The Haiti Medical Education Project: development and analysis of a competency based continuing medical education course in Haiti through distance learning.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified teaching goals covered and competencies that were missing from a CME program for rural Haitian physicians. We aim to use this analysis to provide a competency-based CME lecture series that proportionally meets local needs while following recommendations of recognized national family medicine organizations. PMID: 27760535 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - October 18, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Battat R, Jhonson M, Wiseblatt L, Renard C, Habib L, Normil M, Remillard B, Brewer TF, Sacajiu G Tags: BMC Med Educ Source Type: research

Four persistent rural healthcare challenges.
This article explores four persistent healthcare challenges: population demographics, place, professionals, and public participation. By exploring solutions that some rural communities have used to address these challenges, this article aims to provide insights into lessons that have been learned that they may be considered and potentially applied to both rural and urban environments in the interest of better healthcare for all. PMID: 27744280 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - October 14, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Ford DM Tags: Healthc Manage Forum Source Type: research

Spatial analysis and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand.
CONCLUSIONS: The very contrasted distribution of different pig production systems present opportunities for future regionalization of pig production. More specifically, the detailed geographical analysis of the different production systems will be used to spatially-inform planning decisions for pig farming accounting for the specific health, environment and economical implications of the different pig production systems. PMID: 27716322 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - October 5, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Thanapongtharm W, Linard C, Chinson P, Kasemsuwan S, Visser M, Gaughan AE, Epprech M, Robinson TP, Gilbert M Tags: BMC Vet Res Source Type: research

Salmonella Infection in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Incidence and Risk Factors from the 45 and Up Study.
CONCLUSIONS: Chicken consumption remains a significant risk factor for Salmonella infection, highlighting the importance of reducing contamination of poultry and improving food safety advice for older people. PMID: 27710034 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - October 5, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Chen Y, Glass K, Liu B, Hope K, Kirk M Tags: Foodborne Pathog Dis Source Type: research

The prevalence and clinical associations of HTLV-1 infection in a remote Indigenous community.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HTLV-1 infection and the rate of disease potentially attributable to HTLV-1 were high among adults in this remote community. PMID: 27681971 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - September 30, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Einsiedel LJ, Pham H, Woodman RJ, Pepperill C, Taylor KA Tags: Med J Aust Source Type: research

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in North Queensland: the paediatric experience.
Abstract Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fulminant, diffuse haemorrhagic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri, with an almost invariably fatal outcome. In Australia and the developed world, PAM remains a rare disease, although it is very likely that large numbers of cases go undetected in developing countries. N. fowleri is a thermophilic, free-living amoeba with a worldwide distribution. It is acquired when contaminated fresh water is flushed into the nose and penetrates the central nervous system via the cribriform plate. Clinical features are similar to those of bacterial meningitis, b...
Source: Rural Remote Health - September 30, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Nicholls CL, Parsonson F, Gray LE, Heyer A, Donohue S, Wiseman G, Norton R Tags: Med J Aust Source Type: research

Indications for Cesarean Sections in Rural Nepal.
CONCLUSION: The CS rate at OCH was relatively low, within WHO's recommendation, with types of indication similar to other countries. There were no signs of CS overuse. Maternal request was not the sole indication in any CS. PMID: 27651618 [PubMed] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - September 23, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Samdal LJ, Steinsvik KR, Pun P, Dani P, Roald B, Stray-Pedersen B, Bøhler E Tags: J Obstet Gynaecol India Source Type: research

Service providers' experiences of using a telehealth network 12 months after digitisation of a large Australian rural mental health service.
CONCLUSIONS: The digitised telehealth network was generally well received by providers and adopted into clinical practice. Compared with the previous analog system, staff found advantages in better visual and audio quality, more technical stability with less "drop-out", less time delay to conversations and less confusion for clients. Despite these advantages, providers identified a range of challenges to starting or continuing use and they recommended improvements to increase uptake among mental health service providers and other providers (including GPs), and to clinical uses other than mental health. To further...
Source: Rural Remote Health - August 31, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Newman L, Bidargaddi N, Schrader G Tags: Int J Med Inform Source Type: research

A typology of longitudinal integrated clerkships.
CONCLUSIONS: Three distinct LIC clusters are classified. These provide a foundational reference point for future studies on the processes and outcomes of LICs. The study also exemplifies a collaborative approach to medical education research that focuses on typology rather than on individual programme or context. PMID: 27562892 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - August 27, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Worley P, Couper I, Strasser R, Graves L, Cummings BA, Woodman R, Stagg P, Hirsh D, Consortium of Longitudinal Integrated Clerkships (CLIC) Research Collaborative Tags: Med Educ Source Type: research

The Role of Telemedicine in Wound Care: A Review and Analysis of a Database of 5,795 Patients from a Mobile Wound-Healing Center in Languedoc-Roussillon, France.
CONCLUSIONS: There is an increasing demand for assistance from professionals not specialized in wound healing, facing complex wounds. The goal is to enable the spread of expertise beyond major medical centers. Several limitations and barriers to the application of telemedicine in all settings are evident, including over diagnosis, dependence on a functional telecommunication system, and various legal aspects. The CICAT network in France provides an example of a how telemedicine may be of benefit in wound care, although it is important to note that in other countries, such as the United States, legal constraints and credent...
Source: Rural Remote Health - August 26, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Sood A, Granick MS, Trial C, Lano J, Palmier S, Ribal E, Téot L Tags: Plast Reconstr Surg Source Type: research

Improving the quality of life of palliative and chronic disease patients and carers in remote Australia with the establishment of a day respite facility.
DISCUSSION: The findings clearly indicate an improvement in quality of life for respite patients and their carers. The respite service enabled improved care coordination of chronic and complex patients as well as improved medication compliance and symptom management. As a result of this evaluation a number of recommendations to continue and improve the service are provided. PMID: 27430257 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - July 21, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Carey TA, Schouten K, Wakerman J, Humphreys JS, Miegel F, Murphy S, Arundell M Tags: BMC Palliat Care Source Type: research

Determinants of public malaria awareness during the national malaria elimination programme: a cross-sectional study in rural China.
This study aims to explore the determinants of public awareness of malaria. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using stratified sampling method from June 2015 to March 2016. Bivariate logistic regression was performed to explore the association between predictors and malaria awareness in the sample population. The homogeneity of the interaction between group assignment and the degree of knowledge related to malaria among the subgroups was calculated by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test. RESULTS: Community media (including bulletin boards of village clinics or township hospitals, newspapers, exercise books...
Source: Rural Remote Health - July 21, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Tang S, Ji L, Hu T, Bishwajit G, Da Feng, Ming H, Xian Y, Fu Q, He Z, Fu H, Wang R, Feng Z Tags: Malar J Source Type: research

Provision of Chronic Disease Preventive Care in Community Substance Use Services: Client and Clinician Report.
This study aimed to examine clinician provision of preventive care to clients of community substance use treatment services. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with 386 clients and 54 clinicians of community substance use treatment services in one health district in New South Wales, Australia. Client- and clinician-reported provision of three elements of care (assessment, brief advice and referral) for three health risk behaviors (tobacco smoking, insufficient fruit and/or vegetable consumption and insufficient physical activity) was assessed, with associations with client characteristics examined. ...
Source: Rural Remote Health - July 21, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Tremain D, Freund M, Wye P, Wolfenden L, Bowman J, Dunlop A, Gillham K, Bartlem K, McElwaine K, Doherty E, Wiggers J Tags: J Subst Abuse Treat Source Type: research

A tale of two communities: intestinal polyparasitism among Orang Asli and Malay communities in rural Terengganu, Malaysia.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that IPIs are highly prevalent in rural Terengganu, Malaysia. Community awareness about IPIs was found to be imperative in protecting Malay children from these infections. An integrated control programme for the prevention and control of IPIs is highly recommended for these communities, with a special emphasis on the Orang Asli population. PMID: 27422533 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - July 19, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Elyana FN, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Ithoi I, Abdulsalam AM, Dawaki S, Nasr NA, Atroosh WM, Abd-Basher MH, Al-Areeqi MA, Sady H, Subramaniam LR, Anuar TS, Lau YL, Moktar N, Surin J Tags: Parasit Vectors Source Type: research

Sleep quality and obesity in young subjects: a meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep quality seems to be associated with Ow/Ob, and some studies indicate this association to be independent of duration. Therefore, considering only sleep duration might not help in disentangling sleep-obesity association. However, this review is mostly composed of cross-sectional studies. Therefore, a causal link or the stability of the sleep quality and Ow/Ob association could not be established. PMID: 27417913 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - July 14, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Fatima Y, Doi SA, Mamun AA Tags: Obes Rev Source Type: research

Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001-2009.
This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL) metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06), and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight reg...
Source: Rural Remote Health - July 12, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Amram O, Walker BB, Schuurman N, Pike I, Yanchar N Tags: Int J Environ Res Public Health Source Type: research

Need for an Australian Indigenous disability workforce strategy: review of the literature.
CONCLUSION: An Indigenous disability workforce strategy based on community-centered principles and incorporating cultural training and Indigenous disability workforce development may help to ensure that Indigenous people with a disability in rural and remote communities benefit from current disability sector reforms. Indigenous workforce development requires strategies to attract and retain Aboriginal workers. Implications for Rehabilitation Indigenous people with disability living in rural and remote areas experience significant access and equity barriers to culturally appropriate supports and services that enable them to...
Source: Rural Remote Health - July 5, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Gilroy J, Dew A, Lincoln M, Hines M Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research

Appropriate targeting of artemisinin-based combination therapy by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests: Findings from randomized trials in two contrasting areas of high and low malaria transmission in south western Uganda.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs), used by Community Health Workers (CHWs), on the proportion of children
Source: Rural Remote Health - July 4, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Ndyomugyenyi R, Magnussen P, Lal S, Hansen K, Clarke SE Tags: Trop Med Int Health Source Type: research

Subsidies to target specialist outreach services into more remote locations: a national cross-sectional study.
Conclusion This suggests the RHOF, although limited to one in five specialist outreach providers, is important to increase targeted and stable outreach services in areas of highest relative need. Other subsidies also play a role in facilitating remote service distribution, but may need to be more structured to promote regular, sustained outreach practice.What is known about this topic? There are no studies describing subsidies for specialist doctors to undertake rural outreach work and whether subsidies, including formal and structured subsidies via the Australian Government RHOF, support targeted outreach services compare...
Source: Rural Remote Health - July 3, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: O'Sullivan BG, McGrail MR, Stoelwinder JU Tags: Aust Health Rev Source Type: research

Barriers and facilitators to health care seeking behaviours in pregnancy in rural communities of southern Mozambique.
CONCLUSIONS: Women do seek antenatal care at health facilities, despite the presence of other health care providers in the community. There are important factors that prevent timely care-seeking for obstetric emergencies and delivery. Unfamiliarity with warning signs, especially among partners, discouragement from revealing pregnancy early in gestation, complex and untimely decision-making processes, fear of mistreatment by health-care providers, lack of transport and financial constraints were the most commonly cited barriers. Women of reproductive age would benefit from community saving schemes for transport and medicati...
Source: Rural Remote Health - July 2, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Munguambe K, Boene H, Vidler M, Bique C, Sawchuck D, Firoz T, Makanga PT, Qureshi R, Macete E, Menéndez C, von Dadelszen P, Sevene E Tags: Reprod Health Source Type: research

What shapes 7-year-olds' subjective well-being? Prospective analysis of early childhood and parenting using the Growing Up in Scotland study.
CONCLUSIONS: Unique prospective data show parenting and early childhood impact 7-year-olds' subjective well-being. They underline the benefits for children of targeting parental mental health and dysfunctional parenting, and helping parents develop skills to support children at home and school. PMID: 27357821 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - June 29, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Parkes A, Sweeting H, Wight D Tags: Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol Source Type: research

Indigenous Elder Insights about Conventional Care Services in Alaska: Culturally Charged Spaces.
CONCLUSION: This article concludes with discussion about collective anxieties and implications for care services. PMID: 27359337 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - June 29, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Balestrery JE Tags: J Gerontol Soc Work Source Type: research

Use of Nurses in Tele-Consultation for Patients in Remote Areas.
CONCLUSIONS: As shown by our case study, call centers can be used for tele consultation with the help of nurse informatics specialist. PMID: 27332173 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - June 24, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Robin M, Xavier T, Agrawal D Tags: Stud Health Technol Inform Source Type: research

Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Their potential health risks and sources at three non-urban sites in Japan.
Abstract This investigation was undertaken to monitor particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations in order to determine their emission sources and potential human health risks in remote and rural areas of Japan. Seventeen PAHs in aerosol samples collected in remote (Kamihaya), coastal (Hiki) and inland (Higashi-Hiroshima) areas of Japan during 2013-2014 were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total PAH (Σ17PAH) concentrations in aerosol samples were in the range of 0.08-6.51 ng m(-3), 0.09-4.74 ng m(-3), and 0.21-6.53 ng m(-3) at Kamihaya, Hiki, and Hig...
Source: Rural Remote Health - June 16, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Jadoon WA, Sakugawa H Tags: J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng Source Type: research

Geographic disparities in mortality among the end stage renal disease patients: an analysis of the United States Renal Data System, 2007-08.
Abstract The study was conducted to determine the association between mortality, rurality, and distance from the treatment facility of the patients with ESRD. The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) for the year 2007-08 was utilized to conduct analysis of 181,349 subjects. After adjusting for all other covariates, the odds of mortality were higher among patients in urban and isolated areas (18.1 miles or more from the dialysis facility), compared with those who were living closer (≤3.3 miles, OR 1.08, 95 % CI 1.05-1.12). Conversely, patients living in isolated rural (0-≤3.3 miles, OR 0.95, 95 %...
Source: Rural Remote Health - June 15, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Ajmal F, Bennett KJ, Probst JC Tags: J Nephrol Source Type: research

Dietary Diversity Is Positively Associated with Deviation from Expected Height in Rural Nepal.
CONCLUSIONS: Increasing dietary diversity for children reduces the risk of stunting and improves growth after growth faltering. Future efforts should be directed at enabling families in food-insecure areas to feed their children a more diverse diet. PMID: 27306894 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - June 14, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Busert LK, Neuman M, Rehfuess EA, Dulal S, Harthan J, Chaube SS, Bhandari B, Costello H, Costello A, Manandhar DS, Saville NM Tags: J Nutr Source Type: research

Bright spots among the world's coral reefs.
Hardt MJ, Beger M, Friedlander A, Campbell SJ, Holmes KE, Wilson SK, Brokovich E, Brooks AJ, Cruz-Motta JJ, Booth DJ, Chabanet P, Gough C, Tupper M, Ferse SC, Sumaila UR, Mouillot D Abstract Ongoing declines in the structure and function of the world's coral reefs require novel approaches to sustain these ecosystems and the millions of people who depend on them. A presently unexplored approach that draws on theory and practice in human health and rural development is to systematically identify and learn from the 'outliers'-places where ecosystems are substantially better ('bright spots') or worse ('dark spots') t...
Source: Rural Remote Health - June 14, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Cinner JE, Huchery C, MacNeil MA, Graham NA, McClanahan TR, Maina J, Maire E, Kittinger JN, Hicks CC, Mora C, Allison EH, D'Agata S, Hoey A, Feary DA, Crowder L, Williams ID, Kulbicki M, Vigliola L, Wantiez L, Edgar G, Stuart-Smith RD, Sandin SA, Green AL Tags: Nature Source Type: research

A cultural and contextual analysis of health concepts and needs of women in a rural district of Nepal.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, participants' perceived health as not just about themselves but their families and communities. Socially as well as culturally determined gender roles influenced the health concepts and needs of the women. This study's findings can be used to guide public health leaders in priority-setting and in determining strategies for women's health promotion in rural districts of Nepal and other similar cultures. PMID: 27301978 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - June 13, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Yang Y, Bekemeier B, Choi J Tags: Glob Health Promot Source Type: research

Should we embed randomized controlled trials within action research: arguing from a case study of telemonitoring.
CONCLUSIONS: It appears possible to enhance the utility of RCTs by explicitly embedding them in an AR framework to shape stronger RCT design. The AR process and characteristics may enable researchers to evaluate telehealth while enhancing rather than compromising the quality of an RCT, where research results are returned to practice as part of the research process. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, reference ACTRN12610000269033 . PMID: 27277940 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - June 11, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Day K, Kenealy TW, Sheridan NF Tags: BMC Med Res Methodol Source Type: research

Preparing non-government organization workers to conduct health checks for people with serious mental illness in regional Australia.
Conclusion Our observations highlight the important role lay workers in regional Australia have in helping people with SMI to address their physical health needs. They have an opportunity to extend their role in parts of the world where it is difficult to recruit MHNs. PMID: 27278754 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - June 8, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Jones M, Kruger M, Walsh SM Tags: J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs Source Type: research

Impact of a person-centred community rehabilitation service on outcomes for individuals with a neurological condition.
CONCLUSIONS: In the first year of operation, the community rehabilitation service made a significant impact on outcomes for individuals with a neurological condition. Further research is required to identify appropriate measures of activities of daily living and quality of life that reflect person-centred rehabilitation outcomes for restoring function, maximizing function, or preparing for functional decline. Implications for Rehabilitation Self-identified goals are an important guide for achievement of meaningful outcomes for individuals with a neurological condition. Person-centred outcome measures are required to evalua...
Source: Rural Remote Health - June 8, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Barker RN, Sealey CJ, Polley ML, Mervin MC, Comans T Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research

A low-cost, tablet-based option for prehospital neurologic assessment: The iTREAT Study.
CONCLUSIONS: Utilizing a low-cost, tablet-based platform and commercial cellular networks, we can reliably perform prehospital neurologic assessments in both rural and urban settings. Further research is needed to establish the reliability and validity of prehospital mobile telestroke assessment in live patients presenting with acute neurologic symptoms. PMID: 27281534 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - June 7, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Chapman Smith SN, Govindarajan P, Padrick MM, Lippman JM, McMurry TL, Resler BL, Keenan K, Gunnell BS, Mehndiratta P, Chee CY, Cahill EA, Dietiker C, Cattell-Gordon DC, Smith WS, Perina DG, Solenski NJ, Worrall BB, Southerland AM, As the iTREAT Investigat Tags: Neurology Source Type: research

Factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal people in Australia: a qualitative study.
CONCLUSIONS: Solutions to improved Aboriginal cancer outcomes include focusing on the primary care sector encouraging general practitioners to be proactive to suspicion of symptoms with appropriate investigations to facilitate earlier diagnosis and the need to improve Aboriginal health literacy regarding cancer. Access to health services remains a critical problem affecting timely diagnosis. PMID: 27259526 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - June 6, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Shahid S, Teng TK, Bessarab D, Aoun S, Baxi S, Thompson SC Tags: BMJ Open Source Type: research

A prospective comparison of times to presentation and treatment of regional and remote head and neck patients in North Queensland, Australia.
CONCLUSIONS: Significant delays in various aspects of head and neck cancer management were associated with remoteness, Indigenous and socioeconomic status. While patient and professional factors could be addressed at local levels, it requires a state and national level approach for sustainable improvement in outcomes. PMID: 27246246 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - May 31, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Tan JY, Otty ZA, Vangaveti VN, Buttner P, Varma SC, Joshi AJ, Kelly J, Collins M, Sabesan SS Tags: Intern Med J Source Type: research

Behavioral Health Problems Presented to Integrated Pediatric Behavioral Health Clinics: Differences in Urban and Rural Patients.
Abstract Behavioral health diagnoses and service use may differ based on rurality. The purpose of this study was to examine the patterns of mental disorder diagnoses of urban, rural, and remote pediatric populations. This retrospective study used electronic medical records from integrated behavioral health clinics in Nebraska from 2012 to 2013. Bivariate and multivariable models were used to examine the differences in diagnoses. Adolescents with attention deficit and related disorders were more likely to be male, younger, have public insurance and rural/remote residents. Adjustment disorders were associated with b...
Source: Rural Remote Health - May 31, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Watanabe-Galloway S, Valleley R, Rieke K, Corley B Tags: Community Ment Health J Source Type: research

Study of infectious conjunctivitis among children in rural areas of Qinghai province.
Hu A Abstract Infectious conjunctivitis is no longer a common eye disease in cities and developed areas, but in remote mountainous regions of China where living conditions are relatively under-developed, the occurrence of infectious conjunctivitis remains a public health issue. Here, we evaluate the ratio of infectious conjunctivitis among primary school students in the rural areas of Xunhua, Huangyuan, and Huzhu Counties in the Qinghai province of China, and report the microorganisms involved in causing infection. Of the 765 eligible primary school students, 694 participated to this study (a response rateof 90.7...
Source: Rural Remote Health - May 28, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Liang Q, Lu X, Wang M, Tian L, Labbé A, Hu A Tags: Sci China Life Sci Source Type: research

Will producing more dentists solve all the workforce issues in rural and remote areas?
PMID: 27232437 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - May 28, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Estai M, Kruger E, Tennant M Tags: Aust Dent J Source Type: research

Physician Assistants and Nurse Practitioners in Rural Washington Emergency Departments.
Abstract One role of physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) is to meet the growing demand for access to rural health care. Critical Access Hospitals, those with less than 25 beds, are usually located in rural communities, often providing continuity of care that clinics cannot deliver. Because little is known about staffing in these small hospital emergency departments, an exploratory study was undertaken using a mixed-methods approach. In Washington State, 18 of the 39 Critical Access Hospitals staff their emergency departments with PAs and NPs. Utilization data were collected through structured ...
Source: Rural Remote Health - May 19, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Nelson SC, Hooker RS Tags: J Physician Assist Educ Source Type: research

Moving towards a new vision: implementation of a public health policy intervention.
CONCLUSIONS: Multiple factors influenced public health policy implementation. Results provide empirical support for components of Greenhalgh et al's framework and suggest two additional components - the role of external organizational collaborations and partnerships as well as planning processes in influencing implementation. These are important to consider by government and public health organizations when promoting new or revised public health policies as they evolve over time. A successful policy implementation process in Ontario has helped to move public health towards the new vision. PMID: 27185039 [PubMed - in p...
Source: Rural Remote Health - May 19, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Valaitis R, MacDonald M, Kothari A, O'Mara L, Regan S, Garcia J, Murray N, Manson H, Peroff-Johnston N, Bursey G, Boyko J Tags: BMC Public Health Source Type: research

Mitochondrial genetic diversity, selection and recombination in a canine transmissible cancer.
Reynoso E, Fotopoulou E, Fruean SN, Gallardo-Arrieta F, Glebova O, Häfelin Manrique RF, Henriques JJ, Ignatenko N, Koenig D, Lanza-Perea M, Lobetti R, Lopez Quintana AM, Losfelt T, Marino G, Martincorena I, Martínez Castañeda S, Martínez-López MF, Meyer M, Nakanwagi B, De Nardi AB, Neunzig W, Nixon SJ, Onsare MM, Ortega-Pacheco A, Peleteiro MC, Pye RJ, Reece JF, Rojas Gutierrez J, Sadia H, Schmeling SK, Shamanova O, Ssuna RK, Steenland-Smit AE, Svitich A, Thoya Ngoka I, Vițălaru BA, de Vos AP, de Vos JP, Walkinton O, Wedge DC, Wehrle-Martinez AS, van der Wel MG, Widdowson SA, Murchison EP...
Source: Rural Remote Health - May 19, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Strakova A, Ní Leathlobhair M, Wang GD, Yin TT, Airikkala-Otter I, Allen JL, Allum KM, Bansse-Issa L, Bisson JL, Castillo Domracheva A, de Castro KF, Corrigan AM, Cran HR, Crawford JT, Cutter SM, Delgadillo Keenan L, Donelan EM, Faramade IA, Flores Reyno Tags: Elife Source Type: research

Validation of a new measure of availability and accommodation of health care that is valid for rural and urban contexts.
CONCLUSION: The new subscale is a practical, valid and reliable measure for patients to evaluate first-contact health services accessibility, yielding valid comparisons between urban and rural contexts. PMID: 27189772 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - May 17, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Haggerty JL, Levesque JF Tags: Health Expect Source Type: research

Inactivation of indicator organisms in wastewater treated by a high rate algal pond system.
CONCLUSIONS: The results show that HRAPs are able to remove viral and bacterial indicators to levels acceptable for sub-surface irrigation of non-food crops. Additionally, it was concluded that alternate environmental sources and the potential for re-growth made ASFB unsuitable indicators for pathogenic protozoa in natural pond systems. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: This study shows HRAPs would be suitable replacements for WSPs in CWMS schemes in regards to pathogen disinfection. Such demonstration of the treatment efficacy of HRAPs, together with their smaller land area requirements relative to WSPs, should facil...
Source: Rural Remote Health - May 16, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Young P, Buchanan N, Fallowfield H Tags: J Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Assessing fidelity of cognitive behavioral therapy in rural VA clinics: design of a randomized implementation effectiveness (hybrid type III) trial.
The objectives of this study are to modify the CALM tool to meet the needs of mental health clinicians in veterans affairs (VA) community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) and rural "veterans", use external facilitation to implement CBT and determine the effect of the CALM tool versus a manualized version of CALM to improve fidelity to the CBT treatment model, and conduct a needs assessment to understand how best to support future implementation of the CALM tool in routine care. METHODS/DESIGN: Focus groups will inform the redesign of the CALM tool. Mental health providers at regional VA CBOCs; CBT experts; V...
Source: Rural Remote Health - May 15, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Cucciare MA, Curran GM, Craske MG, Abraham T, McCarthur MB, Marchant-Miros K, Lindsay JA, Kauth MR, Landes SJ, Sullivan G Tags: Implement Sci Source Type: research

A comparison of age-standardised event rates for acute and chronic coronary heart disease in metropolitan and regional/remote Victoria: a retrospective cohort study.
CONCLUSION: Annual decreases in acute CHD age-standardised event rates might reflect improvements in primary prevention, while annual increases in chronic CHD age-standardised event rates suggest a need to improve secondary prevention strategies. Consistently higher acute and chronic CHD age-standardised event rates were evident in regional/remote Victoria compared to metropolitan Victoria from 2005 to 2012. PMID: 27169563 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - May 15, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Xanthos PD, Gordon BA, Begg S, Nadurata V, Kingsley MI Tags: BMC Public Health Source Type: research

Tuberculosis among transhumant pastoralist and settled communities of south-eastern Mauritania.
CONCLUSIONS: TB prevalences were high among both pastoralists and villagers. None of the 14 presumptive cases sought prior diagnostic testing. TB diagnostic centres in the remote rural study zone were poorly equipped. These centres must remain in operation to reduce TB incidence in vulnerable communities in insecure remote rural zones and to reach national health goals. PMID: 27171765 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - May 15, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Lô A, Tall-Dia A, Bonfoh B, Schelling E Tags: Glob Health Action Source Type: research

The effect of holiday haemodialysis treatments on patient mood, adverse symptoms and subjective wellbeing using the Big Red Kidney Bus.
CONCLUSION: The Big Red Kidney Bus provided a safe and feasible holiday dialysis service. Holidaymakers' wellbeing was reflected by the decreased dialysis patient side effects. PMID: 27161902 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - May 8, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Sims J, Bennett PN, Ockerby C, Ludlow M, Fairbairn J, Wilson A, Kerr PG Tags: Nephrology (Carlton) Source Type: research

Management of acute traumatic intracranial haematoma in rural and remote areas of Australia.
CONCLUSION: LMOs in remote locations may consider immediate drainage of deteriorating traumatic ICH. Adequate support from a distant major trauma centre can help achieve acceptable outcomes. Effective communications are vital. The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and Neurosurgical Society of Australasia guidelines based on the Early Management of Severe Trauma protocols can assist LMOs in making the decision to undertake emergency craniotomy. PMID: 27145070 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - May 2, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Gilligan J, Reilly P, Pearce A, Taylor D Tags: ANZ J Surg Source Type: research

Self-Reported Barriers to Healthcare Access for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients in Rural and Northern Saskatchewan: A Mixed Methods Study.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to identify potential barriers for access to medical and allied health services from the perspective of rural and Northern Saskatchewan rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: A total of 100 adults with established RA, residing in rural and Northern Saskatchewan, were recruited from two rheumatology practices. Structured interviews with standardized scripts solicited patient perspectives on appointment waiting times, travel required to access medical services and satisfaction with healthcare provision. Thematic analysis was employed for qualitative da...
Source: Rural Remote Health - May 2, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Nair BV, Schuler R, Stewart S, Taylor-Gjevre RM Tags: Musculoskeletal Care Source Type: research

The effectiveness of Internet-based e-learning on clinician behaviour and patient outcomes: A systematic review.
CONCLUSION: This review found insufficient evidence regarding the effectiveness of e-learning on healthcare professional behaviour or patient outcomes, consequently further research in this area is warranted. Future randomised controlled trials should adhere to the CONSORT reporting guidelines in order to improve the quality of reporting, to allow evaluation of the effectiveness of e-learning programmes on healthcare professional behaviour and patient outcomes. PMID: 27045566 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - April 7, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Sinclair PM, Kable A, Levett-Jones T, Booth D Tags: Int J Nurs Stud Source Type: research

Prevalence and incidence of frailty in Aboriginal Australians, and associations with mortality and disability.
CONCLUSIONS: Frailty in remote-living Aboriginal Australians is highly prevalent; substantially higher than in other populations. Research to understand the underlying causes of frailty in this population, and if possible, reverse frailty, is urgently needed. PMID: 27013294 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rural Remote Health)
Source: Rural Remote Health - March 26, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: Hyde Z, Flicker L, Smith K, Atkinson D, Fenner S, Skeaf L, Malay R, Giudice DL Tags: Maturitas Source Type: research