Achieving Mental Health Equity: Addictions
Despite available treatment options for addiction, there remains an abysmal uptake of treatment initiation and engagement among varying communities. The existing treatment gap is based on historical occurrences, including discriminatory drug policies that have targeted communities of color with addiction. The current opioid epidemic and differential treatment therein exemplifies the severity of the existing disparity in addiction treatment, highlighting barriers such as institutionalized racism and vulnerabilities in the social determinants of health. To mitigate the disparity, an array of solutions to address these inequi...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - August 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ayana Jordan, Myra L. Mathis, Jessica Isom Source Type: research

Achieving Mental Health Equity
This article briefly reviews the influences of protective and risk factors of child and adolescent mental health, and explores promising practices and outcomes of evidence-based programs designed to improve the mental health of youth, and the barriers for accessing quality and evidence-based child and adolescent mental health service delivery systems. The authors provide recommendations for individual practice improvements and policy, funding, and organizational practice improvements that will support mental health equity in child and adolescent populations. (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - August 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Toi Blakley Harris, Sade C. Udoetuk, Sala Webb, Andria Tatem, Lauren M. Nutile, Cheryl S. Al-Mateen Source Type: research

Consumer and Family Perspectives to Achieve Mental Health Equity
Severe mental health disparities exist in the United States, with reduced access to community-based care and poorer recovery outcomes associated with people of color, women, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals. One strategy to reduce these disparities is to incorporate the perspectives of mental health consumers and their families into care planning and delivery. Successful integration of personal experience with evidence-based interventions can help reduce stigma and improve retention in care. To leverage public policy to reduce mental health disparities, New York City has launched ThriveNYC, the nation...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - August 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chirlane I. McCray Source Type: research

Achieving Mental Health Equity
Developing an equitable mental health system has been a dream since my residency in the early 1980s. Throughout my career leading large urban mental health systems, I recognized that health disparities limited treatment options based on race and ethnicity. Leading up to my 2018 American Psychiatric Association (APA) presidency, it became clear that achieving the goal of mental health equity would require specific actions at a national level by leaders who made it a priority. It was for that reason I chose to include diversity and inclusion in my presidential agenda as part of a strategy to reduce the disparities in health ...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - August 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Altha J. Stewart, Ruth S. Shim Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Achieving Mental Health Equity
PSYCHIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - August 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Altha J. Stewart, Ruth S. Shim Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - August 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Contributors
HARSH K. TRIVEDI, MD, MBA (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - August 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Contents
Altha J. Stewart and Ruth S. Shim (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - August 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Psychiatric Ethics (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - August 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Business Case for Mental Health Equity
This article describes the root causes and cost of disparities and offers an innovative perspective on aligning stakeholders to make the business case for equity in treat ment and outcomes. (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - July 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: James Corbett, Temi Olafunmiloye, Joseph R. Betancourt Source Type: research

Mental Health and Substance Use Disorder
This article describes the root causes and cost of disparities and offers an innovative perspective on aligning stakeholders to make the business case for equity in treat ment and outcomes. (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - July 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: James Corbett, Temi Olafunmiloye, Joseph R. Betancourt Source Type: research

Mental Health Equity in the Twenty-First Century
Significant mental health disparities persist in screening, diagnosis, and treatment for racial and ethnic minorities compared with non-Latinx white people. Reducing mental health disparities, and ultimately achieving mental health equity, requires understanding the wide range of factors that influence health outcomes at multiple levels. Components of an effective strategy to achieve mental health equity include increasing population-based care; increasing community-based health care services; addressing the social determinants of health; engaging the community; enhancing the pipeline; and supporting a diverse, structurall...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - July 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jean-Marie Alves-Bradford, Nhi-Ha Trinh, Eraka Bath, Angela Coombs, Christina Mangurian Source Type: research

Shifting the Policy Paradigm to Achieve Equity
This article offers a brief history of mental health policies that have shaped current inequities in health care financing and service delivery. Mental health has a unique position within the health care system given the pervasive nature of stigma associated with illness; race and ethnicity often amplify this burden. The acknowledgment of disparities in mental health and the development of policies that address the needs of minority groups are relatively recent phenomena. Highlighted are legislative actions that have influenced reforms of the health care landscape. This text outlines opportunities to advance a targeted, co...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - July 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Steven M. Starks, Sidney H. Hankerson, Pamela Y. Collins Source Type: research

Achieving Mental Health Equity: Community Psychiatry
There are historical predicates for the inequities noted in present-day community mental health. Stigma has led to discrimination for those living with mental illness. It is more difficult for research to occur, and to access care (prevention, early identification, evidence-based treatment services) because funding is limited and workforce development curtailed. Strategies to decrease stigma are suggested, means to enhance funding are offered, and models for workforce development are noted. Different treatment delivery systems are suggested to recruit and retain sufficient numbers of culturally competent and trauma-informe...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - July 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jacqueline Maus Feldman Source Type: research

Achieving Mental Health Equity in Community Mental Health
There are historical predicates for the inequities noted in present-day community mental health. Stigma has led to discrimination for those living with mental illness. It is more difficult for research to occur, and to access care (prevention, early identification, evidence-based treatment services) because funding is limited and workforce development curtailed. Strategies to decrease stigma are suggested, means to enhance funding are offered, and models for workforce development are noted. Different treatment delivery systems are suggested to recruit and retain sufficient numbers of culturally competent and trauma-informe...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - July 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jacqueline Maus Feldman Source Type: research

Training Psychiatrists to Achieve Mental Health Equity
This article highlights the history of the psychiatric training practices that have contributed to inequity in mental health service delivery, particularly to underserved populations. It discusses current training practices that may be effective at reducing such disparities, suggests policy recommendations to increase the number of underrepresented minorities in health services, and makes recommendations for the further development and implementation of training practices that address health inequity. The article reviews issues in both general psychiatry and child/adolescent training in addition to lifelong learning needs....
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - July 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Donna M. Sudak, Sandra M. DeJong, Brigitte Bailey, Robert M. Rohrbaugh Source Type: research

An Anti-Racist Approach to Achieving Mental Health Equity in Clinical Care
This article proposes a novel antiracist approach to clinical care that acknowledges the racism shaping the clinical encounter and historical arc of racial oppression embedded in health care. Although preliminary, this approach can be easily implemented into clinical care and may reduce the harm done by racism. It could also serve as a template for antiracist service provision in other sectors, such as education and law enforcement. (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - July 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rupinder Kaur Legha, Jeanne Miranda Source Type: research

An Antiracist Approach to Clinical Care
This article proposes a novel antiracist approach to clinical care that acknowledges the racism shaping the clinical encounter and historical arc of racial oppression embedded in health care. Although preliminary, this approach can be easily implemented into clinical care and may reduce the harm done by racism. It could also serve as a template for antiracist service provision in other sectors, such as education and law enforcement. (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - July 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rupinder Kaur Legha, Jeanne Miranda Source Type: research

Achieving Mental Health Equity
The literature supports the effectiveness of systems-based integrated care models, particularly collaborative care, to improve access, quality of care, and health outcomes for behavioral health conditions. There is growing evidence for the promise of collaborative care to reduce behavioral health disparities for racial and ethnic, low-income, and other at-risk populations. Using rapid literature review, this article highlights what is known about how collaborative care may promote health equity for behavioral health conditions, by reducing disparities in access, quality, and outcomes of care. Further, it explores innovativ...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - July 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Maga E. Jackson-Triche, J ürgen Unützer, Kenneth B. Wells Source Type: research

Mental Health Equity in Specialized Settings
The literature supports the effectiveness of systems-based integrated care models, particularly collaborative care, to improve access, quality of care, and health outcomes for behavioral health conditions. There is growing evidence for the promise of collaborative care to reduce behavioral health disparities for racial and ethnic, low-income, and other at-risk populations. Using rapid literature review, this article highlights what is known about how collaborative care may promote health equity for behavioral health conditions, by reducing disparities in access, quality, and outcomes of care. Further, it explores innovativ...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - July 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Maga E. Jackson-Triche, J ürgen Unützer, Kenneth B. Wells Source Type: research

Two Systems, One Population:
This article examines the interplay of mental health and criminal justice inequities, the historical context for the prevailing extant approaches to correctional mental health treatment, and programmatic approaches to addressing these inequities. (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - June 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sarah Y. Vinson, Timothy T. Coffey, Nicole Jackson, Courtney L. McMickens, Brian McGregor, Steven Leifman Source Type: research

Two Systems, One Population
This article examines the interplay of mental health and criminal justice inequities, the historical context for the prevailing extant approaches to correctional mental health treatment, and programmatic approaches to addressing these inequities. (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - June 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sarah Y. Vinson, Timothy T. Coffey, Nicole Jackson, Courtney L. McMickens, Brian McGregor, Steven Leifman Source Type: research

Improving Research Quality to Achieve Mental Health Equity
Inequities and the resulting disparities that exist in mental health for a variety of socially disadvantaged groups have roots in the history and ongoing processes of medical and mental health research, as well as in persisting implicit bias in our society and health care system. The inclusion of historically excluded communities in the research to practice pipeline is vital to ensuring that treatments and interventions are developed to increase equity in mental health. A research framework is proposed based on the integration of community-based participatory research and human-centered design as an avenue for removing ine...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - June 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Quianta Moore, Patrick S. Tennant, Lisa R. Fortuna Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatry
is an integrative discipline defined by its history, its preferred patients, and its theoretic framework. Dealing with human behavior needs to consider the brain, but such consideration should avoid oversimplification: neurologic understanding is not essential, necessary, or desirable in all conditions encountered in clinical psychiatry. Neuropsychiatric theory is founded on discoveries in the areas of synaptic plasticity and cortical/limbic anatomy (bottom-up), but also evolutionary biology and anthropology (top-down). Going forward, we need to synthesize vital information, distinguish the essential from the trivial or t...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - May 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Vassilis E. Koliatsos, Robert Wisner-Carlson, Crystal Watkins Source Type: research

The Behavioral Neuroscience of Traumatic Brain Injury
Traumatic brain injury is a calamity of various causes, pathologies, and extremely varied and often complex clinical presentations. Because of its predilection for brain systems underlying cognitive and complex behavioral operations, it may cause chronic and severe psychiatric illness that requires expert management. This is more so for the modern epidemic of athletic and military brain injuries which are dominated by psychiatric symptoms. Past medical, including psychiatric, history, and comorbidities are important and relevant for formulation and management. Traumatic brain injury is a model for other neuropsychiatric di...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - May 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Vassilis E. Koliatsos, Vani Rao Source Type: research

Update on the Neuropsychiatry of Substance Use Disorders
This article reviews some of the recent discoveries about how neurobiological processes contribute to the understanding and treatment of substance use disorders. Particular focus is given to cannabis, opioids, and designer drugs. Important areas addressed include triggers and cravings, the central roles of dopamine and stress, and the endocannabinoid system. Clinical relevance of these findings for withdrawal management and relapse prevention is discussed. Also highlighted are issues related to the opioid epidemic and consequences both of continuing federal prohibition of cannabis as well as its state-by-state relaxation. ...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - May 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: George Kolodner, Vassilis E. Koliatsos Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatry Coming of Age
It is very exciting to present this timely issue on Neuropsychiatry to clinicians in the fields of psychiatry, neurology, neuropathology, psychotherapy, and physical therapy, to neuroscientists, to our students, and to everyone else not mentioned here who cares for issues related to brain and mind in health and disease. (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - May 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Vassilis E. Koliatsos Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatry
PSYCHIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - May 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Vassilis E. Koliatsos Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - May 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Contributors
HARSH K. TRIVEDI, MD, MBA (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - May 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Contents
Vassilis E. Koliatsos (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - May 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Achieving Mental Health Equity (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - May 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neurodevelopmental Factors in Schizophrenia
The onset of schizophrenia is usually in late adolescence or early adulthood. However, accumulating evidence has suggested that the disease condition is an outcome of gene –environment interactions that act in neural development during early life and adolescence. Some children who later develop schizophrenia have early developmental and educational and social challenges. Some patients with schizophrenia have an abundance of nonspecific neurologic soft signs and mino r physical anomalies. Adolescence is a sensitive period of increased neuronal plasticity. It is important to consider early detection and intervention fr...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hanna Jaaro-Peled, Akira Sawa Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Alzheimer Dementia
Developing disease-modifying treatments for Alzheimer dementia requires innovative approaches to identify novel biological targets during the course of the disease. Treatment development for the neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer may benefit from a mechanistic approach to treatment. There has been progress in identifying mild forms of behavioral impairment along the Alzheimer spectrum that may lead to additional insights into progression to dementia as well as the fundamental mechanisms of the symptoms. Developing therapies for complex neurobehavioral syndromes may require the translation of mechanistic insights into t...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Milap A. Nowrangi Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Impulse Control Disorders
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are neuropsychiatric conditions characterized by the repeated inability to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the person or others. Although classification approaches to ICDs vary both diachronically and synchronically, this group of conditions encompasses a wide range of syndromes, including pathologic gambling, kleptomania, trichotillomania, excoriation (skin picking) disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, pyromania, oppositional defiant, conduct, and antisocial personality disorders. ICDs can play a significant role as comorbidities in both n...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bruno Silva, Hugo Canas-Simi ão, Andrea E. Cavanna Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Epilepsy
This article reviews common and clinically important neuropsychiatric aspects of epilepsy. Comorbidities are common, underdiagnosed, and powerfully impact clinical outcomes. Biological, psychological, and social factors contribute to the associations between epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders. Epidemiologic studies point to a bidirectional relationships between epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders. People with epilepsy are more likely to develop certain neuropsychiatric disorders, and those with these disorders are more likely to develop epilepsy. This relationship suggests the possibility of shared underlying path...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Benjamin Tolchin, Lawrence J. Hirsch, William Curt LaFrance Source Type: research

Lewy Body Degenerations as Neuropsychiatric Disorders
Parkinson disease has historically been conceptualized as a movement disorder. In recent decades, nonmotor and neuropsychiatric symptoms have become increasingly recognized as being of paramount importance for patients with Parkinson disease. Neuropsychiatric phenomena dominate the course of the other major Lewy body disease, dementia with Lewy bodies. In this review, we survey the clinical relevance of nonmotor and neuropsychiatric symptoms to the heterogeneous presentations of Lewy body disease and their significance to ongoing research in this area. We consider how the nature of Lewy body neuropathology may help explica...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jared T. Hinkle, Gregory M. Pontone Source Type: research

Translational Neuroscience in Autism
The presence of heterotopias, increased regional density of neurons at the gray-white matter junction, and focal cortical dysplasias all suggest an abnormality of neuronal migration in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The abnormality is borne from a dissonance in timing between radial and tangentially migrating neuroblasts to the developing cortical plate. The uncoupling of excitatory and inhibitory cortical cells disturbs the coordinated interactions of neurons within local networks, thus providing abnormal patterns of brainwave activity in the gamma bandwidth. In ASD, gamma oscillation abnormalities and autonomic markers ...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Manuel F. Casanova, Estate M. Sokhadze, Emily L. Casanova, Ioan Opris, Caio Abujadi, Marco Antonio Marcolin, Xiaoli Li Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Frontotemporal Dementia
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) encompasses a group of clinical syndromes, including behavioral-variant FTD, nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia, semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, FTD motor neuron disease, progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome, and corticobasal syndrome. Early on in its course, FTD is commonly seen in psychiatric clinics. We review the clinical features and diagnostic criteria in FTD spectrum disorders. (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kyan Younes, Bruce L. Miller Source Type: research

Frontotemporal Dementia
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) encompasses a group of clinical syndromes, including behavioral variant FTD, nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia, semantic variant primary progressive aphasia, FTD motor neuron disease, progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome, and corticobasal syndrome. Early on in its course, FTD is commonly seen in psychiatric clinics. In this article the authors review the neuroimaging, pathology, genetics, and therapeutic interventions for FTD spectrum disorders. (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kyan Younes, Bruce L. Miller Source Type: research

New Medications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders
This article seeks to summarize the mechanisms of action, clinical trials, and FDA approval status of several psychiatric medications that are either newly available or in the FDA approval process. This article highlights medications that demonstrate novel mechanisms of action, examines nonpsychiatric medications that are being used to augment existing psychiatric treatments, and elucidates treatments for illnesses that have not previously received FDA indications. (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - April 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Harika M. Reddy, Joshua S. Poole, Gerald A. Maguire, Stephen M. Stahl Source Type: research

Mixed Affective States: Beyond Current Boundaries
PSYCHIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - January 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gabriele Sani, Alan C. Swann Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - January 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Contributors
HARSH K. TRIVEDI, MD, MBA (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - January 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Contents
Gabriele Sani and Alan C. Swann (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - January 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Neuropsychiatry (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - January 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychopathology of Mixed States
Mixed states are frequent clinical pictures in psychiatric practice but are not well described in nosologic systems. Debate exists as to defining mixed states. We review factor and cluster analytical studies and prominent clinical/conceptual models of mixed states. While mania involves standard manic symptoms and depression involves standard depressive symptoms, core additional features of the mixed state are, primarily, psychomotor activation and, secondarily, dysphoria. Those features are more pronounced in mixed mania than in mixed depression but are present in both. (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - December 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sergio A. Barroilhet, S. Nassir Ghaemi Source Type: research

Psychotherapy for Mixed Depression and Mixed Mania
Treatment guidelines for mixed states of depression or (hypo)mania focus almost exclusively on psychopharmacologic intervention without tapping into the benefits of psychotherapy. The authors highlight the complex clinical picture and illness course of mixed states, and discuss the benefit of taking a patient-centered approach to treatment incorporating techniques from a variety of evidence-based psychotherapies. A careful assessment of suicide risk as well as interventions designed specifically for anxiety are also recommended. (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - December 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Brittany O ’Brien, Delphine Lee, Alan C. Swann, Sanjay J. Mathew, Marijn Lijffijt Source Type: research

The Neurobiology of Mixed States
Interest in the coexistence of manic and depressive symptoms fostered hypotheses on neurobiological underpinnings of mixed states. Neurobiological properties of mixed states, however, have not been comprehensively described. The authors searched databases for articles on neurobiological markers related to mixed states. Results showed that mixed states are characterized by elevated central and peripheral monoamine levels, greater alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, increased inflammation, and greater circadian rhythms dysfunction than nonmixed forms. Furthermore, the magnitude of pathophysiologic alterations...
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - December 10, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Alessio Simonetti, Marijn Lijffijt, Alan C. Swann Source Type: research

Mixed States: Beyond Depression and Mania
Mood disorders are usually defined as episode-based, despite evidence that their basis lies in the underlying course of illness. We must characterize the complex structures of mixed episodes, but also look beyond episodes to the characteristics of the underlying illness. In this issue, we examine the history, clinical and diagnostic characteristics, potential mechanisms, and treatment challenges of mixed states. (Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America)
Source: The Psychiatric Clinics of North America - December 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gabriele Sani, Alan C. Swann Tags: Preface Source Type: research