Remote supervision of medical training via videoconference in northern Australia: a qualitative study of the perspectives of supervisors and trainees.
CONCLUSIONS: Remote supervision via videoconference provides readily available guidance to trainees supporting their delivery of appropriate care to patients. However, resources required for upskilling, training in the use of supervision via videoconference, administration issues and nursing support, as well as physical barriers to examinations, must be addressed to enable more efficient implementation. PMID: 25795687 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 22, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Cameron M, Ray R, Sabesan S Tags: BMJ Open Source Type: research

Association between self-efficacy, career interest and rural career intent in Australian medical students with rural clinical school experience.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: To investigate medical student's self-efficacy at the time of finishing their rural clinical school (RCS) placement and factors associated with self-efficacy. Secondary aims are to explore whether interest levels or self-efficacy are associated with rural or remote career intentions. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional study of medical students who had completed their RCS term in 17 Australian universities. Data were derived from the 2013 Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) evaluation survey. Questionnaire responses were analysed from 653 medical stude...
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 19, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Isaac V, Walters L, McLachlan CS Tags: BMJ Open Source Type: research

Bereaved Families and the Coronial Response to Traumatic Workplace Fatalities: Organisational Perspectives.
PMID: 26681297 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 17, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Matthews LR, Fitzpatrick SJ, Quinlan MG, Ngo M, Bohle P Tags: Death Stud Source Type: research

A randomised controlled trial of a physical activity and nutrition program targeting middle-aged adults at risk of metabolic syndrome in a disadvantaged rural community.
This study aims to determine if a low-cost, accessible lifestyle program targeting insufficiently active adults aged 50-69 y can be successfully implemented in a rural location, and whether its implementation will contribute to the reduction/prevention of metabolic syndrome, or other risk factors for type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. METHODS/DESIGN: This 6-month randomised controlled trial will consist of a nutrition, physical activity, and healthy weight intervention for 50-69 year-olds from a disadvantaged rural community. Five hundred participants with central obesity and at risk of metabolic syndrome wi...
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 16, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Blackford K, Jancey J, Lee AH, James AP, Howat P, Hills AP, Anderson A Tags: BMC Public Health Source Type: research

Clinical and biochemical characterization of high risk and not high risk for cardiovascular disease adults in a population from peripheral region of Bangladesh.
Abstract BACKGROUND: A group of 63708 Bangladeshi adults from a rural area were screened in 2011-12 for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk using a questionnaire based tool developed as part of the 'WHO CVD-RISK Management Package for low-and medium resource setting'. In the current study participants who were found to be high risk and a sample of the not high risk participants from the screening were further characterized clinically and biochemically to explore the burden and determinants of CVD risk factors in a remote rural Bangladeshi population. METHODS: The high risk participants comprised all 1170 subje...
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 16, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Fatema K, Zwar NA, Zeba Z, Milton AH, Rahman B, Ali L Tags: BMC Public Health Source Type: research

Albuminuria and its associated biomedical factors among indigenous adults in Far North Queensland: a 7-year follow up study.
Abstract BACKGROUND: To document albuminuria prevalence and its associated factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (TSI) adults with high renal and metabolic risks from 19 rural and remote north Queensland communities. METHODS: One thousand nine hundred seventy-one indigenous adults were enrolled in 1998 and 566 completed follow up in 2007 in this population-based study. Measurements included weight, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), fasting glucose, lipids, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR), smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity (PA). Album...
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 16, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Li M, McDermott R Tags: BMC Nephrol Source Type: research

A Defence of Conscientious Objection in Medicine: A Reply to Schuklenk and Savulescu.
Abstract In a recent (2015) Bioethics editorial, Udo Schuklenk argues against allowing Canadian doctors to conscientiously object to any new euthanasia procedures approved by Parliament. In this he follows Julian Savulescu's 2006 BMJ paper which argued for the removal of the conscientious objection clause in the 1967 UK Abortion Act. Both authors advance powerful arguments based on the need for uniformity of service and on analogies with reprehensible kinds of personal exemption. In this article I want to defend the practice of conscientious objection in publicly-funded healthcare systems (such as those of Canada ...
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 10, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Cowley C Tags: Bioethics Source Type: research

Evaluating impact of clinical guidelines using a realist evaluation framework.
CONCLUSION: Implementing a realist evaluation framework to generate robust findings in this context has required innovation in the evaluation design and adaptation by researchers. This article captures the RPHCM team's experience in designing this evaluation. PMID: 26640246 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 7, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Reddy S, Wakerman J, Westhorp G, Herring S Tags: J Eval Clin Pract Source Type: research

Spatial access disparities to primary health care in rural and remote Australia.
Abstract Poor spatial access to health care remains a key issue for rural populations worldwide. Whilst geographic information systems (GIS) have enabled the development of more sophisticated access measures, they are yet to be adopted into health policy and workforce planning. This paper provides and tests a new national-level approach to measuring primary health care (PHC) access for rural Australia, suitable for use in macro-level health policy. The new index was constructed using a modified two-step floating catchment area method framework and the smallest available geographic unit. Primary health care spatial...
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 4, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: McGrail MR, Humphreys JS Tags: Geospat Health Source Type: research

Telemedicine in the acute health setting: A disruptive innovation for specialists (an example from stroke).
CONCLUSIONS: Insights into workforce experience and satisfaction were identified to inform strategies to support specialists to adapt to the disruptive innovation of telemedicine. PMID: 26556058 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - November 14, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Bagot KL, Cadilhac DA, Vu M, Moss K, Bladin CF, VST collaborators Tags: J Telemed Telecare Source Type: research

A telegeriatric service in a small rural hospital: A case study and cost analysis.
This study examined the costs of providing a telegeriatric service by videoconference in a rural hospital, compared to the costs of a visiting geriatrician that travels to undertake in-person consultations. METHODS: A cost analysis was undertaken to compare the costs of the telegeriatric service model with the costs of a visiting geriatrician service model. A recently established telegeriatric service at Warwick Hospital was used as a case study. RESULTS: In the base case model (assuming four patients per round and a round-trip travel distance of 312 kilometres), an estimated AUD$131 per patient consultation can ...
Source: Rural Remote Health - November 14, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Versleijen M, Martin-Khan MG, Whitty JA, Smith AC, Gray LC Tags: J Telemed Telecare Source Type: research

HIV testing service awareness and service uptake among female heads of household in rural Mozambique: results from a province-wide survey.
Abstract BACKGROUND: HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) utilization remains low in many sub-Saharan African countries, particularly in remote rural settings. We sought to identify factors associated with service awareness and service uptake of VCT among female heads of household in rural Zambézia Province of north-central Mozambique which is characterized by high HIV prevalence (12.6%), poverty, and suboptimal health service access and utilization. METHODS: Our population-based survey of female heads of household was administered to a representative two-stage cluster sample using a sampling fra...
Source: Rural Remote Health - March 19, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Paulin HN, Blevins M, Koethe JR, Hinton N, Vaz LM, Vergara AE, Mukolo A, Ndatimana E, Moon TD, Vermund SH, Wester CW Tags: BMC Public Health Source Type: research

Factors influencing H1N1 vaccine behavior among Manitoba Metis in Canada: a qualitative study.
CONCLUSIONS: Metis experiences of colonialism in Canada deeply affected their perceptions of the vaccine and pandemic, a context that health systems need to take into account when planning response activities in the future. Participants felt under-informed about most aspects of the vaccine and the pandemic, and many vaccine related misconceptions and fears existed. Recommendations include leveraging doctor-patient interactions as a site for sharing vaccine-related knowledge, as well as targeted, culturally-appropriate, and empowering public information strategies to supply reliable vaccine and pandemic information to poten...
Source: Rural Remote Health - March 19, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Driedger SM, Maier R, Furgal C, Jardine C Tags: BMC Public Health Source Type: research

A critical review of traditional medicine and traditional healer use for malaria and among people in malaria-endemic areas: contemporary research in low to middle-income Asia-Pacific countries.
CONCLUSION: This review has provided crucial insights into the prevalence and profile of TM/TH use for malaria. Those managing and providing conventional programmes, treatment and care for malaria in the Asia-Pacific should remain mindful of the possible use of TM/TH amongst community members and patients. PMID: 25782806 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - March 19, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Suswardany DL, Sibbritt DW, Supardi S, Chang S, Adams J Tags: Malar J Source Type: research

How Much Does It Cost to Improve Access to Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision among High-Risk, Low-Income Communities in Uganda?
CONCLUSION: The MUWRP VMMC program improves access for hard to reach, relatively poor, and high-risk rural populations for a cost of $27-$38 per VMMC. Costs to patients to access services are almost certainly less in the mobile program, by reducing out-of-pocket travel expenses and lost time and associated income, all of which have been shown to be barriers for accessing treatment. PMID: 25774677 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - March 19, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Larson B, Tindikahwa A, Mwidu G, Kibuuka H, Magala F Tags: PLoS One Source Type: research

Cost evaluation of reproductive and primary health care mobile service delivery for women in two rural districts in South Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: Staffing costs are the largest component of providing mobile health services to rural communities. Yet, in remote areas where patient volumes do not exceed nursing staff capacity, incorporating multiple services within a cervical cancer screening program is an approach to potentially expand access to health care without added costs. PMID: 25751528 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - March 12, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Schnippel K, Lince-Deroche N, van den Handel T, Molefi S, Bruce S, Firnhaber C Tags: PLoS One Source Type: research

A household-based study of contact networks relevant for the spread of infectious diseases in the highlands of peru.
CONCLUSION: This study of rural low-density communities in the highlands of Peru suggests contact patterns are highly assortative. Study findings support the use of within-household homogenous mixing assumptions for epidemic modeling in this setting. PMID: 25734772 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - March 7, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Grijalva CG, Goeyvaerts N, Verastegui H, Edwards KM, Gil AI, Lanata CF, Hens N, RESPIRA PERU project Tags: PLoS One Source Type: research

Practices and challenges in community aphasia groups in Australia: Results of a national survey.
Conclusion: The major features differentiating the community aphasia groups run in Australia from those running overseas are discussed and practical ways to achieve service improvement are suggested. PMID: 25739326 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - March 5, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Rose ML, Attard MC Tags: Int J Speech Lang Pathol Source Type: research

Use of Traditional Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Taiwan: A Multilevel Analysis.
This study aimed to apply a multilevel analysis using the Hierarchical Linear Modeling software to examine predictors of traditional medicine (TM)/complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in Taiwan on both individual and division levels. Individual-level data were obtained from the government database involving TM/CAM use and its impact on the population, whereas division-level data were obtained from a government annual report. A total of 2310 individuals from 22 administrative divisions of Taiwan were evaluated in the data analysis, of which 86.9% had used at least 1 TM/CAM modality in the past year. The average ...
Source: Rural Remote Health - February 8, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Yeh ML, Lin KC, Chen HH, Wang YJ, Huang YC Tags: Holist Nurs Pract Source Type: research

Statewide hepatitis C model of care for rural and remote regions.
Abstract The evolution of management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has seen a majority of patients treated being regarded as cured. Despite this development, uptake of treatment remains low in Australia, and this is particularly true in rural and remote areas. The largest state in Australia, Western Australia (WA), covers an area of 2500 km(2) . As the rural and remote population of WA is scattered in small areas rather than major centers, poor accessibility to remote areas and lack of adequate of medical and nursing resources pose major problems in providing equity of care to patients with chronic HCV. A stat...
Source: Rural Remote Health - February 5, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Cheng W, Nazareth S, Flexman JP Tags: J Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research

No evidence of decline in malaria burden from 2006 to 2013 in a rural Province of Gabon: implications for public health policy.
ConclusionsThe persistence of Plasmodium falciparum pockets of sustained malaria transmission in rural Gabon may be related to an inadequate coverage of key interventions, to poor treatment seeking behavior and/or to a decline efficacy of treatments. Our results highlight the need to better adapt malaria control strategies to local epidemiological contexts and to environmental constraints. Equitable delivery of health service to hard-to-reach populations constitutes a challenging issue for the health authorities of Gabon. PMID: 25649228 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - February 4, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Assele V, Ndoh G, Nkoghe D, Fandeur T Tags: BMC Public Health Source Type: research

Making Rural and Remote Communities More Age-Friendly: Experts' Perspectives of Issues, Challenges, and Priorities.
Discussions highlighted that strengths in rural and remote communities, such as easy access to local leaders and existing partnerships, can help to further age-friendly goals; however, addressing major challenges, such as lack of infrastructure and limited availability of social and health services, requires regional or national government buy-in and funding opportunities. Age-friendly work in rural and remote communities is, therefore, ideally embedded in larger age-friendly initiatives and supported by regional or national policies, programs, and funding sources. PMID: 25647697 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (S...
Source: Rural Remote Health - February 3, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Menec V, Bell S, Novek S, Minnigaleeva GA, Morales E, Ouma T, Parodi JF, Winterton R Tags: J Aging Soc Policy Source Type: research

Epidemiology, Etiology, and Motivation of Alcohol Misuse Among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: A Descriptive Review.
Abstract The per capita alcohol consumption of the Northern Territory, Australia, is second highest in the world, estimated 15.1 liters of pure alcohol per year. Alcohol abuse is a major public health concern among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory consume approximately 16.9 liters of pure alcohol per year. This descriptive review is based on current published and grey literature in the context of high risk alcohol use, with a special focus on the epidemiological, etiological, and social factors, to predict alcohol misuse...
Source: Rural Remote Health - January 28, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Ramamoorthi R, Jayaraj R, Notaras L, Thomas M Tags: J Ethn Subst Abuse Source Type: research

Overcoming the distance barrier in relation to treatment for haematology patients: Queensland findings.
Conclusion Fostering specialist outreach and building capacity in regional cancer centres are service delivery strategies that are greatly appreciated by regional, rural and remote haematology patients who are stressed by the many challenges associated with leaving home to travel distances for specialist treatment. It is the hope and expectation that these findings will make a contribution to informing future health policy and service delivery planning. What is known about the topic? Internationally, there is evidence of the benefits of visiting specialists and the development of local specialist services for cancer patien...
Source: Rural Remote Health - January 15, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: McGrath P Tags: Aust Health Rev Source Type: research

Essential Surgery: The Way Forward.
CONCLUSION: A basic package of essential surgical care interventions is imperative to provide structure for scaling up training and building essential health services in remote and rural areas of LMICs. NPCs, a health cadre predominant in SSA, require training, mentoring, and monitoring. The cost of such training is vastly more efficient than the expensive training of a few polyvalent or specialist surgeons, who will not be sufficient in numbers within the next few generations. Moreover, these practitioners are used to working in the districts and are much less prone to gravitate elsewhere. The use of these NPCs performing...
Source: Rural Remote Health - January 8, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Henry JA, Bem C, Grimes C, Borgstein E, Mkandawire N, Thomas WE, Gunn SW, Lane RH, Cotton MH Tags: World J Surg Source Type: research

Ebola outbreak in rural West Africa: epidemiology, clinical features and outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: One in three admitted cases originated outside Kailahun district due to limited national access to Ebola Management Centers - complicating contact tracing, safe burial and disinfection measures. The comparatively high case fatality among health workers requires attention. The community infectivity time needs to be reduced to prevent continued transmission. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 25565430 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - January 7, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Dallatomasinas S, Crestani R, Squire JS, Declerk H, Caleo GM, Wolz A, Stinson K, Patten G, Brechard R, Gbabai OB, Spreicher A, Herp MV, Zachariah R Tags: Trop Med Int Health Source Type: research

"Evaluation of a Very Low-Cost and Simple Teleradiology Technique"
"Evaluation of a Very Low-Cost and Simple Teleradiology Technique" J Digit Imaging. 2015 Jan 6; Authors: Khodaie M, Askari A, Bahaadinbeigy K Abstract This paper describes and analyzes a proposed solution of fundamental limitative factor of teleradiology to overcome the teleradiology usages problems in underdeveloped and developing countries. The goal is to achieve a very simple and cost-efficient way to take advantage of teleradiology in anywhere even in remote and rural areas. To meet the goal of this study, the following methodology which is consists of two main procedures was done: (1) U...
Source: Rural Remote Health - January 6, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: Khodaie M, Askari A, Bahaadinbeigy K Tags: J Digit Imaging Source Type: research

Dental caries status of Bulang preschool children in Southwest China.
CONCLUSIONS: The caries prevalence and experience among 5-year-old Bulang children in Yunnan was high, and most of the caries were left untreated. The caries experience was associated with snacking habits, dental visit habits and oral hygiene. PMID: 24593701 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 22, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Zhang S, Liu J, Lo EC, Chu CH Tags: BMC Oral Health Source Type: research

Examining the significance of urban-rural context in tobacco quitline use: does rurality matter?
CONCLUSIONS: Smokers in rural areas are less likely to use the New Zealand Quitline, even after controlling for confounding factors. This suggests that the national quitline is less effective in reaching rural smokers and more attention to the promotion of smoking cessation in rural communities is needed. PMID: 25523137 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 19, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Griffin E, Moon G, Barnet R Tags: Int J Public Health Source Type: research

A sensitive one-step method for quantitative detection of α-amylase in serum and urine using a personal glucose meter.
A sensitive one-step method for quantitative detection of α-amylase in serum and urine using a personal glucose meter. Analyst. 2014 Dec 17; Authors: Wang Q, Wang H, Yang X, Wang K, Liu R, Li Q, Ou J Abstract Assays of α-amylase (AMS) activity in serum and urine constitute the important indicator for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, mumps, renal disease and abdominal disorders. Since these diseases confer a heavy financial burden on the health care system, AMS detection in point-of-care is fundamental. Here, a one-step assay for direct determination of the AMS activity was developed us...
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 17, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Wang Q, Wang H, Yang X, Wang K, Liu R, Li Q, Ou J Tags: Analyst Source Type: research

Effectiveness of female community health volunteers in the detection and management of low-birth-weight in Nepal.
CONCLUSIONS: FCHVs are able to correctly identify LBW and VLBW infants using spring scales and describe the correct steps to take after identification of these infants. Use of FCHVs as newborn care providers allows for utilization of their logistical, geographical, and cultural strengths, particularly a high level of access to neonates, that can complement the Nepalese healthcare system. Providing additional training to and increasing supervision of local FCHVs regarding birth weight measurement will increase the identification of high-risk neonates in resource-limited settings. PMID: 24724713 [PubMed - indexed for ME...
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 16, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Amano S, Shrestha BP, Chaube SS, Higuchi M, Manandhar DS, Osrin D, Costello A, Saville N Tags: Rural Remote Health Source Type: research

An Integrated Tiered Service Delivery Model (ITSDM) Based on Local CD4 Testing Demands Can Improve Turn-Around Times and Save Costs whilst Ensuring Accessible and Scalable CD4 Services across a National Programme.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The South African National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) responded to HIV treatment initiatives with two-tiered CD4 laboratory services in 2004. Increasing programmatic burden, as more patients access anti-retroviral therapy (ART), has demanded extending CD4 services to meet increasing clinical needs. The aim of this study was to review existing services and develop a service-model that integrated laboratory-based and point-of-care testing (POCT), to extend national coverage, improve local turn-around/(TAT) and contain programmatic costs. METHODS: NHLS Corporate Data Warehouse CD4 data...
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 16, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Glencross DK, Coetzee LM, Cassim N Tags: PLoS One Source Type: research

A review of rural and remote health service indexes: are they relevant for the development of an Australian rural birth index?
ConclusionCurrent planning indexes are applicable for the development of an Australian rural birthing index. The variables in each of the indexes were relevant, however use of flexible sized catchments to accurately account for population births and weighting for extreme geographic isolation needs to be considered. Additionally, socioeconomic variables are required that will reflect need for services particularly for isolated high needs populations. These variables could be used with Australian data and appropriate cut-off points to confirm applicability for maternity services. All of the indexes used similar types of vari...
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 10, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Pilcher J, Kruske S, Barclay L Tags: BMC Health Serv Res Source Type: research

Obesity, albuminuria, and gamma-glutamyl transferase predict incidence of hypertension in indigenous Australians in rural and remote communities in northern Australia.
CONCLUSION:: Incidence of hypertension in indigenous Australian adults is nearly double than that of the general Australian population. High background prevalence of obesity, diabetes and albuminuria contributes to this excess. As well as early detection and management of high blood pressure, albuminuria and diabetes in primary care settings, attention should be equally focused on community-level prevention and management of obesity.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work pr...
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 8, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Li M, McDermott R Tags: J Hypertens Source Type: research

Evolution of a community-based participatory approach in a rural and remote dementia care research program.
CONCLUSIONS: Developing and sustaining the full range of stakeholder and decision-maker partnerships is resource-and time-intensive, but our experience shows that community-based participatory strategies are highly suited to health services research that is designed to support sustainable service delivery improvements. PMID: 25435560 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 5, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Morgan D, Crossley M, Stewart N, Kirk A, Forbes D, D'Arcy C, Dal Bello-Haas V, McBain L, O'Connell M, Bracken J, Kosteniuk J, Cammer A Tags: Prog Community Health Partnersh Source Type: research

Health risk assessment of inhalable particulate matter in beijing based on the thermal environment.
This study attempted to accomplish concurrent thermal environment regulation and elimination of PM10 health risks through control of UHI intensity. The results indicate that urban Beijing has a higher PM10 health risk than rural areas; PM10 health risk based on the thermal environment is 1.145, which is similar to the health risk calculated (1.144) from the PM10 concentration inversion; according to the regulation results, regulation of UHI and NDVI is effective and helpful for mitigation of PM10 health risk in functional zones. PMID: 25464132 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 5, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Xu LY, Yin H, Xie XD Tags: Int J Environ Res Public Health Source Type: research

Taenia solium Infection in Peru: A Collaboration between Peace Corps Volunteers and Researchers in a Community Based Study.
CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study recorded high T. solium tapeworm prevalence, and identified hyper-endemic rural communities. It demonstrates that synergy between researchers and Peace Corps Volunteers can be an effective means to conducting large-scale, community-based studies in remote areas of Peru. PMID: 25469506 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 5, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Watts NS, Pajuelo M, Clark T, Loader MC, Verastegui MR, Sterling C, Friedland JS, Garcia HH, Gilman RH, Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru Tags: PLoS One Source Type: research

Diagnostic reliability of an immunochromatographic test for Chagas disease screening at a primary health care centre in a rural endemic area.
In this study, we evaluated the ability of personnel with and without laboratory skills to perform immunochromatographic (IC) tests to detect Chagas disease at a primary health care centre (PHCC). We examined whole blood samples from 241 patients and serum samples from 238 patients. Then, we calculated the percentage of overall agreement (POA) between the two groups of operators for the sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp) and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of IC tests compared to CS tests. We also evaluated the level of agreement between ELISAs and indirect haemagglutination (IHA) tests. The readings of ...
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 2, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Mendicino D, Stafuza M, Colussi C, Barco MD, Streiger M, Moretti E Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Supervisor Continuity or Co-Location: Which Matters in Residency Education? Findings From a Qualitative Study of Remote Supervisor Family Physicians in Australia and Canada.
CONCLUSIONS: Remote supervision enabled residents to develop as clinicians and professionals. This questions the supremacy of co-location as an organizing principle for residency education. Future specialists may benefit from programs that give them ongoing and increasing responsibility for a group of patients and supportive continuity of supervision as residents. PMID: 25470308 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - December 2, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Wearne SM, Dornan T, Teunissen PW, Skinner T Tags: Acad Med Source Type: research

A regional approach to the education of nurse practitioner candidates to meet the health needs of rural Australians.
Conclusion: This program will equip those seeking endorsement as a nurse practitioner to effectively work in rural contexts. PMID: 25429988 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - November 28, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Francis K, Boyd M, Latham H, Anderson J, Bradley A, Manners J Tags: Contemp Nurse Source Type: research

Stabilizing Dog Populations and Improving Animal and Public Health Through a Participatory Approach in Indigenous Communities.
We report the effects of introducing a community action plan designed to improve animal and human health, increase animal health literacy and benefit community well-being in two Indigenous communities where a dog-related child fatality recently occurred. Initial door-to-door dog demographic surveys indicated that most dogs were sexually intact (92% of 382 dogs), and few had ever been vaccinated (6%) or dewormed (6%). Approximately three animal-related injuries requiring medical care were reported in the communities per 1000 persons per year (95% CL: 1.6-6.6), and approximately 83% of 101 environmentally collected dog ...
Source: Rural Remote Health - November 28, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Schurer JM, Phipps K, Okemow C, Beatch H, Jenkins E Tags: Zoonoses Public Health Source Type: research

Predictors of loss to follow-up among children registered in an HIV prevention mother-to-child transmission cohort study in Pernambuco, Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS: The decentralization of support services for HIV-exposed children to other cities in the state seems to be crucial for the accurate monitoring of outcomes. It is also important to introduce additional measures addressing mothers who are drug users so that they remain in the program: an intensive follow-up program that actively searches for absentee mother-child pairs, support from social services and treatment for drug-dependency. The findings of this study highlight the importance of diagnosing mothers as early as possible in order to conduct a more complete follow-up period of the children. Solving the above...
Source: Rural Remote Health - November 27, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: da Cruz Gouveia PA, da Silva GA, de Fatima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque M Tags: BMC Public Health Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiological Characterization of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli from an Outpatient Urology Clinic in Rural Japan.
Abstract In a remote Japanese community, a large proportion of outpatient urinary tract infections was caused by well-recognized, globally dispersed clonal lineages of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). However, most of these strains were drug susceptible, suggesting factors other than selection pressure to account for the clonal spread of drug-susceptible UPEC. PMID: 25428151 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - November 26, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Umene YD, Wong LK, Satoh T, Yamane K, Matsui M, Riley LW, Arakawa Y, Suzuki S Tags: J Clin Microbiol Source Type: research

Therapeutic Jurisprudence in Health Research: Enlisting Legal Theory as a Methodological Guide in an Interdisciplinary Case Study of Mental Health and Criminal Law.
Abstract Studies that seek to understand and improve health care systems benefit from qualitative methods that employ theory to add depth, complexity, and context to analysis. Theories used in health research typically emerge from social science, but these can be inadequate for studying complex health systems. Mental health rehabilitation programs for criminal courts are complicated by their integration within the criminal justice system and by their dual health-and-justice objectives. In a qualitative multiple case study exploring the potential for these mental health court programs in Arctic communities, we asse...
Source: Rural Remote Health - November 26, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Ferrazzi P, Krupa T Tags: Qual Health Res Source Type: research

Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Briefs
Authors: Abstract This Statistical Brief presents data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) on the characteristics of potentially preventable hospitalizations from 2005 through 2011. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Prevention Quality Indicators (PQIs) were used to develop estimates of the number of potentially preventable hospitalizations for overall PQIs, acute PQIs, and chronic PQIs from 2005 through 2011. An earlier Statistical Brief on potentially preventable hospitalizations presented trends from 2005 through 2010 for adults and children. This Statistical Brief is the...
Source: Rural Remote Health - November 23, 2014 Category: Rural Health Tags: Book Source Type: research

Herpes simplex virus type 2 among mobile pastoralists in northwestern Namibia.
Conclusions: Higher risk among women can be explained, in part, by local hygiene practices and a preference for "dry" sex. There was considerable variation in prevalence by region, which appears to be linked to geographic remoteness. Culturally contextualized epidemiologic studies of remote, vulnerable populations can provide essential information for limiting the introduction and spread of new infections. PMID: 25387244 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - November 11, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Hazel A, Foxman B, Low BS Tags: Ann Hum Biol Source Type: research

Calls to the British Columbia Drug and Poison Information Centre: A summary of differences by health service areas.
CONCLUSIONS: Case rates were generally highest in the primarily rural northern and eastern areas of the province. Considering these results alongside contextual factors informs further investigation and action: addressing cultural and language barriers to accessing poison centre services, and developing a public health surveillance system for severe poisoning events in rural and remote communities. PMID: 25379127 [PubMed] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - November 8, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: McLean KE, Henderson SB, Kent D, Kosatsky T Tags: Online J Public Health Inform Source Type: research

Barriers to Use of Refractive Services in Mozambique.
CONCLUSIONS: For a comprehensive public sector refractive service to be successful in Mozambique, those planning its implementation must consider cost and affordability. A clear strategy for overcoming lack of felt need will also be needed, possibly in the form of improved advocacy and health promotion. The delivery of refractive services in more remote rural areas merits careful and comprehensive consideration.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly ...
Source: Rural Remote Health - November 6, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Thompson S, Naidoo K, Gonzalez-Alvarez C, Harris G, MPhil FC, Loughman J Tags: Optom Vis Sci Source Type: research

Distance decay and persistent health care disparities in South Africa.
Abstract BackgroundAccess to health care is a particular concern given the important role of poor access in perpetuating poverty and inequality. South Africa¿s apartheid history leaves large racial disparities in access despite post-apartheid health policy to increase the number of health facilities, even in remote rural areas. However, even when health services are provided free of charge, monetary and time costs of travel to a local clinic may pose a significant barrier for vulnerable segments of the population, leading to overall poorer health.MethodsUsing newly available health care utilization data fro...
Source: Rural Remote Health - November 4, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: McLaren ZM, Ardington C, Leibbrandt M Tags: BMC Health Serv Res Source Type: research

Antiviral strategies for emerging influenza viruses in remote communities.
CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to previous work, for conservative treatment coverages, our results do not provide any convincing evidence for the implementation of targeted prophylaxis. The findings suggest that public health strategies in remote communities should focus on the wider availability (higher coverage) and timely distribution of antiviral drugs for treatment of clinically ill individuals. PMID: 24586937 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - November 3, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Laskowski M, Greer AL, Moghadas SM Tags: PLoS One Source Type: research