Current Management of Disseminated Germ Cell Tumors
This article reviews the evidence supporting its use as well as common alterations based on prognostic grouping or contraindications to bleomycin. Special topics around the management of intermediate/poor prognosis choriocarcinoma and brain metastases are included. The management of residual masses for both seminoma and nonseminoma is discussed as well as long-term follow-up care of patients. Finally, the management of relapsed disseminated GCT is addressed. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - May 21, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jean-Michel Lavoie, Christian K. Kollmannsberger Source Type: research

Postchemotherapy Resection of Residual Mass in Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumor
The introduction of cisplatin-based chemotherapy has revolutionized the care of patients with disseminated testicular germ cell tumors. Although a majority are cured with chemotherapy alone, surgical resection continues to play a role because one-third will have residual mass after chemotherapy. In this article, we review the current indications for postchemotherapy resection in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, including masses greater than 1  cm, resection after salvage chemotherapy, with elevated markers, after late relapse, and for growing teratoma syndrome. We also highlight technical considerations of this often...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - May 21, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Saum Ghodoussipour, Siamak Daneshmand Source Type: research

Indications for Surgery in Disseminated Seminoma
Seminoma is commonly diagnosed in young men, and it has therefore become a disease of long-term survivors. As the late toxic effects of radiation and chemotherapy are better understood, it is becoming imperative to focus management advancements on reducing exposure to toxic agents. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) currently is indicated as a salvage procedure in postchemotherapy patients with residual masses. Primary RPLND currently is being further explored in patients with clinical stage IA and clinical stage IB disease in 2 prospective studies. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - May 21, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Phillip Martin Pierorazio, Michael Janney Biles Source Type: research

The Role of Robotic Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection for Testis Cancer
Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is complex; however, recent advances in technology have allowed adoption of the robotic platform for highly select cases. Initial case series have shown improved cosmesis, less blood loss, and decreased length of stay compared with open RPLND. Our preference for performing robotic RPLND is via a transperitoneal approach with the patient in the supine position, thus facilitating a bilateral template dissection identical to that used in all our open procedures. Robotic RPLND should mimic the open approach with regard to oncologic principles and should only be performed by clinici...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - May 21, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zachary Klaassen, Robert J. Hamilton Source Type: research

Management of Clinical Stage I Germ Cell Tumors
Experience demonstrates multiple paths to cure for patients with clinical stage I testicular cancer. Because all options should provide a long-term disease-free rate near 100%, overall survival is no longer relevant in decision making, allowing practitioners to factor in quality of life, toxicity, cost, and impact on compliance. Surveillance for clinical stage I seminoma and clinical stage I nonseminoma has become the preferred option. The contrarian view is that a risk-adapted approach should persist, with surveillance for low-risk individuals and active therapy high-risk individuals. However, results obtained in unselect...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - May 16, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Bruce J. Roth Source Type: research

Management of Stage II Germ Cell Tumors
This article discusses contemporary management strategies for stage II GCTs, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), and surveillance. Patient selection, histology, and extent of lymphadenopathy drive management, and, as both treatment and detection strategies continue to emerge and be refined, the management of patients with stage II GCT continues to evolve. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - May 15, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rashed A. Ghandour, Nirmish Singla, Aditya Bagrodia Source Type: research

High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplant
This article reviews the current knowledge on high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and stem cell transplant for salvage treatment of patients with relapsed metastatic GCT. Furthermore, the authors attempt to dissect the controv ersy of using standard-dose versus high-dose therapy as initial salvage and identify patients who are most likely to benefit from HDCT and peripheral blood stem cell transplant. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - May 14, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Nabil Adra, Rafat Abonour Source Type: research

Next-Generation Fiberoptic and Digital Ureteroscopes
This article provides an overview on emerging technologies in the light of past achievements, current limitations, and possible future directions. Instrument size reduction, pressure and temperature control, active suction of stone dust, multiple-axis tip deflection, variable working channel positions, robotics, ergonomics, image quality, enhanced imaging technology, three-dimensional visualization, and the competition between reusable and single-use ureteroscopes are detailed. The twentieth century has opened an exciting path for future discoveries in ureteroscopy. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 6, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Etienne Xavier Keller, Vincent De Coninck, Olivier Traxer Source Type: research

Single-Use Ureteroscopes
A PubMed search using the terms “single use” and “ureteroscope” was performed to identify published studies on this topic. In addition, the abstracts of the annual meeting of the World Congress of Endourology and the American Urologic Association since 2010 were reviewed. Here we present a review of published studies on si ngle-use ureteroscopes. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 6, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Brooke Moore, Silvia Proietti, Guido Giusti, Brian H. Eisner Source Type: research

Innovations in Disposable Technologies for Stone Management
Disposable stone retrieval devices are an inherent element of modern-day stone management. Efforts are being made in several different areas to improve the efficiency of stone removal. Ureteral access sheaths with pressure control features as well as suction capabilities are being explored as one such mechanism. Additional efforts are being made to improve stone basket design, grasping capabilities, and deployment mechanisms. Finally, bioadhesives are being developed to potentially improve the capability to extract otherwise difficult small stone fragments and debris from the kidney. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 6, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sari S. Khaleel, Michael S. Borofsky Source Type: research

Laser Fibers for Holmium:YAG Lithotripsy: What Is Important and What Is New
Holmium:YAG laser is currently the dominant lithotripter used during retrograde intrarenal surgery. The laser energy is delivered to the target via flexible optical laser fibers. The performance characteristics of laser fibers vary. The diameter, flexibility, resistance to fracture with bending, and tip configuration are all important factors that contribute to a fiber ’s overall performance. Understanding these characteristics assists the end user with proper fiber selection for procedures. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 6, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Bodo E. Knudsen Source Type: research

Emerging Technologies in Ultrasonic and Pneumatic Lithotripsy
This article discusses the mechanisms of basic pneumatic and ultrasonic devices, and examines the data regarding current and novel combination lithotrites. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 6, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Daniel A. Wollin, Michael E. Lipkin Source Type: research

New Technologies to Aid in Percutaneous Access
This article provides a high-level overview of recent advances in percutaneous renal access. The techniques are organized based on approach (antegrade or retrograde) and the imaging modality used, such as fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and other novel techniques (laser, electromagnetic, and robotics). (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 6, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mohammad Hajiha, D. Duane Baldwin Source Type: research

Emerging Technologies in Renal Stone Management
UROLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 6, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ojas Shah, Brian R. Matlaga Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 6, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contributors
SAMIR S. TANEJA, MD (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 6, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contents
Samir S. Taneja (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 6, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Modern Management of Testicular Cancer (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 6, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A Vision of the Future of Stone Management
In recent years, we have seen tremendous advances in the management of patients suffering from urinary stone disease. For example, ureteroscopy has moved from a procedure that had limited efficacy for complex stone burdens to the most commonly performed procedure for stones at any location in the collecting system. Similarly, percutaneous nephrolithotomy has evolved from a morbid intervention associated with high complication rates and prolonged hospitalization to an efficient stone removal approach that can claim excellent clinical outcomes. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 6, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ojas Shah, Brian R. Matlaga Tags: Preface Source Type: research

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Stone disease is truly the “bread and butter” of global Urology. Not only does it serve as an essential component of the history of our specialty but also one could consider it the very nidus that lamellated into the expansive field in which we now practice. Prior to being physicians, urologists evolved from barbers who would travel the countryside offering haircuts and bladder stone removals. We have, fortunately, moved on from the time that stones were blindly extracted by traveling barbers, through the urethra or a perineal stab incision, resulting in mortality in more than half the patients due to...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - April 6, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Samir S. Taneja Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Emerging Laser Techniques for the Management of Stones
Next-generation holmium laser systems provide the user with a range of parameters that can help optimize fragmentation efficiency. Ureteroscopic strategies broadly consist of fragmentation with active retrieval, or dusting, which uses low pulse energy settings to break stones into fine fragments for spontaneous passage. Techniques for dusting include dancing, chipping, and popcorning. The Moses technology is a multipulse mode that may help reduce retropulsion and increase fragmentation. The thulium fiber laser is an emerging laser technology that provides an extensive parameter range for dusting. Future studies are needed ...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - March 4, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ali H. Aldoukhi, Kristian M. Black, Khurshid R. Ghani Source Type: research

New Imaging Techniques in the Management of Stone Disease
This article reviews innovations in imaging technology in the contemporary management of urinary stone disease. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - March 4, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kevin Koo, Brian R. Matlaga Source Type: research

Radiation Mitigation Techniques in Kidney Stone Management
Patients with nephrolithiasis are exposed to significant quantities of ionizing radiation with the potential to cause secondary malignancy. This risk is magnified by the high recurrence rate of nephrolithiasis. In this article, we identify the risks of ionizing radiation as they pertain to patients with nephrolithiasis. We then identify evidence-based techniques for mitigating patient radiation exposure in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative settings. Key factors include limiting the use of computed tomographic imaging, appropriate modulation of fluoroscopy settings, and minimizing rates of stone recurrence...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - March 4, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Todd Samuel Yecies, Michelle Jo Semins Source Type: research

Innovations in Ultrasound Technology in the Management of Kidney Stones
This article reviews new advances in ultrasound technology for urinary stone disease. Recent research to facilitate the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis, including use of the twinkling signal and posterior acoustic shadow, have helped to improve the use of ultrasound examination for detecting and sizing renal stones. New therapeutic applications of ultrasound technology for stone disease have emerged, including ultrasonic propulsion to reposition stones and burst wave lithotripsy to fragment stones noninvasively. The safety, efficacy, and evolution of these technologies in phantom, animal, and human studies are reviewed herein...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - March 4, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jessica C. Dai, Michael R. Bailey, Mathew D. Sorensen, Jonathan D. Harper Source Type: research

Emerging Mobile Platforms to Aid in Stone Management
Nephrolithiasis is an increasingly common condition worldwide and mobile technology is revolutionizing how patients with kidney stone are being diagnosed and managed. Emerging platforms include software applications to increase adherence to stone prevention, mobile compatible hardware, online social media communities, and telemedicine. Applications and hardware specifically relevant to increasing hydration, diet modification, medication adherence, and rapid diagnosis (ie, mobile ultrasound and endoscopy) have the greatest potential to reduce stone recurrence and expedite treatment. Social media and online communities have ...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - March 4, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alexander C. Small, Samantha L. Thorogood, Ojas Shah, Kelly A. Healy Source Type: research

Assessing Cost-Effectiveness of New Technologies in Stone Management
Diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up are all influential in determining the overall cost to the health care system for kidney stones. New innovations in the field of nephrolithiasis have been abundant, including disposable ureteroscopes, ultrasound-guided approaches to percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and advanced laser lithotripters. Identifying cost-effective treatment strategies encourages practitioners to be thoughtful about providing value-based high-quality care and remains on important principle in the treatment of urinary stone disease. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - March 4, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: David B. Bayne, Thomas L. Chi Source Type: research

Emerging Technologies in Lithotripsy
This comprehensive review updates the advances in extracorporeal lithotripsy, including improvements in external shockwave lithotripsy and innovations in ultrasound based lithotripsy, such as burst wave lithotripsy, ultrasonic propulsion, and histotripsy. Advances in endoscopic technology and training have changed the surgical approach to nephrolithiasis; however, improvements and innovations in extracorporeal lithotripsy maintain its status as an excellent option in appropriately selected patients. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - March 4, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tim Large, Amy E. Krambeck Source Type: research

Innovations in Ureteral Stent Technology
This article reviews recent technological advances in stent design and how they have attempted to tackle issues that urologists and patients face with ureteral stents. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - March 4, 2019 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Connor Forbes, Kymora B. Scotland, Dirk Lange, Ben H. Chew Source Type: research

Burch Colposuspension
The Burch colposuspension has a 50-plus year history demonstrating strong long-term outcomes with minimal complications. Iterations of the procedure, including laparoscopic, robotic, and mini-incisional approaches, appear to have equal efficacy to the open procedure. Although the current use of the Burch colposuspension has waned with the growing shift toward sling surgery, it continues to have a role in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. Specifically, a Burch procedure should be considered when vaginal access is limited, concurrent intra-abdominal surgery is planned, or mesh is contraindicated. (Source: Urologi...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ericka M. Sohlberg, Christopher S. Elliott Source Type: research

Management of the Exposed or Perforated Midurethral Sling
This article highlights preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative fac tors to minimize the chance of vaginal wall mesh exposure or perforation of mesh into the lower urinary tract. It also summarizes common presenting symptoms, suggested evaluation and a range of treatment options. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Laura L. Giusto, Patricia M. Zahner, Howard B. Goldman Source Type: research

Transvaginal Suture-Based Repair
An estimated 300,000 women undergo pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery in the United States every year at a cost of more than 1 billion dollars per year. The prevalence of POP is approximately 2.9% to 8%, and increases with age. Apical support is required to achieve successful prolapse repair. As the search for the safest, most durable, surgical repair continues, transvaginal native tissue repairs have the advantage of providing minimally invasive surgical repairs without the added risk of abdominal, laparoscopic, or robotic surgery while avoiding the risk of mesh augmentation. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ekene A. Enemchukwu Source Type: research

Surgery for Apical Vaginal Prolapse after Hysterectomy
Several transvaginal mesh products have been marketed to address vaginal vault prolapse. Although data are limited, prolapse recurrence rates and subjective outcome measures seem to be equivalent for vaginal mesh compared with native tissue apical prolapse repair, and the different vaginal meshes have not proven superior to one another. Given the known unique complications specific to vaginal mesh with equivalent outcomes for the apical vaginal prolapse, it is reasonable to reserve mesh use for specific high-risk cases, such as patients with large apical prolapse recurrence after native tissue repair who are not candidates...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shannon L. Wallace, Raveen Syan, Eric R. Sokol Source Type: research

Surgery for Apical Vaginal Prolapse After Hysterectomy
The number of surgeries for pelvic organ prolapse in the United States is increasing. Abdominal sacrocolpopexy has become the gold standard for women desiring a restorative repair of their apical pelvic organ prolapse. Despite the associated morbidity of abdominal sacrocolpopexy, advances in minimally invasive approaches have safely increased the number of these surgeries performed, especially among urologists. Moreover, a number of studies have demonstrated superior objective outcomes after abdominal sacrocolpopexy when compared with vaginal approaches. Variations in the technique are described, but no consensus exists on...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wai Lee, Justina Tam, Kathleen Kobashi Source Type: research

Posterior Vaginal Wall Prolapse
This article reviews the management strategies and draws conclusions about suture-based and site-specific techniques. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Juan M. Guzman-Negron, Michele Fascelli, Sandip P. Vasavada Source Type: research

Surgery for Anterior Compartment Vaginal Prolapse
Native tissue anterior compartment prolapse repair remains an important surgical procedure for pelvic prolapse. Native tissue repair has been well-studied and is successful in relieving vaginal bulge symptoms and reducing prolapse within the vagina. Native tissue cystocele repair has been performed safely since the advent to modern vaginal surgery for prolapse. Reoperation rates are low and the contribution of apical support in the durability of vaginal wall defect repair surgery has been well-established. Native tissue cystocele repair addresses symptom relief for women, and should continue to be a part of pelvic floor re...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Katherine Amin, Una Lee Source Type: research

Surgery for Anterior Compartment Prolapse Synthetic Graft-Augmented Repair
Pelvic organ prolapse is a common and bothersome problem that affects women's work, traveling, physical exercise, sleep, and sexual function. Synthetic implants show superiority in reducing recurrence of pelvic organ prolapse. However, inserting foreign materials carries an increased risk of complications. In this article containing the most updated available literature, we look back at the history of synthetic mesh repair, examine its efficacy and advantages, assess common complications, review current opinions, and look at the future for ways to improve the use of mesh for better results and fewer complications in an att...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Osnat Israeli, Adi Y. Weintraub Source Type: research

Vaginal Approach to Vesicovaginal Fistula
Vesicovaginal fistula is the most commonly encountered sequela of genitourinary trauma. Although the etiology differs between developed and developing countries, the principles of fistula repair must be strictly adhered to for success. Timing and route of repair remain contentious, because of a lack of randomized data. Evaluation and management is dictated by the surgeon ’s experience. Minimally invasive techniques with laparoscopy and robotic technology are generating wider interest with reduced postoperative morbidity, but a transvaginal technique should be in the arsenal of all pelvic reconstructive surgeons. More...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Dominic Lee, Philippe Zimmern Source Type: research

Abdominal Approach to Vesicovaginal Fistula
Principles of abdominal vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) repair include good exposure of the fistulous tract, double-layer bladder closure, retrograde fill of the bladder to ensure a water-tight seal, tension-free closure and continuous postoperative bladder drainage. Minimally invasive approaches, particularly robot-assisted laparoscopy, have demonstrated shorter operative times, decreased blood loss, improved visibility, and similar cure rates without increased adverse events. These techniques are therefore rising in popularity among surgeons. Ultimately, surgical approach to VVF repair depends upon the individual characteris...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Elishia McKay, Kara Watts, Nitya Abraham Source Type: research

Injection of Urethral Bulking Agents
This article aims to describe the mechanism of action and properties of various agents, patient selection factors, available techniques for injection, outcomes of urethral injections, and complications associated with the procedure. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hanhan Li, Ouida Lenaine Westney Source Type: research

Synthetic Midurethral Slings
Synthetic midurethral sling placement is the most studied anti-incontinence procedure available. Multiple randomized trials demonstrate its safety and efficacy, with results out to 5  years. With long-term follow-up, it seems there may be some benefit in efficacy to retropubic sling placement compared with the transobturator approach. Single-incision slings are a newer modification to multi-incision sling placement, and the data regarding safety and efficacy are not as mature a s other forms of sling placement. Complications may occur with mesh midurethral sling placement and surgeons performing these procedures shoul...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Brian J. Linder, Daniel S. Elliott Source Type: research

Surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence
This article describes the operative technique of autologous fascial pubovaginal sling (AFPVS) surgery, examines the senior author ’s outcomes with AFPVS, compares these outcomes with those of other large studies and meta-analyses, and compares the safety and efficacy of AFPVS with those of the synthetic midurethral sling (SMUS). Recently, the SMUS has become the treatment of choice for most surgeons. The efficacy of the SMUS remains unchallenged and comparable with that of AFPVS, but SMUS are associated with more severe complications. In the author's opinion, the AFPVS should remain the gold standard for treating SU...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jerry G. Blaivas, Vannita Simma-Chiang, Zeynep Gul, Linda Dayan, Senad Kalkan, Melissa Daniel Source Type: research

Surgery for Posterior Compartment Vaginal Prolapse: Graft Augmented Repair
Posterior compartment vaginal prolapse can be approached with multiple surgical techniques, including transvaginally, transperineally, and transanally, repaired with either native tissue or with the addition of an augment. Augment material for posterior compartment prolapse includes biologic graft (dermal, porcine submucosal), absorbable mesh (Vicryl polyglactin), or nonabsorbable synthetic mesh (polypropylene). Anatomic success rates for posterior compartment repair with augment has ranged from 54% to 92%. Augmented posterior compartment repair has not been shown to have superior outcome to native tissue repair. The focus...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sunchin Kim, Grant R. Pollock, Christian O. Twiss, Joel T. Funk Source Type: research

Controversies in Vaginal Surgery
Over the past 20 years, there has been a substantial rise in the use of surgery for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. While the incidence of stress incontinence and vaginal prolapse does increase with age, and the proportion of senior citizens has increased steadily during that time period, the use of surgery has increased more dramatically than is explained by simple increase in disease prevalence. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Craig V. Comiter Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Reconstruction of the Female Pelvis: A Fundamental Pillar of Urology
Female pelvic medicine has evolved from a niche subspecialty practiced by a few urologists in select programs to a fundamental component of urology, essential for comprehensive training in the “core curriculum” of urologic surgery. The subspecialty has gracefully negotiated the overlapping interests of gynecologists and urologists in the field and has emerged with a fully integrated subspecialty, recognized by both specialties and their boards. In this way, the field has benefited gre atly from a diversity of perspective in surgical approach to female incontinence and pelvic dysfunction. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Samir S. Taneja Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Surgical Advances in Female Pelvic Reconstruction
UROLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Craig V. Comiter Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contributors
SAMIR S. TANEJA, MD (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contents
Samir S. Taneja (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Emerging Technologies in Renal Stone Management (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

CME Accreditation Page
(Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research