Estimation of genetic parameters for growth traits and Kleiber ratios in Boer x Central Highland goat
This study was conducted to estimate genetic parameters for growth and Kleiber ratio traits in Boer x Central Highland goats. On-station data collected from 2009 to 2018 were utilized for the study. A general linear model procedure of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS, version 9.0) was used to analyze fixed effects, and genetic parameters were estimated using the WOMBAT software fitted animal model. The log-likelihood ratio test was used for selecting the best fitted model. Based on best fitted models, the total heritability (h2t) estimate for birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), six-month weight (SMWT), nine-month...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - August 3, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effect of supplementing pomegranate peel infusion on body growth, feed efficiency, biochemical metabolites and antioxidant status of broiler chicken
The objective of the present study was to evaluate efficacy of pomegranate peel infusion (PPI) on growth characteristics, feed efficiency, blood metabolites and antioxidant profile of broiler chicken. A total of 200 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 10 birds. Pomegranate peel infusion was supplemented in drinking water to 3 treatment groups in a graded dose. At the end of the trial (42  days), 2 broiler chickens from each pen were sampled for serum and liver tissue. Results revealed that low-dose (50 mL/L) PPI influenced (L:P 
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 31, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Review on small ruminant conservation status and prospects in India
AbstractSmall ruminants always play a major role in the agricultural economy of India. They provide livelihoods to numerous small and marginal farmers. The diversity of small ruminant population is enormous in the country which contributes to agrarian economy. However, the genetic variety is now at risk due to indiscriminate cross-breeding, and change is farmer ’s preference towards high-producing breeds. The population statistics is showing a declining trend for the past several years. During time of climate change and outbreak of novel diseases, this genetic diversity is important as consumer preferences and climat...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 31, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Review of clinical aspects, epidemiology and diagnosis of haemotropic Mycoplasma ovis in small ruminants: current status and future perspectives in tropics focusing on Malaysia
AbstractMycoplasma ovis (formerlyEperythrozoon ovis) is an epierythrocytic parasitic bacterium of small ruminants known as haemotropic mycoplasma, which is transmitted mechanically by biting flies and contaminated instruments. Acute mycoplasmosis causes severe haemolytic anaemia and mortality in young animals. At the same time, chronic disease may produce mild anaemia and varying degrees of morbidity depending on several factors, including age, reproductive status, the plane of nutrition, immunological status and the presence of concurrent infection. HaemotropicMycoplasma ovis is currently recognised as an emerging zoonoti...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 26, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effect of different altitude on reproductive performances and mineral assessment in Ouled Djellal ewes during the mating period
This study made it possible to describe th e evolution of some mineral elements in ewes according to whether they are fecundable or not and according to the region (mountain, tableland, plain) during the mating period. This gave us useful information on the impact of plasma minerals levels on reproductive parameters. (Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production)
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 25, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effects of increasing nitrogen levels in Mombasa grass on pasture characteristics, chemical composition, and beef cattle performance in the humid tropics of the Amazon
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increasing nitrogen levels (150, 300, and 450  kg ha−1 of N  year−1) inMegathyrsus maximus cv. Mombasa in the humid tropics of the Amazon. The following parameters were evaluated: pasture agronomic characteristics, herbage chemical composition, and beef cattle performance. A total of 24 nine-month-old Nellore bulls with initial mean weight of 173  ± 1.95 kg were used for the performance test. The experimental design was a randomized block with three treatments. Herbage mass and leaf mass contents were increased by the highest n...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 25, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Shade-seeking behavior and grazing activity of Pantaneira and Girolando heifers
This study aimed to model and compare the shade-seeking behavior and grazing activity of Pantaneira and Girolando heifers by time of day. Eight heifers were used, four Pantaneira and four Girolando (3/4 Holstein  × 1/4 Gir). The animals were about 18  months old and weighed 328 ± 14 kg (Pantaneira) and 430 ± 28 kg (Girolando). Shade-seeking behavior and grazing activity were recorded during the summer from 06:00 to 18:00 h in 10-min intervals, totaling 288 observations for each breed. A binary regression model was developed by mean s of a Bay...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 25, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Update on Peste des petits ruminants status in South East Nigeria: serological and farmers ’ awareness investigation, and potential risk factors
AbstractPeste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious, trans-boundary viral disease of sheep and goats that have hindered successful small ruminant farming. Its current status in South East Nigeria with respect to its prevalence and farmers ’ awareness was studied. Three states, Anambra, Ebonyi, and Enugu, were randomly selected for the study. Sera samples from 113 goats and 172 sheep (collected from December 2017 to June 2018) were randomly collected and analysed for the presence of PPRV antibodies, while structured interview schedu les were conducted to elicit information on farmers’ awareness of th...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 25, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Prevalence and control implications of bovine trypanosomes in endemic areas of northern Uganda
AbstractAfrican animal trypanosomiasis (AAT), a disease complex caused by tsetse fly –transmittedTrypanosoma brucei brucei,T. congolense savannah ITS,and T. vivax, continues to inflict heavy losses to the animal industry in terms of decreased livestock production and productivity. Live bait technology and chemotherapy have been used as a control strategy in northern Uganda since 2006 with minimal success. Here, we report the results of a cross-sectional study carried out in Lango subregion, Uganda, to assess the species prevalence of bovine trypanosome in cattle using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of trypanos...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 22, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Estimating the total economic costs of Neospora caninum infections in dairy cows in Turkey
In this study, the distribution of economic costs caused by neosporosis per cow was determined to be 67.3% for abortion, 16.8% prolonged calving interval, 4.6% milk loss, 3.5% additional artificial insemination, and 7.7% veterinary and diagnostic costs, respectively. All studies that have been conducted so far on Neosporosis are focused on the prevalence and the diagnosis of the disease in Turkey. In this study, we firstly determined the economic costs due toN. caninum infections and try to attract attention on the economic impacts of the disease. As a result, awareness among breeders regarding the epidemiology, control, a...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 20, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Coronaviruses in cattle
AbstractBovine coronaviruses are spread all over the world. They cause two types of clinical manifestations in cattle either an enteric, calf diarrhoea and winter dysentery in adult cattle, or respiratory in all age groups of cattle. The role of coronaviruses in respiratory infections is still a hot topic of discussion since they have been isolated from sick as well as healthy animals and replication of disease is rarely successful. Bovine coronavirus infection is characterised by high morbidity but low mortality. The laboratory diagnosis is typically based on serological or molecular methods. There is no registered drug f...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 17, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Influence of   uterine torsion in water buffaloes ( Bubalus bubalis ) with insights into the hematological and biochemical prognostic values regarding to manual correction
AbstractBovine uterine torsion refers to the rotation of the gravid uterus around its longitudinal axis. It is the dominant cause of dystocia in buffaloes. A total of two hundred and seventeen dystocia ’s Egyptian buffaloes were examined, and another twenty were apparently normal at the full term (healthy pregnant group). From the dystocia’s buffaloes, twenty-three percentage (n = 50) was uterine torsion after gynecology inspection at presentation (Ut group) and 5 days after the manual correction (Utc group). The buffaloes with uterine torsion exhibited loss of appetite, constipation, colic, ...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 17, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Productive performance and carcass yield of egg type male chickens raised with outdoor access in the tropics
This study aimed to compare growth and slaughter performance of layer-type slow-growing Rhode Island Red male chickens grown with and without access to an area with vegetation in the tropics. Raised until 115  days of age, a total of 156, 1-day-old birds were randomly allocated to two treatments: total confinement (TC) and partial confinement (PC), with 6 replicates of 13 birds each. Birds grown under TC conditions reached a live weight of 2016.68 g while those raised with access to outdoors attained 1 981.07 g, without statistical differences. Feed intake and daily feed intake were higher (P  &thinsp...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 13, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Spirulina inclusion levels in a broiler ration: evaluation of growth performance, gut integrity, and immunity
This study was conducted to investigate the impact of spirulina supplementation in ration on the humoral and cellular immune response, gut histomorphology, and economics of broiler production. A total of 120 day-old chicks were assigned to 4 dietary treatment; SPA0, SPA1, SPA2, and SPA3, each with 3 replicates having 10 birds in each replicate until 42  days of age. Treatment SPA0 was kept as control, and the birds were fed on basal ration, while the other treatments SPA1, SPA2, and SPA3 were supplemented with 1, 1.5, and 2 g spirulina/kg feed, respectively. Dietary supplementation of SPA3 significantly (P 
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 12, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from diarrheic and in-contact cattle and buffalo calves
AbstractEscherichia coli field isolates from calves were characterized and categorized into the most significant diarrheagenic pathotypes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays with different specific primers. The used PCR systems were designed to detect sequences representing the group-specific virulence genes encoding fimbriaef5 (K99), Shiga toxins (stx1 andstx2), heat-stable enterotoxins (st), heat-labile enterotoxins (lt), intimin (eae), hemolysin (hylA), and EAEC heat-stable enterotoxin (astA). In the present work, a total of 150E. coli field isolates were recovered from 150 fecal swabs collected from 100 diarrh...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effect of the addition of Enterolobium cyclocarpum pods and Gliricidia sepium forage to Brachiaria brizantha on dry matter degradation, volatile fatty acid concentration, and in vitro methane production
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro fermentation and methane (CH4) production in the grassBrachiaria brizantha (B) alone or when mixed withGliricidia sepium forage (G) and/orEnterolobium cyclocarpum pods (E). Theses substrates were incubated in the following proportions: B100 (B100%), B85E15 (B85%  + E15%), B85G15 (B85% + G15%), B85GE15 (B85% + G7.5% + E7.5%), and B70GE30 (B70% + G15% + E15%). Dry matter degradation (DMD), volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, and CH4 production were measured at 12, 24, and 48...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 9, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Factors affecting milk yield and composition of Tunisian camels ( Camelus dromedarius ) over complete lactation
This study aimed to investigate the milk production potential and the impact of nongenetic factors on milk yield and composition of Tunisian dromedary camels. Milk recording and sampling were carried out at monthly intervals over complete lactation for 3  years from 95 camels reared in intensive and semi-intensive systems. The overall means of daily milk yield and fat, protein, total solids, and ash contents were 4.21 ± 1.98 l/day, 2.45 ± 0.9%, 2.67 ± 0.74%, 10.75 ± 1.41%, and 0.85 ± 0.08%, respectively. The t...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 8, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Quantifying the effect of inbreeding on average daily gain and Kleiber ratio in Mazandaran native chickens
AbstractThe aims of this study was to evaluate inbreeding effects for growth rate (average daily gain from hatch to 8  weeks of age (ADG1–8), average daily gain from hatch to 12 weeks of age (ADG1–12), average daily gain from 8 weeks of age to 12 weeks (ADG8–12), average daily gain from hatch to sex maturity (ADG1-SM), average daily gain from 8 weeks of age to sex maturity (ADG8-SM), average daily gain f rom 12 weeks to sex maturity (ADG12-SM), and Kleiber ratios (KR1–8, KR1–12, KR8–12) in Mazandaran native chickens. The data set of 82,446 pedigreed individu...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 8, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Feedlot performance of Tanzanian Shorthorn Zebu finished on local feed resources
AbstractA study was conducted in Hanang District to assess potential for on-farm feedlot finishing of Tanzanian Shorthorn Zebu (TSHZ) in dry season using locally available feed resources. A total of 65 (2 –3 years old, 150–250 kg LWT) steers were randomly distributed into two dietary treatments in three villages. The steers were finished either in feedlots using compounded diets or under free grazing in accordance with farmers’ practice. Following 90 days of feeding, all steers were slaughte red for detailed carcass and meat quality assessment. Growth performance, carcass and meat quality o...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 7, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Correction to: Camelids: new players in the international animal production context
In the originally published version of the article, Figure 4 image has an error. Corrected Fig. 4 is shown below. (Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production)
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 6, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Genetic analysis of growth and egg production traits in synthetic colored broiler female line using animal model
AbstractVariance and genetic parameters were estimated for growth and production traits of synthetic broiler female line (PB-2) using REML animal model to delineate the population status, direct additive, maternal genetic, permanent environmental effects, besides genetic trends and performance of economic traits. The overall least squares mean (LSM) for body weights at 0  day (BW0), at 2 weeks (BW2), at 4 weeks (BW4), at 5 weeks (BW5), shank length at 5 weeks (SL5), and breast angle at 5 weeks (BA5) of age were 40.03 g, 207.40 g, 589.58 g, 828.51 g, 76.89 cm, and 80.78...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - July 2, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Study on prevalence and bacterial etiology of mastitis, and effects of subclinical mastitis and stage of lactation on SCC in dairy goats in Egypt
This study was designed to investigate prevalence and etiological agents of caprine mastitis and assess the efficacy of somatic cell count (SCC) as marker of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy goats. This study was carried out on 249 randomly selected lactating goats in different lactation stages and examined clinically. Of these animals, 477 milk samples were aseptically collected and screened for bacterial carriage. SCC was assessed in 234 apparently normal milk samples, and SCC  ≥ 106 cells/ml was indicator for SCM. Prevalence of clinical mastitis (CM) was 33.73% and 16.87% at animal and udder-hal...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 24, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A retrospective sero-epidemiological survey of bovine brucellosis on commercial and communal farming systems in Namibia from 2004 to 2018
AbstractCattle production is the major livestock production activity and the mainstay of Namibia ’s economy. Sustained beef exports are contingent on a sound sanitary environment where diseases such as brucellosis are under control. In this retrospective study, 49,718 bovine brucellosis testing results from 2004 to 2018 were analyzed to determine the proportion of sero-positive cattle and her ds, and the spatial distribution of positive reactors from commercial and communal areas. In total, 244 positive reactors were identified based on the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and the Complement Fixation Test (CFT) in series, givi...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 23, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

GIS-augmented survey of poultry farms with respiratory problems in Haryana
AbstractAmong various infectious diseases of poultry, diseases of the respiratory tract are responsible for considerable economic losses. The present study was conducted to evaluate some of the risk factors, which included locations of farm, ventilation facilities, number of farms in 1  km2 area, agro-climatic zone, and age of flock in relation to respiratory problem in Haryana, India. One hundred poultry flocks with respiratory problems were identified and selected for conducting the survey. The “ODK Collect” app installed on a smartphone was used to capture coordinates of the farms. The collected data wa...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 23, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effects of clinical mastitis and puerperal diseases on reproductive efficiency of dairy cows
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) occurring before or after the first AI postpartum, and puerperal diseases (PD) on the pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI), number of AI/conception, and days open (DO) of two different dairy herds (Girolando and Holstein). The CM, PD (retained placenta and metritis), and reproductive data were collected from two dairy farms throughout 1  year. Both farms were located in the southern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. One herd was composed of Girolando cows and the other of Holstein cows. Cows were inseminated after estrus dete...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 23, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Application of platelet-rich plasma in the in vitro production of bovine embryos
AbstractThe aim of this study was to replace fetal bovine serum (FBS) with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for in vitro production of bovine embryos. The maturation media (TCM-199 medium) for the cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) was supplemented with 5% (G5) and 10% (G10) PRP or 10% FBS (GC). After fertilization, the presumed zygotes were randomly distributed in culture medium supplemented with 5% (G5) and 10% (G10) PRP or 10% FBS (GC) for 7  days. Cumulus cell (CC) expansion was greater (P 
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 23, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Angora goat gastrointestinal parasite knowledge and control practices among Lesotho farming communities
This study assessed how the AEZ of the Angora goat farming communities influences farmers’ demographic and socio-economic profiles, GIP knowledge, and goat management practices. Interviews were conducted with farmers from Maseru and Quthing districts selected from four areas that r epresent the AEZs. Our findings indicate that middle-aged males dominate goat farming in all AEZs. Also, most farmers only reached primary education, hence rely on experience for goat production. Familiarity with parasites differed among farmers from different AEZs although most viewed the GIP impac t on goat health as high. Many farmers f...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 21, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Animal rabies situation in Sultanate of Oman (2017 –2019)
AbstractSuccessful preventive and control measures of zoonotic diseases require updated epidemiological data. Sylvatic rabies is endemic in Oman since 1990. Studying of the prevalence of animal rabies in Oman (2017 –2019) was the goal of the current study besides the clinical–histopathological investigations of rabies in different animal species. A total of 117 whole brains of different animal species from different regions of Oman were examined by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and histopathology for rab ies during 2017–2019. Sixty-four samples (54.7%) were positive for rabies by FAT. The most affected ...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 20, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Replacement of soybean meal with levels of inclusion of soya waste in the diet of growing goats
AbstractAn experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with soya waste at different levels on intake, digestibility and growth in goats. Eighteen male goat kids with initial body weight (BW) of 13.0  kg were distributed equally to three dietary groups. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and concentrate mixture, and each goat was assigned to an individual pen. Soybean meal in the concentrate mixture was replaced with soya waste at 0% (T1), 50% (T2) and 100% (T3) levels in respective dietary groups. These diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Results showed that animal...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 20, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Muturu cattle breed management in the smallholder farming area of the Ou émé district in the south of Benin: rearing practices, objectives, and constraints
AbstractAn exploratory survey was conducted to understand breeding practices and breeding objectives as well as the constraints as a first step towards developing breeding strategies for the conservation of Muturu cattle breed in Ou émé smallholder farming area of South Benin. Data were generated through randomly interviewing 100 selected Muturu cattle keepers in the municipalities of Adjarra, Adjohoun, Akpro-Missérété, and Bonou using an electronic animal genetic resource characterization, inventory, and monitoring tool. Results indicated that the Muturu cattle were mainly kept for their...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 18, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Behavioral responses of turkeys subjected to different climatic conditions
AbstractI was evaluated the effect of seven different combinations of temperature, air velocity, and relative air humidity on the frequency and duration of eating, drinking, resting, cannibalism, dust bathing, scratching, ground pecking, shivering, and stretching behaviors of turkeys at three different ages. The combinations tested of temperature, relative air humidity, and air velocity were, respectively: 1 (22 °C, 50%, 1 m/s); 2 (26.2 °C, 73.2%, 0.45 m/s); 3 (26.6 °C, 71.2%, 1 m/s); 4 (28.9 °C, 72%, 1.4 m/s); 5 (31.1 °C, 85%, 0.45 m/s); 6 (34.1 °C, 82.1%, 1 m/s); and 7 (34.4 °C, 82.1%, 1.4 m/s...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 17, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effect of increasing pre-pubertal concentrate levels on reproductive and lactation performance of Nili-Ravi Buffalo heifers
In conclusion, the results of the study showed that Nili-Ravi buffalo heifers achieved puberty at 23 months with feeding of concentrate (CP = 17.9%, ME = 2.66 Mcal/kg) during pre-pubertal stage at the rate of 0.5 % of the body weight with better reproductive performance. (Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production)
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 16, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Variation in the KRTAP6-3 gene and its association with wool characteristics in Pakistani sheep breeds and breed-crosses
This study investigated variation in the keratin-associated proteins gene,KRTAP6-3, in 5 Pakistani sheep breeds/crosses using polymerase chain reaction-single strand confirmation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. Different banding patterns were revealed, including previously described patterns and a novel pattern (named variantH). The amplified PCR product of the novel banding pattern was directly sequenced, and a synonymous nucleotide variation c.51T>C was revealed. Among the wool traits assessed, a strong correlation (r = 0.929;P 
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 15, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effect of flunixin meglumine and aspirin administration on conception rate and estrous cycle characteristics of Egyptian Baladi cows during hot season
AbstractThe current investigation aims to evaluate the effects of flunixin meglumine (FM) and aspirin as non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration on estrous cycles characteristics and conception rate of Egyptian Baladi cows during hot season. In the first phase, 30 cows were divided into 3 groups, 10 cows for each treatment. The first group was treated with FM at the rate of 1.1  mg/kg body weight (BW) intramuscular, while the second group was administrated aspirin solution orally at the rate of 50 mg/kg BW. The third group was assigned as control (CG) that has no treatment. The FM group was admi...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 14, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Communal cattle farmer ’s knowledge, attitudes and practices on ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), tick control and acaricide resistance
AbstractThe aim of this study was to reveal communal farmer ’s knowledge, attitudes and practice on ticks and tick-borne diseases affecting cattle, tick control methods used and their knowledge on acaricide resistance. A total of 160 structured questionnaires are prepared and randomly administered to cattle farmers in Sinqu and Elundini communities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Associations between the area, gender, age, employment, source of income, level of education and farming experience were statistically tested using Chi-square test. Gall sickness (63%) was the most prevailing tick-borne disease i...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 14, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Characterization of the production system and breeding practices of indigenous goat keepers in Hai district, Northern Tanzania: implications for community-based breeding program
AbstractIndigenous breeding practices of the farmers and the livestock production system form the bases for designing community-based breeding programs. The aim of this study was to characterize production system and examine breeding practices of the indigenous goat farmers in Hai district in Northern Tanzania to determine their relevance in establishing a community-based breeding program in the area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in which information was collected from 160 households randomly selected from 6 villages. Average household herd was 29.2 goats with majority keeping less than 20 goats. Major reasons fo...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 13, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Coat color alterations over the years and their association with growth performances in the Menz sheep central nucleus and community-based breeding programs
AbstractIn the traditional Menz sheep breeding, communities select against black coat color and therefore its frequency is declining over time. We hypothesize that this exercise is causing the loss of an important gene pool. Data collected from on-station Menz sheep nucleus (n = 1992) and community-based breeding program (CBBP) (n = 5578) were analyzed to (1) assess color proportion dynamics over years and (2) associate phenotypic performances and estimated breeding values (EBVs) for growth traits with coat color of the animals. The on-station nucleus considered growth trait as selection criteri...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 11, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Alterations of hemogram, serum biochemistry, oxidative/nitrosative balance, and copper/zinc homeostasis in dromedary camels naturally infected with poxvirus
AbstractCamel pox (CMLP), a contagious viral disease of camels, causes considerable economic loss in terms of milk, meat, wool, and leather production besides reduction of draught power. The effect of spontaneous CMLP infection on hemogram, oxidative/nitrosative imbalance, and trace mineral homeostasis has not been studied earlier in dromedary camels. In the current study, hemogram, serum biochemistry, oxidant/antioxidant imbalance, and zinc (Zn) –copper (Cu) homeostasis were evaluated in healthy and pox-infected camels. The CMLP was confirmed from pooled samples of vesicular fluid, oral mucosa, and skin samples by p...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Milk production and lactation length in Ankole cattle and Ankole crossbreds in Rwanda
This study assessed daily milk yield (DMY), 100-day (MY100), and 305-day (MY305) milk yield, and lactation length (LL) in purebred Ankole cattle and Ankole crossbreds, and the influence of environmental factors on these traits. Milk yield data were obtained for 865 cows and 1234 lactations and analyzed using a mixed linear model. The overall least squares mean of DMY, MY100, and MY305 across breed groups was 2.7  L (N = 1234, SD = 1.7), 262 L (N = 959, SD = 176), and 759 L (N = 448, SD = 439), respectively, while the average ...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 8, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effect of dietary supplemental ascorbic acid and folic acid on the growth performance, redox status, and immune status of broiler chickens under heat stress
AbstractThis experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental L-ascorbic acid (AA) and folic acid (FA) on broiler chickens under heat stress (HS) conditions when supplemented either alone or in combination. For this aim, the effect of these supplements on the broilers ’ growth performance, some blood parameters, antioxidant, and immune status were evaluated. Hatchling Cobb-500 broilers (total = 240) were fed either corn and soybean meal-based diet (control group) or basal diet supplemented with 200 mg AA/kg diet, 1.5 mg FA/kg diet, or 200 mg AA plus 1.5  mg...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 7, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Precision finishing of South African lambs in feedlots: a review
AbstractIn the intensification of sheep production systems, feedlot finishing plays a fundamental role in preparing lambs for slaughter, as well as relieving the grazing pressure on pasture. The profit margins in feedlot operations are often narrow and require the economics of scale to generate a sufficient income. In order to minimise expenses, intensive management and precision rearing of lambs to an ideal slaughter weight is needed to obtain premium carcass prices. The South African sheep industry is made up of wool, dual-purpose as well as meat type breeds, which also vary in terms of maturity. In order to implement pr...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effect of sexed semen, puberty and breeding ages on fertility of Holstein dairy heifers treated with double Ovsynch protocol
The objective of this study was to evaluate the fertility of sexed semen compared with conventional semen with regard to the puberty and breeding ages of Holstein dairy heifers subjected to double Ovsynch protocol with fixed time of artificial insemination. A total of 468 Holstein heifers were divided into two groups. The first group was 122 dairy heifers inseminated via conventional semen, while the second group was 346 heifers inseminated with sexed semen. The puberty and breeding ages of heifers were determined from the farm records. Estrus was synchronized using the double Ovsynch protocol. Numbers were estimated for p...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 3, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Dietary enzyme addition on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of pigs fed diets containing avocado oil cake silage
AbstractAvocado oil cake (AOC) was mixed with dried grape pomace and sugarcane molasses and ensiled for 90  days. A total mixed ration containing 5% AOC silage was formulated and top dressed with Axtra® XB enzyme at 0, 2.5 and 5%. The experimental diets were fed to 24 (8 pigs/diet) Large White × Landrace (LW × LR) cross pigs (± 22-kg live weight). Growth performance data was recorded for 60 days, after which the pigs were adapted to chromic oxide mixed diet for 3 days, whereby faeces were collected for 5 days after to determine nutrient digestion. Following nutrient digesti...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 2, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Prevalence of rotavirus A infection and the detection of type G3P[11] strain in ruminants in Yobe state, Nigeria
AbstractRotaviruses have a worldwide distribution and the infection is associated with diarrhea in young of ruminants as well as children. However, limited data exist on its prevalence and types in Yobe state, Nigeria. Detection of rotavirus A and types in ruminant population in Yobe state was the aim of the study. A total of 470 diarrheic fecal samples were collected and tested for rotavirus and types using serology and molecular techniques respectively. A prevalence rate of 2.98% (14/470) was found in the three species with specific rates of 2.9% (6/202), 3.8% (6/158), and 1.8% (2/110) in goat, sheep, and cattle respecti...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 2, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

First report of group A rotavirus and bovine coronavirus associated with neonatal calf diarrhea in the northwest of Argentina
AbstractGroup A rotavirus (RVA) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) are the two main viral enteropathogens associated with neonatal calf diarrhea. The aim of the present survey was to investigate the epidemiology and the role of RVA and BCoV in the presentation of dairy and beef calf diarrhea in Lerma Valley of Salta province, within the Northwest region of Argentina. Stool samples of calves with or without diarrhea younger than 2  months of age were collected from 19 dairy farms and 20 beef farms between the years 2014 and 2016. Stool samples were screened for RVA and BCoV detection by ELISA. Heminested multiplex RT-PCR wa...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - June 2, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effectiveness of tunnel ventilation as dairy cow housing in hot climates: rectal temperatures during heat stress and seasonal variation in milk yield
AbstractTunnel ventilation is an increasingly popular approach to mitigate the effects of heat stress on dairy cattle. Tunnel-ventilation barns use a bank of high-power fans to move air horizontally from one end of the barn to the other at cow level. The overall objective of the present experiments was to determine whether tunnel ventilation is superior to housing with fans and sprinklers with respect to rectal temperature during heat stress and seasonal variation in milk yield. In the first study, rectal temperatures were measured for 1097 lactating Holstein cows in six freestall barns with fans and sprinklers and 575 lac...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - May 30, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin E, selenium yeast or both on egg incubation response, embryonic development, keet quality, and posthatch growth of helmeted guinea fowl breeders
This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin E (vit. E), selenium yeast (Se yeast), or both on egg incubation response, embryonic development, keet quality, and posthatch growth of helmeted guinea fowls. Two hundred and forty 24-week old helmeted guinea fowl hens (average weight 1.75  + 0.22 kg) and cocks (average weight 2.15 + 0.20 kg) were assigned into 24 pens; each pen housed 10 hens and 2 cocks. There were four dietary treatments consisting of a basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with vit. E (30 IU/kg), Se yeast (0.3 mg/kg Se), or both. ...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - May 30, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Carcass characteristics and meat quality of slow-growing broilers fed diets containing dry residue of cassava, with or without the addition of carbohydrases
This study evaluated the carcass and portion yield and meat quality of slow-growing broilers fed diets with increasing levels of dry residue of cassava (DRC), with or without the addition of carbohydrases. A total of 1100 Label Rouge male broilers were distributed in a completely randomized 2  × 5 factorial design (with or without the addition of carbohydrases and five levels of DRC [0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0%]), with five replicates and 22 birds per experimental unit. No interaction (P >  0.05) was observed between enzyme addition and DRC levels for the carcass yield, portion yield (b...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - May 30, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Economic evaluation from beef cattle production industry with intensification in Brazil ’s tropical pastures
This study aimed to evaluate different scenarios (year, supplementation level) about economic results of beef cattle production during rearing and finishing phase in Brazilian ’s tropical pastures. Four scenarios were evaluated in combination with fourteen supplements, and it was originated from some research developed inside Forage Crops and Grasslands section from São Paulo State University among years 2011 and 2014. The economic evaluation was analyzed by operating cost, total operational costs, gross revenue, operating profit, and financial net income. Besides profitability, internal rate of return (IRR), ...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - May 29, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Current status of research on linear type traits in Indian cattle and future strategies
AbstractLinear type traits are of quite importance to animal breeders because of their significant influence on production performance as well as longevity and thus on overall profitability of the enterprise. To sustain the high milk production of dairy animals for a longer time without facing adverse consequences on animal health, it is important to include type traits in selection criteria. Besides, type traits have been found to have correlations with many economic traits. Dairy advanced countries are using linear type traits of cows in their selection programs, but due emphasis has not been given to type traits in Indi...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - May 27, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research