A Profound Past and a Very Bright Future: Minimally Invasive Urology
Since its inception as a subspecialty of surgery in the late 1800s, innovations in treatment in urology have been driven by the creative minds of urologic surgeons and by parallel advances in operative technology. Beginning with the first cystoscopes that enabled visualization of the human bladder for diagnostic purposes to resectoscopes, advances in kidney stone treatments that eliminated open surgery and more recently laparoscopy, robotics, and focal therapy, the march of advances in techniques and technologies continues. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 12, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: John D. Denstedt Tags: Preface Source Type: research

One Small Step for a Urologist, One Giant Leap for Urologic Surgery
To Americans of a certain age, the date of July 20, 1969 is etched forever in their memory. That is the day that Neil Armstrong stepped on the moon with the words, “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.” The “a” was lost in radio static. Accompanied by Buzz Aldrin, he changed the future of mankind. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 12, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kevin R. Loughlin Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Urology: Past, Present, and Future
UROLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 12, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: John D. Denstedt Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 12, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contributors
KEVIN R. LOUGHLIN, MD, MBA (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 12, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contents
Kevin R. Loughlin (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 12, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Urologic Pharmacology (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - November 12, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

New Lasers for Stone Treatment
Laser technology has been a breakthrough in urology. The new era in endocorporeal laser lithotripsy has recently begun in mid-2020, where promising technologies tested in  vitro have reached their approval for clinical use and, in that way, have made it possible to confirm their safety and advantages in the real world, for the patient and for the urologist. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 25, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Olivier Traxer, Mariela Corrales Source Type: research

New Technologies for Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
BPH is a common disease in aging men which impacts quality of life. With advancing age expectation coupled with the rising demand for BPH therapy, new technologies have been developed that target rapid recovery and symptom relief, low complication rates, and the ability to perform the procedure in an outpatient setting with local anesthesia. MIST technologies have fostered BPH medical care with ejaculation preservation. Techniques and outcomes for BPH technologies including Aquablation, Rez ūm, UroLift, iTind, Optilume BPH, XFLO, Zenflow, and Butterfly are reviewed and evaluated. Given the novelty of these technologies, l...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 25, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Dean Elterman, Bruce Gao, Steven Lu, Naeem Bhojani, Kevin C. Zorn, Bilal Chughtai Source Type: research

Future Platforms of Robotic Surgery
Among the various robotic devices that exist for urologic surgery, the most common are synergistic telemanipulator systems. Several have achieved clinical feasibility and have been licensed for use in humans: the standard da Vinci, Avatera, Hinotori, Revo-i, Senhance, Versius, and Surgenius. Handheld and hands-on synergistic systems are also clinically relevant for use in urologic surgeries, including minimally invasive and endoscopic approaches. Future trends of robotic innovation include an exploration of more robust haptic systems that offer kinesthetic and tactile feedback; miniaturization and microrobotics; enhanced v...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 25, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Sylvia L. Alip, Jinu Kim, Koon Ho Rha, Woong Kyu Han Source Type: research

Mini Percutaneous Kidney Stone Removal
This article provides an update of all these available techniques of miniaturized PCNL along with its anatomic and physiologic impact. This should assist urologists in providing a personalized approach to the patient based on various patient- and stone-related factors to provide the best of al l available technology for treatment. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 25, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Janak Desai, Hemendra N. Shah Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence Applications in Urology
The growth and adoption of artificial intelligence has led to impressive results in urology. As artificial intelligence grows more ubiquitous, it is important to establish artificial intelligence literacy in the workforce. To this end, we present a narrative review of the literature of artificial intelligence and machine learning in urology and propose a checklist of reporting standards to improve readability and evaluate the current state of the literature. The listed article demonstrated heterogeneous reporting of methodologies and outcomes, limiting generalizability of research. We hope that this review serves as a foun...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 22, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andrew B. Chen, Taseen Haque, Sidney Roberts, Sirisha Rambhatla, Giovanni Cacciamani, Prokar Dasgupta, Andrew J. Hung Source Type: research

Evolution of Focal Therapy in Prostate Cancer
Organ sparing approaches for the management of localized prostate cancer were developed in part to overcome the morbidity associated with standard, whole gland treatment options. The first description of focal therapy was now over two  decades ago and since that time much has changed. The evolution of patient selection, the approach to ablation, and surveillance after focal therapy have mirrored the technologic advancements in the field as well as the improved understanding of the biology of low-grade, low-risk prostate cancer. This review presents the evidence for the basis of focal therapy from the past to the prese...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 22, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Rohith Arcot, Thomas J. Polascik Source Type: research

Emerging Intraoperative Imaging Technologies in Urologic Oncology
This article discusses emerging imaging technologies used in prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer surgery, including ultrasound, fluorescence-based, and enhanced endoscopy techniques including their strengths and limitations. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 22, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Parwiz Abrahimi, Timothy McClure Source Type: research

New Stent Technologies
This article provides an update on currently researched and available stents as well as future perspectives. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 22, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Pieter Janssen, Thomas Tailly Source Type: research

The Life and Death of Percutaneous Stone Removal
Although percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is less morbid than open surgery, it still carries risks of significant complications as well as injury to the renal parenchyma. Flexible ureteroscopic stone removal, although causes no appreciable damage to the renal parenchyma, has limitations, most notably, a lower stone-free rate than PCNL. Advances in our knowledge regarding ureteral physiology combined with technical developments applied to ureteral access sheath deployment and size may well propel retrograde intrarenal surgery to the forefront of kidney stone removal, regardless of stone size or location. (Source: Urologi...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 21, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Pengbo Jiang, Andrew Brevik, Ralph V. Clayman Source Type: research

Disposable Ureteroscopes in Urology
Ureteroscopy is the most common surgical modality for stone treatment. Reusable flexible ureteroscopes are delicate instruments that require expensive maintenance and repairs. Multiple single use ureteroscopes have been developed recently to combat the expensive and time-intensive sterilization and repair of ureteroscopes. Although multiple studies have looked at different aspects of reusable and single use ureteroscopes, there is significant heterogeneity in performance measures and cost between the 2 categories, and neither has a clear advantage. Both can be used successfully, and individual and institution level factors...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 21, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Margaret A. Knoedler, Sara L. Best Source Type: research

Technological Advancements for Treating Erectile Dysfunction and Peyronie's Disease
Over the past decade, there have been several advancements in the technologies available to treatment erectile dysfunction and Peyronie's disease. Vacuum erection devices, penile traction devices, low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy, and penile prosthesis surgery have evolved and are changing the way we treat men ’s health. Although significant improvements have been made, further work is needed to standardize treatment, create universal algorithms for technological applications, and simply their use. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 21, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jeffrey D. Campbell, Danny Matti, Haider Abed, Andrew Di Pierdominico Source Type: research

A Call for Change. Can 3D Printing Replace Cadavers for Surgical Training?
While cadaveric dissection has stood the test of time because of its widely accepted educational value by experienced surgeons, the introduction advances in 3D printing and biomaterial technologies could potentially provide alternative tools for surgical training. This novel concept in simulation (physical reality) would encompass all the benefits of cadavers in terms of realism and clinical relevance without any of its ethical, infection, safety, and financial concerns. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 21, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ahmed Ghazi Source Type: research

Sexual Dysfunction in Transgender People
Transgender people may choose to affirm their gender identity with gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) and/or gender-affirming surgery (GAS). The effects of GAHT and GAS on sexual health in transgender people have not been well elucidated. This systematic review aimed to appraise the current scientific literature regarding sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, pain, and satisfaction in transmen and transwomen before, during, and after gender transition. Overall, sexual dysfunction is common in both transmen and transwomen. GAHT and GAS may help to improve sexual satisfaction. More studies that focus on sexual health in the t...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Natnita Mattawanon, Kittipat Charoenkwan, Vin Tangpricha Source Type: research

Pharmaceutical and Energy-Based Management of Sexual Problems in Women
This article summarizes and critiques the evidence for use of available pharmacotherapies (vasoactive, psychoactive, and hormonal medications) and energy-based therapies (laser, radiofrequency, shockwave, and neurostimulation) for treatment of female sexual dysfunction. The enthusiasm with which energy-based treatments for sexual dysfunction have been adopted is disproportionate to the amount of data currently available to support their clinical use. Pharmacotherapy for female sexual dysfunction has considerably more research evidence to justify its use. Patients must be empowered to make an informed, autonomous determinat...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alexandra Siegal, Barbara M. Chubak Source Type: research

Managing Female Sexual Pain
Female sexual pain disorder or genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD), previously known as dyspareunia, is defined as persistent or recurrent symptoms with one or more of the following for at least 6  months: marked vulvovaginal or pelvic pain during penetrative intercourse or penetration attempts, marked fear or anxiety about vulvovaginal or pelvic pain in anticipation of, during, or as a result of penetration, and marked tensing or tightening of the pelvic floor muscles during attempted vagin al penetration. In this review, we discuss etiology, diagnosis, and treatment for common disorders that cause GPPD. ...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Maria Uloko, Rachel Rubin Source Type: research

Oncology Survivorship and Sexual Wellness for Women
Sexual dysfunction is extremely common in cancer survivors. Cancer survivors are living longer, and survivorship issues like sexual functioning are now a part of routine cancer care. Oncology providers need to be as comfortable assessing and addressing these issues as they would any other aspect relating to cancer care. Providers should know how to perform an evaluation for sexual dysfunction, understand basic treatment options, and have appropriate referrals available to ensure that the patient ’s needs are met. This review provides an overview of sexual dysfunction pertaining to women who are survivors of cancer an...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Mindy Goldman, Mary Kathryn Abel Source Type: research

Physiology of Erection and Pathophysiology of Erectile Dysfunction
The science of penile erection, including recent advances in its molecular physiology and neuroanatomic pathways, is described. The pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction is presented, acknowledging associated disease states, and accordingly follows a practical classification scheme: vasculogenic, neurogenic, endocrine, and psychogenic. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Susan M. MacDonald, Arthur L. Burnett Source Type: research

Optimizing Outcomes in Penile Implant Surgery
Since their initial release in the 1970s, modern penile prostheses have been subjected to continuous improvement with respect to both device engineering and surgical technique. Proper implantation begins with appropriate patient selection and counseling; these are essential elements to optimize results and set expectations postoperatively. An evidence-based protocol for the prevention of infections is essential. A pain management protocol should be initiated even before surgery. Strict adherence to recommended intraoperative techniques minimizes the risk complications; when complications occur, a step-by-step process for m...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Raul E. Fernandez-Crespo, Kristina Buscaino, Rafael Carrion Source Type: research

Managing Sexual Dysfunction in 2021 and Beyond
The tumultuous events of 2020 have challenged our health care system. In the face of such upheaval and challenge, should we as health care providers be concerned with issues of sexual wellness and satisfaction? Aren ’t there bigger problems to address? (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alan W. Shindel, Tom F. Lue Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Sexual Dysfunction: Continuing the Pursuit of a Horizontal Desire
“Dancing is a perpendicular expression of a horizontal desire.” This quote has been attributed to the playwright George Bernard Shaw.1 Since the dawn of time, humanity has been obsessed with sexual function and dysfunction. After all, besides other issues, it is the way we perpetuate our species . (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kevin R. Loughlin Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Sexual Dysfunction: A New Era
UROLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Alan W. Shindel, Tom F. Lue Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contributors
KEVIN R. LOUGHLIN, MD, MBA (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contents
Kevin R. Loughlin (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Minimally Invasive Urology: Past, Present, and Future (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - October 1, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

A Conceptual Approach to Understanding and Managing Men ’s Orgasmic Difficulties
Premature ejaculation (PE) and delayed/inhibited ejaculation (DE) are 2 ejaculatory problems that may negatively affect the sexual relationship and cause distress. Although no specific cause explains these problems when they have been lifelong conditions, understanding both biological and psychological factors may be relevant to treatment choices, with options ranging from pharmacologic to psychobehavioral. Integrating treatment modalities may lead to better outcomes but may also require greater psychological and resource investment from the patient or couple. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - August 24, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: David L. Rowland Source Type: research

Management of Priapism
This article highlights current guidelines and the contemporary literature on priapism. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - August 24, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Christian Ericson, Bryce Baird, Gregory A. Broderick Source Type: research

Sexual Wellness in Cisgender Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual People
Cisgender sexual minority persons have sexual wellness needs that go well beyond disease prevention. Despite historical asymmetries in research and clinical attention to sexual wellness in cisgender lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons, a growing body of evidence exists on how to optimally care for these populations. Additional research and development is warranted. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - August 23, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Brett A. Stark, Juno Obedin-Maliver, Alan W. Shindel Source Type: research

Incorporating the Principles of Sex Therapy into Urologic Care
Urologic conditions and their treatments can have a significant impact on patients ’ sexual functioning and sexual health. Although urologists address sexual dysfunction within their scope of practice, sexual health conversations occur rarely and focus narrowly on physiologic sexual function. The sex therapy perspective considers biologic, psychological, relationship, and cultur al aspects of sexuality. We propose that urologists benefit from taking this perspective when performing sexual health assessment. Urologists are not required to provide sex therapy but can optimize their patient’s sexual well-being by ...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - August 21, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Daniela Wittmann, Sharon L. Bober Source Type: research

Penile Fractures
Penile fracture is a urologic injury with an etiology that varies based on the cultural milieu. Diagnosis can be made based on history and physical examination alone. Patients should be evaluated with RUG or cystoscopy when urethral injury is suspected. Ultrasound or MRI is a helpful adjunct when the diagnosis is unclear, and can assist in identifying the location of the rupture. Surgical management is favored over conservative measures to improve outcomes. Delayed surgical repair may not be inferior to immediate intervention. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - August 21, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Allen Simms, Nima Baradaran, Tom F. Lue, Benjamin N. Breyer Source Type: research

Stem Cell and Gene-Based Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction affects an increasing number of men. The mainstays of management include oral medications, local erectogenic agents, and surgical placement of prosthetic devices. Newer technologies such as stem cell and gene therapy have been investigated as a means to restore spontaneous erectile capacity. Mesenchymal stem cells are thought to produce a local immunomodulatory and pro-repair milieu at the area of injury or needed repair. Gene therapy involves targeting the erectogenic pathway to augment factors involved in producing a natural erection. Such therapies are considered experimental and should be used in t...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - August 21, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ethan L. Matz, Ryan P. Terlecki Source Type: research

Oncosexology
is a multidisciplinary field composed of physicians, nurses, psychologists, and other health care professionals focusing on sexual issues in patients with cancer. Although any cancer diagnosis or treatment can be associated with sexual dysfunction, pelvic malignancies (such as prostate, bladder, or colorectal cancer) have the highest rates of sexual dysfunction in men. This includes erectile dysfunction, testosterone deficiency, ejaculatory dysfunction, orgasmic dysfunction, sexual incontinence, and penile shortening. Testicular cancer and hematologic malignancies also have a significant impact on patients ’ sexual ...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - August 21, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Carolyn A. Salter, John P. Mulhall Source Type: research

Is There a Role for Vascular Surgery in the Contemporary Management of Erectile Dysfunction?
Erectile dysfunction management is intended to restore capacity for penile erection. Although effective, none of the currently available treatments approved by the US Food and Drug Administration reverse erectile dysfunction pathophysiology. Penile arterial bypass surgery is intended to restore erectile function without the need for the chronic use of vasoactive medications or penile prosthesis placement. In select cases, venous ligation surgery may be beneficial, but this approach is not supported by the most recent guidelines on erectile dysfunction management. The lack of high-quality research surrounding penile vascula...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - August 21, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Ricardo Munarriz, Nannan Thirumavalavan, Martin S. Gross Source Type: research

Energy-Based Therapies for Erectile Dysfunction
Energy-based therapies are novel treatments for erectile dysfunction that are thought to work by stimulation of tissue vasodilation, neoangiogenesis, and so forth. Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (Li-ESWT) is the energy-based therapy with the most robust evidence basis demonstrating efficacy and safety. Among this evidence, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating Li-ESWT have largely been focused on responders to phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Many of these RCTs have limitations including short follow-up durations, inconsistent protocols, and small sample sizes. Until more diverse patient population...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - August 12, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Raghav Pai, Jesse Ory, Carlos Delgado, Ranjith Ramasamy Source Type: research

Prostate Cancer Genetics: Changing the Paradigm of Care
Our understanding the genomic landscape of prostate cancer has greatly expanded over the last few years. The Human Genome Project initiated by the NIH in 1990 and completed in 2003 accelerated the application of genetic testing in daily patient care for many diseases, including prostate cancer. We are increasingly learning how these genetic studies may inform all aspects of prostate cancer care from screening and diagnosis, through the treatment of early-stage disease, to life-threatening metastatic castration-resistant disease. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 29, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Leonard G. Gomella, Veda N. Giri Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Prostate Cancer Genetics: The Urologic Research Promissory Note Is Being Cashed
In 2017, the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center of Thomas Jefferson University held the First International Consensus Conference on The Role of Genetic Testing for Inherited Prostate Cancer Risk, which was organized by Leonard G. Gomella, Karen E. Knudsen, and Veda N. Giri.1 This was followed by the 2019 Philadelphia Prostate Cancer Consensus Program: Implementation of Genetic Testing for Prostate Cancer by the same group.2 These conferences, which were multidisciplinary and attended by national and international experts, were hugely successful. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 29, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Kevin R. Loughlin Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Prostate Cancer Genetics: Changing the Paradigm of Care
UROLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 29, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Leonard G. Gomella, Veda N. Giri Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 29, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contributors
KEVIN R. LOUGHLIN, MD, MBA (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 29, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Contents
Kevin R. Loughlin (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 29, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Sexual Dysfunction: A New Era (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 29, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Clinical Multigene Testing for Prostate Cancer
Germline genetic testing for prostate cancer (PC) is increasingly important as the clinical utility of germline variants in this patient population is understood better. To better characterize the clinical landscape of germline testing in PC, published clinical cohorts of PC who underwent clinical germline genetic analysis at point of care are reviewed. Limitations and heterogeneity of these cohorts are highlighted and pathogenic results with established or potential clinical utility in PC noted. The need for additional germline genetic studies is underscored, because the number of PC patients studied lags greatly behind t...
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 14, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tala Berro, Elizabeth Barrett, Saud H. AlDubayan Source Type: research

Genetic Counseling for Men with Prostate Cancer
This article provides an overview of the historical aspects of genetic counseling, discusses the components needed to provide proper genetic counseling, summarizes genes related to hereditary prostate cancer risk, and reviews genetic privacy and genetic discrimination concerns related to germline genetic testing. (Source: Urologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Urologic Clinics of North America - June 14, 2021 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Colette Hyatt, Carey McDougall, Susan Miller-Samuel, Jessica Russo Source Type: research