Rehabilitation in Africa
In Africa, rehabilitation services are insufficient and marred with inadequate political commitments and collaborations of stakeholders. Infrastructures and expertise for rehabilitation are scarce and poorly coordinated. Community-based rehabilitation programs are fragmented and fractured and lack working partnership with rehabilitation services in health care systems. Locally responsive policy frameworks, service delivery models, and health governance practices are prerequisites for meeting rehabilitation needs of the ever-increasing number of persons with chronic disabling conditions. Concerted global efforts are require...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - September 5, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Sisay Gizaw Geberemichael, Abena Yeboaa Tannor, Tesfaye Berhe Asegahegn, Asare B. Christian, Gloria Vergara-Diaz, Andrew J. Haig Source Type: research

Rehabilitation in Malaysia
This article reviews the epidemiology, rehabilitation intervention strategies, and rehabilitation resources for persons with disabilities (PWD) in Malaysia. Currently, the registered number of PWD is 409,269 individuals, 1.3% of the total population, which is far less than the World Health Organization estimation of 10%. The rehabilitation implementation strategies include health policies, health promotion, and prevention programs. Health-related services for PWD are provided by many government agencies, including health, welfare, education, manpower, housing, and the private sector and nongovernment organizations. It is h...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - September 5, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Amaramalar Selvi Naicker, Saari Mohamad Yatim, Julia Patrick Engkasan, Mazlina Mazlan, Yusniza Mohd. Yusof, Brenda Saria Yuliawiratman, Nazirah Hasnan, Ohnmar Htwe Source Type: research

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation in Latin America
Disability disproportionately affects women, older individuals, and ethnic minorities in low-income countries, many of which are located in Latin America. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) is the medical specialty that manages disability and works on restoring function, and over the past 6  decades has significantly expanded its importance in Latin America. The specialty has developed graduate and postgraduate educational programs, provides services to individuals of all ages in inpatient and outpatient settings, has increased its research productivity, and has become an advocate for patients with disabl...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - September 3, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Carolina Schiappacasse, Juan Manuel Guzm án, Maria Herrera Dean, Sandra Corletto, Linamara Rizzo Battistella, Marta Imamura, Jorge Gutiérrez, Graciela Borelli, Diana Muzio, William Micheo Source Type: research

Rehabilitation in Low-Resource Areas
Earlier rehabilitation interventions, like community-based rehabilitation (CBR), could not make a remarkable impact because they ran parallel to the health system, but the newer model establishes health-related rehabilitation as an integral part of the health care system at all levels and thus should be implemented as such. Collaborating with other players relevant to the CBR matrix, such as social and vocational services, can be imparted for the empowerment of a disabled group at the village level through the CBR center. A multipurpose rehabilitation worker, through skill transfer or task shifting, can start rehabilitatio...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - September 3, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Mrinal Joshi Source Type: research

Concept Changes and Standardizing Tools in Community-Based Rehabilitation
Community-based rehabilitation (CBR) has changed considerably over 4  decades, resulting in a rights-based approach, holding local authorities accountable for service delivery. For medical rehabilitation in low-resource countries, there is concern about how this service gap will be covered. The CBR community continues to strengthen the evidence base for CBR implemen tation, acknowledging its extensiveness and variety on the ground. The creation of standardizing tools favors this process because it provides the building blocks to scale up, setting standards for implementation research. Finally, an International Classif...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - September 3, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Wouter De Groote Source Type: research

Rehabilitation in Bangladesh
Physical rehabilitation medicine started in Bangladesh 50  years ago, but there is no documentary evidence stating its origin, history of progression as a specialty, and work with agenda items. A gap exists between disability-related health and participation, which affects service delivery systems offered to persons with disability (PwD). Disability preva lence ranges from 0.47% to 14.4%. Illiteracy, maldistribution of wealth, and increasing prevalence of chronic diseases add to the burden of existing disability. It is necessary to involve all stakeholders in disability management to strengthen medical rehabilitation ...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - August 30, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Taslim Uddin, Moshiur Rahman Khasru, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Mohammad Ali Emran, Mohammad Shahidur Rahman, Mohammad Abdus Shakoor, Abul Khair Mohammad Salek, Syed Mozaffar Ahmed, Mohammad Moniruzzaman Khan, Mohammad Ahsan Ullah, Badrunnesa Ahmed, Mohammad Source Type: research

Rehabilitation in Nepal
As a low-income country with a significant burden of disease and frequent natural disasters, the need for rehabilitation in Nepal is significant. Rehabilitation services currently available in Nepal are limited, but the government has recently adopted a 10-year action plan to address rehabilitation needs nationwide. Rehabilitation education and training is necessary to provide and retain adequate multidisciplinary rehabilitation providers for current and future needs in Nepal. The implementation of evidence-based recommendations to improve the quality of rehabilitation services and access to rehabilitation is critical to m...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - August 28, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Raju Dhakal, Christine C. Groves Source Type: research

Facilitators and Barriers to the Rehabilitation Workforce Capacity Building in Low- to Middle-Income Countries
An increase in population and chronic conditions leading to disability require increasing emphasis on rehabilitation and health intervention. Poorer countries do not usually have the rehabilitation workforce needed to promote societal inclusion and participation. The roles of the rehabilitation workforce were often not clearly defined, leading to task shifting among rehabilitation professionals. Barriers to capacity building were poor availability of human resources and insufficient training program/supports for their professional development. Facilitators were local government support and international non-governmental or...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - August 24, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Amaramalar Selvi Naicker, Ohnmar Htwe, Abena Yeboaa Tannor, Wouter De Groote, Brenda Saria Yuliawiratman, Manimalar Selvi Naicker Source Type: research

Prolotherapy for Musculoskeletal Pain and Disability in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Chronic musculoskeletal pain and disability dramatically reduce quality and quantity of life worldwide, disproportionately so in low- and middle-income countries. Complementary therapies not typically learned in conventional medical training have much to offer but are under-utilized. Prolotherapy is an injection-based complementary therapy supported by high-quality evidence for osteoarthritis, tendinopathy, and low back pain. Prolotherapy addresses causes of pain and disability at the tissue level, is straightforward to learn, and relies on common, inexpensive material, and requires no refrigeration. Not-for-profit organiz...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - August 22, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: David Rabago, Kenneth Dean Reeves, Mary P. Doherty, Maelu Fleck Source Type: research

Rehabilitation in Disaster Relief
Rehabilitation plays a crucial role in natural disasters owing to the significant upsurge of survivors with complex and long-term disabling injuries. Rehabilitation professionals can minimize mortality, decrease disability, and improve clinical outcomes and participation. In disaster-prone countries, skilled rehabilitation workforce and services are either limited and/or comprehensive rehabilitation-inclusive disaster management plans are yet to be developed. The World Health Organization Emergency Medical Team initiative and guidelines provide structure and standardization to prepare, plan, and provide effective and coord...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - August 21, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Fary Khan, Bhasker Amatya, Su Yi Lee, Vandana Vasudevan Source Type: research

Impairment and Society: Efforts and Consequences
I would like to thank the guest editors for this excellent review. They not only deal with the challenging scenario of assessing medical impairment but also take us through the labyrinth of decision-making strategies, dealing with known and less obvious consequences. Disability in our society is reaching epidemic proportions, costing the taxpayer billions of dollars, much of which is attributed to musculoskeletal and neurologic conditions. It becomes paramount for our medical specialty to remain current in an effort to appropriately assess impairments and their subsequent impact on not only the individual but also our soci...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - June 19, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Santos F. Martinez Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Medical Impairment, Disability Evaluation and Associated Medicolegal Issues
PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - June 19, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Robert D. Rondinelli, Marjorie Eskay-Auerbach Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - June 19, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Contributors
SANTOS F. MARTINEZ, MD, MS (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - June 19, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Contents
Santos F. Martinez (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - June 19, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Rehabilitation in Developing Countries (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - June 19, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Life Care Planning – a Practical Illustration
Life care planning is a method of estimating future care costs for patients with catastrophic disabilities. The life care planner determines an annual budget for care, including further medical and rehabilitative interventions, durable medical goods, disposable medical goods and supplies, and recreational equipment. After determining an annual budget, the life care planner must use scientifically sound methods of determining the patient ’s life expectancy in order to create a lifetime budget. (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 30, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Richard T. Katz Source Type: research

Measuring Burden of Care After Catastrophic Illness or Injury
Burden of care (BoC) is the amount of time a patient requires direct, daily assistance from another person to meet basic needs in the home; it is based on a patient ’s functional level, obtained using the Functional Independence Measure. Inpatient BoC is a patient’s projected resource utilization during a stay at an inpatient facility, assessed using the Northwick Park Dependency Scale. At the outpatient level, function and BoC can be assessed using the LIF Eware System. Measuring and monitoring outcomes of all care result in reduced health care expenditures, more streamlined patient care, and improved quality ...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 29, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Paulette M. Niewczyk Source Type: research

Rehabilitating the Injured/Ill Worker to Maximum Medical Improvement (MMI)
This article informs the interested clinician in regard to the unique aspects of work disability, including the issues of work accommodations, restrictions, and fitness for duty; prolonged work disability; and other return-to-work considerations at maximum medical improvement. (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 29, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Russell Gelfman, James J. Hill Source Type: research

The Independent Medical Examination
(IME), as it is commonly referred to, is currently a mainstay of the medicolegal system. The IME is typically a one-time interview, physical examination, and supplemental record review performed by an impartial (ie, nontreating) physician at the request of a claimant ’s legal counsel or opposing defense attorney, in order to provide focused answers to a particular set of questions intended to help resolve a medicolegal dispute over the claimant’s alleged work injury or personal injury claim. IME services provide opportunity for physicians to broaden and dive rsify their expertise and scope of practice. (Source...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 29, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Robert D. Rondinelli, Marjorie Eskay-Auerbach Source Type: research

Healthcare Provider Issues and Perspective
This article provides a brief historical perspective of disability determination, and revisits the conceptual foundation for understanding the current models of disablement and their general application to the major US disability systems and nuances thereof. The expectations placed on the physician-expert examiner and why the physiatrist is ideally equipped to function in this role are discussed. The article is intended to provide a heightened awareness of the medicolegal framework, potential pitfalls, and other ramifications of such undertakings. (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 29, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Robert D. Rondinelli, Marjorie Eskay-Auerbach Source Type: research

Medical Impairment, Disability Evaluation, and Associated Medicolegal Issues
In 2001, I had the honor and pleasure of coediting an issue of the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America on the topic of Disability Evaluation.1 My perspective and message to the reader at the time was that physician practitioners in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) are ideally suited to embrace this area of medical practice because the essence of our specialty is the focus upon assessment and treatment of medical impairments, which arise out of illness or personal injury and have disabling consequences. (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 29, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Robert D. Rondinelli, Marjorie Eskay-Auerbach Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Evaluating Return-to-work Ability Using Functional Capacity Evaluation
It is beneficial for both worker and employer for the worker to return to work (RTW) as early as possible after an illness, injury, or prolonged absence. Because employers are ultimately responsible for the RTW decision, a medical RTW assessment is commonly required to assure that the worker is medically able to and physically capable of performing the job tasks. Consequently, many employers depend on opinions from medical providers. Valid functional capacity evaluations can provide objective measurements of work-related strength capabilities and are useful in supporting a medical provider ’s opinion of a worker&rsqu...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 28, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: E. Randolph Soo Hoo Source Type: research

Common Metrics for Impairment Ratings
Impairment reflects a “a significant deviation, loss, or loss of use of any body structure or body function in an individual with a health condition, disorder, or disease” and is not synonymous with disability, which refers to “activity limitations and/or participation restrictions in an individual with a health co ndition, disorder, or disease.” The American Medical Association Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment are the most widely used standard to assess impairment. Future research could use empirical evidence on the relationship between impairment ratings and earnings losses to impr...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 23, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Christopher R. Brigham Source Type: research

Determination of Medicolegal Causation
Causation determination has become the gateway to treatment and reimbursement in workers ’ compensation and personal injury cases. The science of causation is constantly evolving, which is improving our understanding of individual physical thresholds, associated risk factors, and individual biopsychosocioeconomic factors. New laws place constantly changing legal thresholds for determi ning work-relatedness and proximate cause. The underlying foundation for fairness is quality science to support decisions made by the legal system to provide the injured worker the appropriate treatment to restore their function and dec...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 23, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: J. Mark Melhorn, Marjorie Eskay-Auerbach Source Type: research

Validity Assessment in Traumatic Brain Injury Impairment and Disability Evaluations
This article provides an overview of validity assessment in persons with traumatic brain injury including evaluation caveats. Specific discussion is provided on post-concussive disorders, malingering, examination techniques to assess for validity, response bias, effort and non-organic/functional presentations. Examinee and examiner biases issues will also be explored. Discussion is also provided regarding judicial trends in limiting examiner scope of testing and/or testimony, and risk of liability when providing expert witness opinions on validity of examinee presentations. The hope is to encourage physiatrists to become m...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 18, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Nathan D. Zasler, Scott D. Bender Source Type: research

Medicolegal Expert Core Competencies and Professionalism
Medicolegal expert opinions can be the source of long and senseless acrimonious debates when they lack the necessary qualities to be considered good evidence. In contrast, quality medicolegal expert reports contribute significantly to the proper and prompt resolution of personal injury claims in civil litigation. To this end, expert physiatrists must develop the medicolegal mindset necessary to survive and thrive in the civil litigation arena. Medicolegal core competencies needed for this endeavor are identified and addressed for what is a lifelong learning project. (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 18, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Michel Lacerte Source Type: research

Plaintiff Attorney's Issues and Perspective: The Injured Worker as Claimant
Injured workers deal with many struggles while healing, forced on them by problems within the workers ’ compensation system itself. The physician’s role is critical in mitigating complicating factors that have a negative impact on recovery. The workers’ compensation system is meant as a safety net, guaranteeing prompt medical care; therefore, the applicable causation standard is lower than sci entific probability. Physicians treating injured workers must remember legal, ethical, and moral obligations to patients. Injured workers should not be treated differently from patients who suffered a similar injury...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 15, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: R. Saffin Parrish-Sams Source Type: research

The Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery (WD-FAB)
Accuracy in measuring function related to one ’s ability to work is central to public confidence in a work disability benefits system. In the United States, national disability programs are challenged to adjudicate millions of work disability claims each year in a timely and accurate manner. The Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery ( WD-FAB) was developed to provide work disability agencies and other interested parties a comprehensive and efficient approach to profiling a person’s function related to their ability to work. The WD-FAB is grounded by the International Classification of Functioning, Disab...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 11, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Alan M. Jette, Pengsheng Ni, Elizabeth Rasch, Elizabeth Marfeo, Christine McDonough, Diane Brandt, Lewis Kazis, Leighton Chan Source Type: research

Administrative Issues and Perspective: Impairment Ratings and Disability Determinations
When health providers become involved in impairment evaluation, they inevitably encounter administrative systems that adjudicate disability determinations. Those determinations take place in varied systems, each with its own terminology and processes, which can lead to confusion and frustration. Understanding historical and administrative context reduces potential for iatrogenic harm due tocaused by needless disability. The key to better health outcomes for patients involved in disability benefit systems is to understand the health benefits of work, advocate for the best health interests of patients rather than for specifi...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 7, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Les Kertay Source Type: research

Administrative Issues Related to Impairment Ratings and Disability Determinations
When health providers become involved in impairment evaluation, they inevitably encounter administrative systems that adjudicate disability determinations. Those determinations take place in varied systems, each with its own terminology and processes, which can lead to confusion and frustration. Understanding historical and administrative context reduces potential for iatrogenic harm due tocaused by needless disability. The key to better health outcomes for patients involved in disability benefit systems is to understand the health benefits of work, advocate for the best health interests of patients rather than for specifi...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 7, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Les Kertay Source Type: research

Burden of Treatment Compliance as an Impairment Rating Metric
All editions of the American Medical Association (AMA) guides rate impairment based on static deviations from population or personal norms in addition to rating based on interferences in activities of daily living (ADLs). The burden of treatment compliance (BOTC) method of impairment rating was developed as a stand-alone model to help overcome difficulties when rating internal medicine conditions, when normative metrics may be lacking and impacts on ADLs are not readily determined. With the sixth edition of the AMA guides, the BOTC model has been adapted to provide alternative operational metrics for functional losses asso...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 7, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Stephen L. Demeter Source Type: research

Life Expectancy Expert Reports
Life expectancy expertise must comply with court-mandated evidentiary standards. A proper opinion should abide by 3 principles; it should be generated by a qualified expert who applies proper methods to appropriate facts. Several common mistakes can make opinions unsuitable for admission into testimony by straying from 1 or more of these 3 principles. Examining life expectancy opinions in light of these principles allows consumers of life expectancy expertise to evaluate the quality of the opinions proffered. (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 7, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Pierre J. Vachon Source Type: research

The Physician as Expert Witness
This report will become part of the discovery process, the process by which a party to a lawsuit can obtain information from another party or other entities involved in the lawsuit. (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - May 7, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Marjorie Eskay-Auerbach Source Type: research

Measuring Quality of Life Loss in Litigation
This article discusses measuring quality of life (QOL) loss in litigation. Case examples are provided. The complexity challenge in QOL assessment is more easily addressed since the advent of computer adaptive testing, which is used by physicians and rehabilitationists in the administration of psychometric instruments to determine QOL loss. It is now possible to write algorithms to capture QOL data through text-mining. If QOL domains and their factors could be accessed through text-mining, it would make for an extraordinary opportunity for much needed doctoral level research in QOL issues for injured workers in workers &rsq...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - April 30, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Patricia A. Murphy Source Type: research

Validity and Reliability of the Kinect for Assessment of Standardized Transitional Movements and Balance
The validity and reliability of using the Kinect camera to measure standardized assessment of transitional movement, stepping, and balance was systematically reviewed and critically appraised for quality of the methods and results. The study made recommendations of specific tests for practice based on inclusion of both validity and reliability testing as well as quality of results. Authors ’ willingness to share their software was reported. Translation into practice is limited by lack of redundancy among studies and access to the software to implement the tests. (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - April 4, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Ur ška Puh, Brittany Hoehlein, Judith E. Deutsch Source Type: research

Neuromodulation for Functional Electrical Stimulation
This article describes the application of neuromodulation in different ways to motor recovery, to replace lost function, or to improve function of organ systems for those who have experienced spinal cord injury or stroke. Multiple devices have been developed and are currently available for use whereas others are still in the experimental stage. Multiple uses of neuromodulation are described. (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - April 4, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Richard D. Wilson, Anne M. Bryden, Kevin L. Kilgore, Nathaniel Makowski, Dennis Bourbeau, Krzysztof E. Kowalski, Anthony F. DiMarco, Jayme S. Knutson Source Type: research

It Is a New Beginning
I would like to thank Dr Stein and Dr Lindsay for taking on this issue. The momentum for innovation is fertile with evermore diversity in approaches to address obstacles and limitations frequently encountered in the rehabilitation population. It is hoped that such advances will take us past preconceived limitations accessing technology, which will enrich the quality of life of our patients and thus our society. This issue also provokes a reassessment of our daily clinical practices, where innovation will and is allowing remote interaction with practitioners, patients, and devices. (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitat...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - April 4, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Santos F. Martinez Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Technological Advances in Rehabilitation
PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - April 4, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Leroy R. Lindsay, Joel Stein Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - April 4, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Contributors
SANTOS F. MARTINEZ, MD, MS (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - April 4, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Contents
Santos F. Martinez (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - April 4, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Medical Impairment and Disability Evaluation, and Associated Medicolegal Issues (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - April 4, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Source Type: research

Platelet-Rich Plasma Use in Musculoskeletal Disorders
This article summarizes research on uses of PRP, compares classification systems to standardize various PRP compositions, and discusses the most common methodologies to produce PRP. Even with advances in understanding PRP, there are unknowns about the factors and processes that may have an impact on treatment efficacy for musculoskeletal conditions. PRP studies should pursue determining optimal PRP preparation, setting a standard to evaluate PRP mixtures and preparation methods, assessing efficacy of PRP for various musculoskeletal conditions, and managing and reducing costs. (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation C...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - March 11, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Idris Amin, Alfred C. Gellhorn Source Type: research

Gait Segmentation of Data Collected by Instrumented Shoes Using a Recurrent Neural Network Classifier
The authors present a Recurrent Neural Network classifier model that segments the walking data recorded with instrumented footwear. The signals from 3 piezoresistive sensors, a 3-axis accelerometer, and Euler angles are used to generate temporal gait characteristics of a user. The model was tested using a data set collected from 28 adults containing 4198 steps. The mean errors for heel strikes and toe-offs were −5.9 ± 37.1 and 11.4 ± 47.4 milliseconds. These small errors show that the algorithm can be reliably used to segment the gait recordings and to use this segmentation to e...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - March 11, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Antonio Prado, Xiya Cao, Maxime T. Robert, Andrew K. Gordon, Sunil K. Agrawal Source Type: research

Robotics for Lower Limb Rehabilitation
This article reviews the first 3 categories and briefly mentions the fourth. Research is needed to further define the therapeutic applications of these devices. Additional technical improvements are expected regarding device size, controls, and battery life for untethered devices. (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - March 11, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Alberto Esquenazi, Mukul Talaty Source Type: research

Advances in Prosthetics and Rehabilitation of Individuals with Limb Loss
This article initially focuses on advances in surgical and rehabilitative care, followed by noteworthy advances in prosthetics, including potential advantages and disadvantages. Although prosthetics tend to dominate attention in the field, it is important to remember that optimizing surgical and rehabilitative care are vital components of enhancing functional recovery and quality of life in people with limb loss. (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - March 11, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Mary S. Keszler, Jeffrey T. Heckman, G. Eli Kaufman, David C. Morgenroth Source Type: research

Apps and Mobile Health Technology in Rehabilitation
This article reviews the current evidence for and breadth of application-based mHealth interventions in rehabilitation medicine, including comprehensive self-management mHealth services; weight management mHealth services; diagnosis-specific mHealth services for individuals with brain, spinal cord, musculoskeletal, or other injury types; and nonmedical services to improve community and social integration. (Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America)
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - March 5, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Lindsay Ramey, Candice Osborne, Donald Kasitinon, Shannon Juengst Source Type: research

Telemedicine in Rehabilitation
Telerehabilitation refers to the virtual delivery of rehabilitation services into the patient ’s home. This methodology has shown to be advantageous when used to enhance or replace conventional therapy to overcome geographic, physical, and cognitive barriers. The exponential growth of technology has led to the development of new applications that enable health care providers to monitor, ed ucate, treat, and support patients in their own environment. Best practices and well-designed Telerehabilitation studies are needed to build and sustain a strong Telerehabilitation system that is integrated in the current health ca...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - March 5, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Marinella DeFre Galea Source Type: research

Spinal Cord Epidural Stimulation for Lower Limb Motor Function Recovery in Individuals with Motor Complete Spinal Cord Injury
Spinal cord epidural stimulation (scES) combined with activity-based training can promote lower limb motor function recovery in chronic, motor complete spinal cord –injured individuals. Task- and individual-specific scES parameters modulate the excitability of human spinal circuitry so that sensory information and residual descending input can serve as sources of control for generating motor patterns appropriate for standing, stepping, and volitionally movin g the lower limb. Task-specific activity-based training with scES is crucial for promoting neural plasticity and motor function improvement. Future studies with ...
Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America - March 5, 2019 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Enrico Rejc, Claudia A. Angeli Source Type: research