Appropriate use criteria and computerized decision support for the pediatric population: background, Pediatric Rapid Response Committee and future direction
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Unusual case of biotin-thiamine responsive encephalopathy without basal ganglia involvement
AbstractBiotin-thiamine-responsive encephalopathy, also known as biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease, is characterized by high T2 signal in the basal ganglia (caudate and putamina), which is reported as a typical feature of the disorder. Brain magnetic resonance imaging in our patient, who presented with irritability, poor feeding and prolonged seizures, found multiple areas of restricted diffusion in the cerebral cortex and thalami leading to an initial diagnosis of a mitochondrial disorder. The basal ganglia were not affected. More characteristic chronic findings of T2 prolongation and volume loss were later seen in ...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The eyes see what the mind knows — a need for midgut volvulus ultrasound education: reply to Strouse
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging sedation and anesthesia practice patterns in pediatric radiology departments — a survey of the Society of Chiefs of Radiology at Children’s Hospitals (SCORCH)
ConclusionImaging sedation/anesthesia practice patterns vary among pediatric radiology departments, and understanding current approaches can help with standardization and practice improvement. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Practical considerations for pancreas ultrasound elastography in pediatric patients before application of normal reference values
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the pediatric brain
AbstractBrain contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an emerging application that can complement gray-scale US and yield additional insights into cerebral flow dynamics. CEUS uses intravenous injection of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) to highlight tissue perfusion and thus more clearly delineate cerebral pathologies including stroke, hypoxic –ischemic injury and focal lesions such as tumors and vascular malformations. It can be applied not only in infants with open fontanelles but also in older children and adults via a transtemporal window or surgically created acoustic window. Advancements in CEUS technology an...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pediatric Bassett ’s ligament: pathology or normal anatomy?
ConclusionBassett ’s ligament is a normal structure in children. Thickening of Bassett’s ligament is seen with lateral osteochondral lesions and may be an indirect sign of anterolateral tibiotalar capsule injury. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging in support of the clinical diagnoses of COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Assessment of distal ureteral and ureterovesical junction visualization on contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography
ConclusionThe distal ureter and ureterovesical junction region frequently are not clearly visualized in refluxing renal moieties on CEVUS. Awareness of this limitation is important as there may be implications when evaluating patients for surgical management of VUR. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Fe Del Mundo: an inspiration to all pediatric health professionals
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Real-time magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric radiology — new approach to movement and moving children
AbstractThe recent development of highly undersampled radial gradient echo sequences in combination with nonlinear inverse image reconstruction now allows for MRI examinations in real time. Image acquisition times as short as 20  ms yield MRI videos with rates of up to 50 frames per second with spin density, T1- and T2-type contrast. The addition of an initial 180° inversion pulse achieves accurate T1 mapping within only 4 s. These technical advances promise specific advantages for studies of infants and young children b y eliminating the need for sedation or anesthesia. Our preliminary data demonstrate new d...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Use of compressed sensing to reduce scan time and breath-holding for cardiac cine balanced steady-state free precession magnetic resonance imaging in children and young adults
AbstractBackgroundConventional pediatric volumetric MRI acquisitions of a short-axis stack typically require multiple breath-holds under anesthesia.ObjectiveHere, we aimed to validate a vendor-optimized compressed-sensing approach to reduce scan time during short-axis balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) cine imaging.Materials and methodsImaging was performed in 28 patients (16 ±9 years) in this study on a commercial 3-tesla (T) scanner using retrospective electrocardiogram-gated cine bSSFP. Cine short-axis images covering both ventricles were acquired with conventional parallel imaging and a vendor-op...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Intra-abdominal lymphatic malformation management in light of the updated International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies classification
ConclusionThe management of intra-abdominal malformations requires a team approach. Sclerotherapy is successful in treating macrocystic lymphatic malformation. Surgery is successful in treating isolated intra-abdominal common lymphatic malformation, albeit at times at the cost of intestinal resection, which could be avoided by combining surgery with preoperative sclerotherapy. With surgery there is often limited resectability, and therefore recurrence in intra-abdominal lymphatic malformations that are part of complex lymphatic anomalies associated with syndromes, or in common lymphatic malformations in continuity with oth...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contemporary imaging of the pediatric shoulder: pearls and pitfalls
AbstractIn skeletally immature patients, the presence of growth plates and articular cartilage of the shoulder can create a predisposition for unique injuries not observed in adults. Furthermore, increasing participation in sports by children and adolescents appears to be leading to a corresponding increase in the number of sports-related injuries. The importance of radiologists being familiar with pediatric shoulder imaging and its associated injuries is therefore growing. In this article, we review the normal development and maturation pattern of ossification centers of the shoulder from the early gestational period thro...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

123 Iodine-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy versus whole-body magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging in children with high-risk neuroblastoma — pilot study
ConclusionThe SIOPEN scoring system is feasible for whole-body MRI but might result in slightly higher scores, probably because of MRI ’s superior spatial resolution. Further studies are necessary to validate any impact on prognosis. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Confirmatory radiographs have limited utility following ultrasound-guided tunneled femoral central venous catheter placements by interventional radiology
ConclusionThe concordance between intra-procedural US and confirmatory post-procedure radiographs of CVC placements by interventional radiology obviates the need for routine radiographs. Radiographs may be obtained in instances of proceduralist uncertainty or clinical concern. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical utility and economic impact of routine delayed follow-up radiographs in children with uncomplicated distal radius Salter-Harris 2 fractures
ConclusionIn asymptomatic children with uncomplicated Salter-Harris 2 fractures of the distal radius, detection of a physeal bridge on delayed radiographs is rare. The financial burden of routine delayed follow-up in asymptomatic patients, a common clinical practice, is an important consideration. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Role of gated cardiac computed tomographic angiography in the evaluation of postsurgical complications after stage I Norwood procedure and its implications on management: a comparative study with two-dimensional echocardiography
ConclusionCCTA plays an important role in detecting surgical complications after stage I Norwood procedure and demonstrates additional findings that have direct management implications. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 4, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pediatric Radiology Continuing Medical Education Activity
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 4, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Liver T1 relaxation times without and with iron correction: reply to M ózes and Tunnicliffe
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - February 2, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Spinal ultrasound after failed landmarked-based lumbar puncture: a single institutional experience
AbstractBackgroundThe safety and efficacy of US-guided lumbar puncture in children has been described. In the pediatric setting, children are frequently referred to interventional radiology only after a failed landmark-based attempt. Routine pre-procedure US in these children is useful to determine a safe level for subarachnoid access and to optimize success.ObjectiveTo determine whether pre-procedure US improves technical success and safety of US-guided lumbar puncture.Materials and methodsWe included 47 children. Inclusion criteria were urgent US-guided lumbar puncture in pediatric patients
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 29, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of children with COVID-19: experience from a tertiary children ’s hospital in the United States
ConclusionIn our study, most pediatric patients with COVID-19 did not require hospital admission or imaging. Most children with imaging had comorbidities but children with MIS-C were more likely to have no comorbidities. Children with imaging mostly had normal chest radiography. Advanced imaging (US, CT, MRI) was less common for the care of these children, particularly CT examination of the chest and for children without MIS-C. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 29, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A noninvasive index to predict liver cirrhosis in biliary atresia
AbstractBackgroundBiliary atresia is a progressive obliterative cholangiopathy affecting both extrahepatic and intrahepatic biliary trees, resulting in fibrous obliteration of the biliary tract and subsequent development of cirrhosis.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to find noninvasive indices to predict the status of hepatic fibrosis in children with biliary atresia.Materials and methodsWe retrospectively measured the volume of the hepatic lobes and spleen from MR images, obtained biochemical data and analyzed the relationship between the imaging and biochemical indices, and the pathological status of hepatic fibrosis i...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 29, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Courage and the care of children: Janusz Korczak
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 28, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Differences between T1 and corrected T1 cannot be attributed to iron-correction only
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 27, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging of the brainstem in children, part 1: imaging techniques, embryology, anatomy and review of congenital conditions
AbstractPart 1 of this series of two articles describes conventional and advanced MRI techniques that are useful for evaluating brainstem pathologies. In addition, it provides a review of the embryology, normal progression of myelination, and clinically and radiologically salient imaging anatomy of the normal brainstem. Finally, it discusses congenital diseases of the brainstem with a focus on distinctive imaging features that allow for differentiating pathologies. Part 2 of this series of two articles includes discussion of neoplasms; infections; and vascular, demyelinating, toxic and metabolic, and miscellaneous disease ...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 26, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pediatric Radiology Continuing Medical Education Activity
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hermes
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic value of left atrial strain in pediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with normal maximum left atrial volume index: preliminary cardiac magnetic resonance study
ConclusionLeft atrial conduit and reservoir strains are impaired in pediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with normal maximum left atrial volumetric indices. Most left atrial strain parameters are closely linked to left ventricular LGE-% and diastolic dysfunction. Left atrial strain analysis may reveal subtle functional changes in the atrium before the increase in the maximum volume index. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging of the brainstem in children, part 2: acquired pathology of the pediatric brainstem
AbstractPart 1 of this series of two articles describes conventional and advanced MRI techniques that are useful for evaluating brainstem pathologies. In addition, it provides a review of the embryology, normal progression of myelination, and clinically and radiologically salient imaging anatomy of the normal brainstem. Finally, it discusses congenital diseases of the brainstem with a focus on distinctive imaging features that allow for differentiating pathologies. Part 2 of this series of two articles includes discussion of neoplasms; infections; and vascular, demyelinating, toxic, metabolic and miscellaneous disease proc...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hermes
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Correction to: The Haskins pediatric atlas: a magnetic-resonance-imaging-based pediatric template and atlas
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00247-020-04958-w (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Rate of resident recognition of nonaccidental trauma: how well do residents perform?
ConclusionRadiology residency programs may be deficient in teaching residents to accurately recognize and report child abuse. This deficiency has potential implications for programs where a radiology attending is not present after hours as it raises the concern that child abuse may be missed by residents taking independent call. These data further question whether graduating radiologists are competent to recognize nonaccidental trauma and demonstrates the need for additional mandatory training during radiology residency. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Imaging of fetal brain tumors
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00247-020-04777-z (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Extracardiac imaging findings in COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children
ConclusionThe diagnosis of MIS-C and its distinction from other pathologies should be primarily based on clinical presentation and laboratory evidence of inflammation because imaging findings are nonspecific. However, it should be considered in the setting of bilateral diffuse pulmonary opacities, peribronchial thickening, right lower quadrant bowel inflammation or unexplained ascites in a child presenting with Kawasaki-like symptoms and a history of COVID-19 infection or recent COVID-19 exposure. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Combined cut down and endovascular retrieval of orphaned ventriculoatrial shunt with stenting of chronic superior vena cava occlusion
AbstractRevascularization of the superior vena cava (SVC) in the context of symptomatic luminal obstruction is a therapeutic intervention performed for SVC syndrome of benign or malignant etiology. Venous occlusion can preclude future access and cause symptoms ranging from mild chest discomfort to the more serious effects of SVC syndrome. This case report demonstrates the treatment of a novel case of SVC syndrome arising from a previously placed SVC stent. An intravascular, extraluminal orphaned ventriculoatrial shunt was used to go through the SVC but around the existing lumen-limiting stent to place a new larger stent fo...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Intracranial calcifications in childhood
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Morel-Lavall ée lesions: MRI characteristics in the pediatric patient
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00247-020-04951-3 (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pediatric applications of Dotatate: reply to Shulkin et al.
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

An unexpected upheaval: pediatric radiology fellows ’ experience during COVID-19
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Transition to ultrasound as the first-line imaging modality for midgut volvulus: keys to a successful roll-out
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the evaluation of Crohn disease activity in children: comparison with histopathology
ConclusionQuantitative contrast-enhanced US has the potential of becoming a complementary method in the evaluation of Crohn disease activity in children. Fibrosis may affect peak enhancement results and underestimate inflammatory activity. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Deep learning augments liver stiffness classification in children
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical concordance with Image Gently guidelines for pediatric computed tomography: a study across 663,417 CT scans at 53 clinical facilities
AbstractBackgroundManaging patient radiation dose in pediatric computed tomography (CT) examinations is essential. Some organizations, most notably Image Gently, have suggested techniques to lower dose to pediatric patients and mitigate risk while maintaining image quality.ObjectiveWe sought to validate whether institutions are observing Image Gently guidelines in practice.Materials and methodsDose-relevant data from 663,417 abdomen-pelvis and chest CT scans were obtained from 53 facilities. Patients were assigned arbitrary age cohorts with a minimum size ofn=12 patients in each age group, for statistical purposes. All pediatric (
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 6, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Chest radiograph features of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) compared to pediatric COVID-19
AbstractBackgroundAlthough the radiographic features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children have been described, the distinguishing features of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 are not well characterized.ObjectiveWe compared the chest radiographic findings of MIS-C with those of COVID-19 and described other distinguishing imaging features of MIS-C.Materials and methodsWe performed a retrospective case series review of children ages 0 to 18  years who were hospitalized at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta from March to May 2020 and who either met the Center...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 6, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Predatory journals: a different pandemic
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 6, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ultrasound for malrotation and volvulus: has the time come?
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 6, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A retrospective cohort evaluation of the effect of multiple administrations of gadopentetate dimeglumine on brain magnetic resonance imaging T1-weighted signal
ConclusionRepeated administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine is associated with T1 hyperintense signal in the dentate nucleus, globus pallidus and pulvinar. Detection is significantly affected by MRI sequence type and scanner vendor. Even when accounting for these differences, there are individual differences in the slope of signal intensity change suggesting a patient-level effect influences gadolinium deposition. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Introduction to the child abuse imaging special issue
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pediatric Radiology editorial board — acknowledgments and updates
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - January 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research