madan Source Type: research

Kidney Cancer
The management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has evolved rapidly in recent years with several immunotherapy-based combinations of strategies approved as first-line therapies. Targeted strategies, including systemic antiangiogenesis agents and immune checkpoint blockade, form the basis of a therapeutic approach. With rising rates of recurrence after first-line treatment, it is increasingly important to not only adopt a personalized treatment plan with minimal adverse events but also develop predictive biomarkers for response. This review discusses currently available first-line and second-line therapies in RCC an...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nivedita Chowdhury, Charles G. Drake Source Type: research

Immunotherapy for Genitourinary Cancers: New Opportunities for Clinical Impact
It would be an understatement to say that the concept of immunotherapy —the treatment of cancer through suppression or stimulation of the immune system—was slow to gain acceptance. A century passed between the publication of William B. Coley’s report of a treatment for sarcoma employing “bacterial toxins” and the first Food and Drug Administration–approved immunotherapy in 1990, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for bladder cancer. In the 30 years since, immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sujit S. Nair, Ashutosh K. Tewari Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Cancer Immunotherapy in Urology
UROLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sujit S. Nair, Ashutosh K. Tewari Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contributors
SAMIR S. TANEJA, MD (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contents
Sujit S. Nair and Ashutosh K. Tewari (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Urologic Clinics of North America
Robotic Urology: The Next Frontier (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 30, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Treatments for the “Lethal” Phenotype
This article presents an update on the evolution of immunotherapeutics that target a more lethal form of prostate cancer and provides the groundwork for future considerations as to how this field should proceed. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 9, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan F. Slovin Source Type: research

William B. Coley
This article reviews the origins, development, and future of immunotherapy. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 8, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kevin R. Loughlin Source Type: research

Application of Single-Cell Sequencing to Immunotherapy
Cancer is a highly complex and heterogeneous disease and immunotherapy has shown promise as a therapeutic approach. The increased resolution afforded by single-cell analysis offers the hope of finding and characterizing previously underappreciated populations of cells that could prove useful in understanding cancer progression and treatment. Urologic and prostate cancers are inherently heterogeneous diseases, and the potential for single-cell analysis to help understand and develop immunotherapeutic approaches to treat these diseases is very exciting. In this review, we view cancer immunotherapy through a single-cell lens ...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 8, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kristin G. Beaumont, Michael A. Beaumont, Robert Sebra Source Type: research

Biotech and Breakthroughs in Immuno-Oncology
This article surveys the clinical development and investment activity with Immuno-Oncology, specifically prostate, kidney, and bladder cancers. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 8, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jeffrey M. Bockman Source Type: research

Immunotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer
Cancer vaccines, cytokines, and checkpoint inhibitors are immunotherapeutic agents that act within the cancer immunity cycle. Prostate cancer has provided unique opportunities for, and challenges to, immunotherapy drug development, including low tumor mutational burdens, limited expression of PD-L1, and minimal T-cell intratumoral infiltrates. Nevertheless, efforts are ongoing to help prime prostate tumors by turning a “cold” prostate cancer “hot” and thus rendering them more susceptible to immunotherapy. Combination treatments, use of molecular biomarkers, and use of new immunotherapeutic agents pr...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 8, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Devin Patel, Rana McKay, J. Kellogg Parsons Source Type: research

Immunotherapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Current and Emerging Treatment Options
The advent of immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer treatment. Prostate cancer has an immunosuppressive microenvironment and a low tumor mutation burden, resulting in low neoantigen expression. The consensus was that immunotherapy would be less effective in prostate cancer. However, recent studies have reported that prostate cancer does have a high number of DNA damage and repair gene defects. Immunotherapies that have been tested in prostate cancer so far have been mainly vaccines and checkpoint inhibitors. A combination of genomically targeted therapies, with approaches to alleviate immune response and thereby make the...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 4, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Dimple Chakravarty, Li Huang, Matthew Kahn, Ashutosh K. Tewari Source Type: research

Harnessing Natural Killer Cell Function for Genitourinary Cancers
This article discusses recent studies showing that urologic tumors are infiltrated by NK cells and that these NK cells are often dysfunctional, but that strategies interfering with inhibitory axes have significant potential to alleviate this dysfunction. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 1, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nina Bhardwaj, Adam M. Farkas, Zeynep Gul, John P. Sfakianos Source Type: research

Personalized Medicine for the Infertile Male
Personalized medicine uses a patient ’s genotype, environment, and lifestyle choices to create a tailored diagnosis and therapy plan, with the goal of minimizing side effects, avoiding lost time with ineffective treatments, and guiding preventative strategies. Although most precision medicine strategies are still within the laborator y phase of development, this article reviews the promising technologies with the greatest potential to improve the diagnosis and treatment options for male infertility, including sperm cell transplantation, genomic editing, and new biomarker assays, based on the latest proteomic and epig...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - September 1, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Danielle Velez, Kathleen Hwang Source Type: research

Evolving Role of Urologists in the Management of Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma
This article reviews the role of the urologist in medical and surgical therapies, including prognostication, management of locally advanced and metastatic disease, and provides the most recent clinical trial data. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 27, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Anil Kapoor, Jaehoon Kim, George Goucher, Jen Hoogenes Source Type: research

Adjuvant Therapy for Localized High-Risk Renal Cell Carcinoma
This article reviews the use of adjuvant therapies for prevention of recurrence following resection of clinically localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Clinical trials evaluating adjuvant therapy for RCC have focused primarily on the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, which had improved outcome in patients with metastatic disease. However, all but 1 trial found no difference in disease-free survival in the adjuvant setting and none improved overall survival. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 27, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Erika Wood, Nicholas Donin, Brian Shuch Source Type: research

Advanced and Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
UROLOGIC CLINICS (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 27, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: William C. Huang, Ezequiel becher Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 27, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contributors
SAMIR S. TANEJA, MD (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 27, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contents
William C. Huang and Ezequiel Becher (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 27, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Urologic Clinics of North America
Cancer Immunotherapy in Urology (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 27, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Surgery for Patients with Locally Advanced and/or Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
Despite advances in systemic therapy and immunotherapy, surgery continues to have a role in management of advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC). Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is considered standard of care for smaller, localized tumors due to faster recovery without compromising oncologic outcomes. There are concerns about MIS for aRCC due to a potential risk of inferior oncologic outcomes and unusual patterns of disease recurrence. Recent studies, however, suggest that in properly selected patients with aRCC, MIS can provide improved peri-operative outcomes without compromising oncologic control. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ezequiel Becher, Dora Jericevic, William C. Huang Source Type: research

Imaging for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
Patients with renal cell carcinoma may develop metastases after radical nephrectomy, and therefore monitoring with imaging for recurrent or metastatic disease is critical. Imaging varies with specific suspected site of disease. Computed tomography/MRI of the abdomen and pelvis are mainstay modalities. Osseous and central nervous system imaging is reserved for symptomatic patients. Radiologic reporting is evolving to reflect effects of systemic therapy on lesion morphology. Nuclear medicine studies compliment routine imaging as newer agents are evaluated for more accurate tumor staging. Imaging research aims to fill gaps in...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Soumya V.L. Vig, Elcin Zan, Stella K. Kang Source Type: research

Sequencing Therapies for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
In an era of several therapeutic options available, optimal treatment sequencing is crucial to providing patients the most effective therapy and promoting quality of life. In clear cell renal cell carcinoma, a combination approach with an immunotherapy backbone, such as nivolumab/ipilimumab or axitinib/pembrolizumab, has a key role in the first-line setting. Safety and activity data support the transition to single-agent targeted therapies in the second-line setting. Nivolumab monotherapy possesses clinical and mechanistic rationale as a second-line therapeutic option for patients treated with targeted therapies in the fir...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nazli Dizman, Zeynep E. Arslan, Matthew Feng, Sumanta K. Pal Source Type: research

Cytoreductive Nephrectomy in the Era of Tyrosine Kinase and Immuno-Oncology Checkpoint Inhibitors
This article reviews the literature evaluating the benefit of CN during the evolution of systemic therapy and provides clinical recommendations for current utilization of CN in patients with mRCC. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Michael J. Biles, Hiten D. Patel, Mohamad E. Allaf Source Type: research

Neoadjuvant Therapy for Locally Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma
There has been strong interest in using neoadjuvant therapy to decrease recurrence rates and facilitate surgical resection in locally advanced renal cell carcinoma. To date, no evidence exists to support improvement in oncologic outcomes with neoadjuvant therapy. Likewise, although targeted therapies have shown efficacy in tumor downsizing, this does not often translate to downstaging. Use of presurgical therapy for the purpose of downstaging inferior vena cava tumor thrombi is currently not supported. Future studies evaluating the benefit of newer immune checkpoint inhibitors will determine if there is a larger role for n...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 10, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mary E. Westerman, Daniel D. Shapiro, Christopher G. Wood, Jose A. Karam Source Type: research

Epidemiology, Risk Assessment, and Biomarkers for Patients with Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma
In the preceding two decades, several milestones have been reached in the management of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), including the development of novel targeted agents paralleling an increased understanding of the molecular biology of this disease process. Recently, a renewed enthusiasm for immunotherapy in the form of immune checkpoint blockade has resulted in significant strides in the treatment of mRCC. Despite these advances, treatment remains challenging for clinicians, and only modest survival benefits are observed with current treatment paradigms. The risk-stratification tools and investigat...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 9, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kyrollis Attalla, Stanley Weng, Martin H. Voss, A Ari Hakimi Source Type: research

The Evolving Role of Metastasectomy for Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
Surgical metastasectomy continues to be utilized for patients with solitary or low-volume metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Although few high-quality data are available to evaluate outcomes, local treatment is recommended when feasible because it may allow a subset of patients to delay or avoid systemic treatments. With the development of improved mRCC therapies, utilization of metastasectomy has increased because most patients have incomplete responses to systemic treatment of their metastases. This review discusses the rationale and history of metastasectomy, trends in utilization, prognostic factors for patient se...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 9, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Bryan DR Hall, Edwin Jason Abel Source Type: research

Current Landscape of Advanced and Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Management
The first decade of the new millennium witnessed a revolution in the management of advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC), thanks to the approval of therapeutic agents targeting the VEGF and mTOR pathways. These targeted therapies transformed the treatment landscape of aRCC and highlighted the success of translational medicine. The arrival of the following decade brought with it clinical trials demonstrating efficacy of immune-oncology (IO) agents in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). These trials led to the establishment of second-/third-line roles of IO in mRCC, first as monotherapy and, later, as combinations with ot...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 8, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: William C. Huang, Ezequiel Becher Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Radiation Therapy for Patients with Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma
Stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) have led to a resurgence of the use of radiotherapy in the management of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These techniques provide excellent local control and palliation of metastatic sites of disease with minimal toxicity. Additionally, SBRT to the primary tumor may be efficacious and well tolerated in select patients that are not surgical candidates. Emerging data suggest that SBRT may potentiate the immune response, and current and future study will evaluate if SBRT can improve survival outcomes in patients with metastatic RCC. (Source: Urologi...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Joseph A. Miccio, Oluwadamilola T. Oladeru, Sung Jun Ma, Kimberly L. Johung Source Type: research

The Role of Lymphadenectomy in Patients with Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma
The role of lymph node dissection (LND) in the management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is controversial. LND serves an indisputable staging role by providing pathologic nodal stage. However, while earlier observational studies had suggested a survival benefit to LND, more recent observational evidence and a randomized trial do not support a survival benefit. The majority of patients with isolated lymph node involvement appear to harbor occult metastatic disease. Still, LND is not associated with increased perioperative morbidity when performed in experienced centers. LND may therefore play a predominantly staging role in ...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 6, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Pooja Unadkat, Aria F. Olumi, Boris Gershman Source Type: research

Management of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma with Variant Histologies
Variant histology renal cell carcinoma (vRCC) encompasses rare non –clear cell subtypes that have long been associated with poor prognosis and minimal response to therapies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor. Molecular advances have helped classify vRCC into distinct entities and identify putative targetable driver alterations, such as MET in papillary subtypes. More have since been identified in other vRCC subtypes, including alterations of tumor metabolism, chromatin remodeling genes, cell-cycle genes, and inactivation of tumor suppressors such as TP53 or NF2. New targeted therapies, as w...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 6, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ronan Flippot, Vijay Damarla, Bradley A. McGregor Source Type: research

Cutting-Edge Evaluation of Male Infertility
A male factor is a contributor in 50% of cases of infertility. Although assisted reproductive techniques can often bypass the need to improve semen parameters, the evaluation of the infertile man remains critical. Current methods for evaluating the infertile man are discussed, beginning with the basic workup that all suspected infertile men should undergo, followed by subsequent evaluation steps. Although the fundamental components of the evaluation have remained consistent, several new tools are available to assist in identifying the underlying etiology. As our understanding of male fertility expands, the technologies ava...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ujval Ishu Pathak, Joseph Scott Gabrielsen, Larry I. Lipshultz Source Type: research

Optimal Endocrine Evaluation and Treatment of Male Infertility
This article aims to define the optimal endocrine workup of male factor infertility, including evaluation and treatment of men who have previously been on exogenous testosterone or anabolic steroids. Future directions include the expansion of genetic testing for infertility to include endocrine gene products. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sarah C. McGriff, Eric M. Lo, James M. Hotaling, Alexander W. Pastuszak Source Type: research

Sperm Extraction in Obstructive Azoospermia
For men with obstructive azoospermia, several surgical sperm retrieval techniques can facilitate conception with assisted reproductive technology. The evolution of both percutaneous and open approaches to sperm retrieval has been affected by technological innovations, including the surgical microscope, in  vitro fertilization, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Further modifications to these procedures are designed to minimize patient morbidity and increase the quality and quantity of sperm samples. Innovative technologies promise to further ameliorate outcomes by selecting the highest quality sp erm. Although vari...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jason P. Akerman, Solomon Hayon, Robert Matthew Coward Source Type: research

Round Spermatid Injection
From a fertility perspective, men with azoospermia represent a challenging patient population. When no mature spermatozoa are obtained during a testicular sperm extraction, patients are often left with limited options, such as adoption or the use of donor sperm. However, it has been reported that round spermatids can be successfully injected into human oocytes and used as an alternative to mature spermatozoa. This technique is known as round spermatid injection (ROSI). Despite the limitations of ROSI and diminished clinical success rates, the use of round spermatids for fertilization may have potential as a treatment modal...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kelli X. Gross, Brent M. Hanson, James M. Hotaling Source Type: research

The Role of the Urologist in a Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Practice
With male factor infertility accounting for up to 50% of infertility cases, demand for male fertility services has increased. Integrating a reproductive urologist within a fertility center allows for treatment of both partners simultaneously with easier, more convenient access to a comprehensive male evaluation and any indicated interventions. A joint practice allows urologists to collaborate more closely with reproductive endocrinologists, which can, in turn, improve clinical care and research endeavors. This full-service, streamlined approach translates to optimized care for the infertile couple and allows for emphasis o...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Philip J. Cheng, Cigdem Tanrikut Source Type: research

Care Delivery for Male Infertility
Although infertility is now recognized as a disease by multiple organizations including the World Health Organization and the American Medical Association, private insurance companies rarely include coverage for infertility treatments. In this review, the authors assess the current state of care delivery for male infertility care in the United States. They discuss the scope of male infertility as well as the unique burdens it places on patients and review emerging market forces that could affect the future of care delivery for male infertility. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mary Oakley Strasser, James M. Dupree Source Type: research

High Sperm DNA Damage
Sperm DNA damage reduces pregnancy rates in couples undergoing in  vitro fertilization (IVF). Because it has been shown that testicular sperm have lower DNA damage than ejaculated sperm, it is an attractive idea to consider using testicular sperm for IVF for men with high sperm DNA damage. In fact, there are multiple centers throughout the world now offering sper m retrieval for IVF to manage this condition. However, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that testicular sperm improves pregnancy/live birth rates. Further studies are required before offering sperm retrieval as a standard of care to manage high sper...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Keith Jarvi Source Type: research

Testicular Mapping
This article describes various options of sperm retrieval, historic and contemporary, and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each. The authors find that using a testicular map can invariably help guide sperm retrieval and overall fertility care. The right approach is one that involves a shared decision with the couple. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Akash A. Kapadia, Thomas J. Walsh Source Type: research

Spermatogonial Stem Cell Culture in Oncofertility
Infertility caused by chemotherapy or radiation treatments negatively impacts patient-survivor quality of life. The only fertility preservation option available to prepubertal boys who are not making sperm is cryopreservation of testicular tissues that contain spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) with potential to produce sperm and/or restore fertility. SSC transplantation to regenerate spermatogenesis in infertile adult survivors of childhood cancers is a mature technology. However, the number of SSCs obtained in a biopsy of a prepubertal testis may be small. Therefore, methods to expand SSC numbers in culture before transpla...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sherin David, Kyle E. Orwig Source Type: research

Male Infertility: Is It the Key to the Future of Reproductive Health?
Male infertility is a common and devastating disease. Despite the advances in the field, we still struggle to identify, diagnose, and treat this condition. Furthermore, the field of reproductive urology trails at least 20 years behind that of female infertility. With 1% of children in the United States now born through in  vitro fertilization and up to 2% to 3% in Europe, some recent high-profile papers highlighting declining sperm counts around the world, and other data linking male infertility to poor individual and familial somatic health, it is vital that we focus our efforts on understanding this disease. (Source...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: James M. Hotaling Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Male Infertility
UROLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: James M. Hotaling Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contributors
SAMIR S. TANEJA, MD (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contents
James M. Hotaling (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Cancer Immunotherapy in Urology (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 7, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Qualitative Research in Male Infertility
Qualitative research methods represent a valuable tool for investigating the entirety of the experience of male infertility evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment. Qualitative research is rigorous and thorough and well adapted for studying the complex field of infertility and reproductive health. Knowledge gained from qualitative research methods can undoubtedly inform clinical practice and improve support for individuals and couples affected by male factor infertility. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - March 8, 2020 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Akanksha Mehta Source Type: research