Pediatric rib pathologies: clinicoimaging scenarios and approach to diagnosis
AbstractPathologies involving the ribs are diverse in nature, including entities specific to the pediatric population as well as shared pathologies with adults. These can be either localized within or adjacent to the rib, but may also cause rib alteration as a component of a systemic process. To better understand these disorders, we discuss several common rib pathologies in the context of their clinical presentation and pertinent imaging findings. In addition, we review the imaging modalities that may be used to evaluate the ribs. Encompassing both the clinical and imaging aspects of pediatric rib pathologies, this review ...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - June 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

How does artificial intelligence in radiology improve efficiency and health outcomes?
We describe six clinical objectives that can be supported by AI: a more efficient workflow, shortened reading time, a reduction of dose and contrast agents, earlier detection of disease, improved diagnostic accuracy and more personalized diagnostics. We provide examples of use cases including the available scientific evidence for its impact based on a hierarchical model of efficacy. We conclude that the market is still maturing and little is known about the contribution of AI to clinical practice. More real-world monitoring of AI in clinical practice is expected to aid in determining the value of AI and making informed dec...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - June 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ultrasound contrast agents: microbubbles made simple for the pediatric radiologist
AbstractThe ability to provide prompt, real-time, easily accessible and radiation-free diagnostic assessments makes ultrasound (US) one of the most versatile imaging modalities. The introduction and development of stable microbubble-based ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) in the early 1990s improved visualization of complex vascular structures, overcoming some of the limitations of B-mode and Doppler imaging. UCAs have been used extensively in the adult population to visualize vasculature and to evaluate perfusion and blood flow dynamics in organs and lesions. Since the first observations that air bubbles within a liquid c...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - June 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Public Service Loan Forgiveness as a pediatric radiology recruiting tool
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - June 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pediatric contrast-enhanced ultrasound: shedding light on the pursuit of approval in the United States
This article describes the background of the FDA ’s approval of pediatric contrast US applications to better illuminate the potential pathways to approvals of future indications. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - June 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Analysis of socioeconomic and demographic factors and imaging exam characteristics associated with missed appointments in pediatric radiology
AbstractBackgroundMissed appointments can have an adverse impact on health outcomes by delaying appropriate imaging, which can be critical in influencing treatment decisions.ObjectiveTo assess for socioeconomic and imaging exam factors associated with missed appointments among children scheduled for diagnostic imaging.Materials and methodsWe retrospectively analyzed children (
Source: Pediatric Radiology - June 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Acute pancreatitis in children: a review with clinical perspectives to enhance imaging interpretation
AbstractPediatric acute pancreatitis has distinct etiologic, clinical and prognostic characteristics in contrast to the adult form of the disease. This review offers a comprehensive imaging update that emphasizes the importance of recognizing specific findings that are relevant from the clinical standpoint. Knowledge of these features facilitates communication among multidisciplinary team members and ultimately could lead to the improved care of pediatric acute pancreatitis patients. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - June 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Guidelines for expert testimony in pediatric radiology
AbstractPediatric radiologists have the professional and ethical duty to assist, inform and educate the legal system in regard to matters involving medical imaging in children. These guidelines, drafted by the Society for Pediatric Radiology Ethics Committee and approved by the Society for Pediatric Radiology Board of Directors, provide recommendations for expert legal testimony in pediatric radiology and codify minimal ethical norms for the pediatric radiology expert witness in legal proceedings. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - June 1, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Tracheal narrowing in children and adults with mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA: evaluation with computed tomography angiography
AbstractBackgroundMucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) is characterized by progressive skeletal dysplasia and respiratory issues with difficult airway management during anesthesia.ObjectiveTo characterize tracheal abnormalities in children and adults with MPS IVA including interplay of the trachea, vasculature, bones and thyroid at the thoracic inlet.Materials and methodsComputed tomography (CT) angiograms of the chest were analyzed for trachea shape, narrowing and deviation at the thoracic inlet, course of vasculature, bone alignment and thyroid location. The tracheal cross-sectional area was measured at the cervical,...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - June 1, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Water-fat magnetic resonance imaging of adipose tissue compartments in the normal third trimester fetus
AbstractBackgroundAssessment of fetal adipose tissue gives information about the future metabolic health of an individual, with evidence that the development of this tissue has regional heterogeneity.ObjectiveTo assess differences in the proton density fat fraction (PDFF) between fetal adipose tissue compartments in the third trimester using water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Materials and methodsWater-fat MRI was performed in a 1.5-T scanner. Fetal adipose tissue was segmented into cheeks, thorax, abdomen, upper arms, forearms, thighs and lower legs. PDFF and R2* values were measured in each compartment.ResultsTwe...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - June 1, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pediatric hyperparathyroidism: review and imaging update
AbstractHyperparathyroidism, due to increased secretion of parathyroid hormones, may be primary, secondary or tertiary. Most pediatric patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism will be symptomatic, presenting with either end-organ damage or nonspecific symptoms. In younger patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, there is a higher prevalence of familial hyperparathyroidism including germline inactivating mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor genes that result in either neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism or familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. Parathyroid scintigraphy and ultrasound are complementary, first...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - June 1, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Point-of-care ultrasonography in pediatrics
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - June 1, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hermes
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - June 1, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Point-of-care ultrasonography in paediatrics: reply to Parri et al.
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - June 1, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging findings following button battery ingestion
AbstractBackgroundLithium button battery ingestions have been increasing in frequency since the early 2000s and can develop severe and sometimes fatal complications from caustic injury even after rapid battery removal. To aid in clinical decision-making, we began obtaining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/MR angiography in these patients.ObjectiveOur goal was to review MRI/MR angiography imaging in button battery ingestion cases and compare with other imaging, clinical data and outcomes in these patients.Materials and methodsIn this retrospective institutional-review-board-approved study, we reviewed all button battery ing...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - June 1, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Magnetic resonance imaging of medial collateral ligament avulsion fractures of the knee in children: a potentially underestimated injury
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00247-021-05112-w (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 29, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Tracheal trifurcation: new cases and review of the literature
ConclusionTracheal trifurcation is rare and often associated with additional disorders, such as other tracheobronchial anomalies, cardiovascular defects or esophageal malformations, responsible for clinical manifestations and earlier detection. Bronchoscopy is often used for diagnosis, but is invasive and may be incomplete or inconclusive, while CT allows for a noninvasive and correct diagnosis, while also highlighting additional findings in the thorax. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 28, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Visualization and evaluation of the distal ureter and ureterovesical junction on contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 28, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The current and future roles of artificial intelligence in pediatric radiology
We present some ideas for further research in this area and challenges that must be overcome, with an understanding that technology often advances in unpredictable ways. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 27, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

How to stop using gadolinium chelates for magnetic resonance imaging: clinical-translational experiences with ferumoxytol
This article reviews the existing literature on the biodistribution of ferumoxytol in children and compares the diagnostic accuracy of ferumoxytol- and gadolinium-chelate-enhanced MRI. Iron oxide nanoparticles represent a promising new class of contrast agents for pediatric MRI that can be metabolized and are not deposited in the brain. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 27, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Does age affect the test performance of secondary sonographic findings for pediatric appendicitis?
AbstractBackgroundSecondary sonographic findings of appendicitis can aid image analysis and support diagnosis with and without visualization of an appendix.ObjectiveWe sought to determine if age affected the test performance of secondary findings for pediatric appendicitis.Materials and methodsWe performed a medical record review of emergency department patients younger than 19  years of age who had a sonogram for suspected appendicitis. Our primary patient outcome was appendicitis, as determined by pathology or by image-confirmed perforation/abscess. Our primary analysis was test performance of secondary sonographic ...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 27, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Maternal and fetal incidental findings on antenatal magnetic resonance imaging
ConclusionIncidental findings are a common occurrence in antenatal MRI. Consideration should be given to counseling women appropriately before imaging and ensuring that robust local protocols are in place for follow-up and further management of such cases. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 27, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Where technology succeeds and fails in education
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 27, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Practical protocol for lung magnetic resonance imaging and common clinical indications
AbstractImaging speed, spatial resolution and availability have made CT the favored cross-sectional imaging modality for evaluating various respiratory diseases of children — but only for the price of a radiation exposure. MRI is increasingly being appreciated as an alternative to CT, not only for offering three-dimensional (3-D) imaging without radiation exposure at only slightly inferior spatial resolution, but also for its superior soft-tissue contrast and exclusi ve morpho-functional imaging capacities beyond the scope of CT. Continuing technical improvements and experience with this so far under-utilized modalit...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 26, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hermes
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 26, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Brain fetal magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate maturation of normal white matter during the third trimester of pregnancy
AbstractBackgroundQuantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could improve the estimation of fetal brain maturation and the interpretation of white matter signal intensity in pathological conditions.ObjectiveTo investigate T2-based and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) measurements for the evaluation of fetal brain maturation during the last trimester of pregnancy.Materials and methodsOne hundred sixty-eight fetal brain MRIs were retrospectively analyzed (age range: 28 –37 weeks of gestation) after ensuring that none of the children developed psychomotor or cognitive impairment (median follow-up: 4.7 years). B...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pediatric skeletal diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, part 2: current and emerging applications
AbstractDiffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) complements the more established T1, fluid-sensitive and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance pulse sequences used to assess several pediatric skeletal pathologies. There is optimism that the technique might not just be complementary but could serve as an alternative to gadolinium and radiopharmaceuticals for several indications. As a non-contrast, free-breathing and noninvasive technique, DWI is especially valuable in children and is readily incorporated into existing MRI protocols. The indications for skeletal DWI in children include distinguishing between benign and malignant s...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Bladder prolapse through a patent urachus presenting as an umbilical mass in the newborn: characteristic prenatal sonographic findings and the diagnostic benefit of postnatal cystography
We present a newborn with an unusual exophytic, erythematous umbilical mass. Voiding cystography readily demonstrated continuity of the bladder dome with the umbilical mass, confirming bladder prolapse through a patent urachus. The diagnosis of bladder prolapse was rapidly made in a second newborn with similar imaging and clinical findings and confirmed by cystography. We discuss the embryology of this condition including the association with a vesico-allantoic cyst in utero. Pre- and postnatal images are presented. The use of cystography in diagnosis is emphasized. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radial sequences and compressed sensing in pediatric body magnetic resonance imaging
AbstractMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often an ideal imaging modality for children of any age for any anatomy and for many pathologies. MRI sequences can be prescribed to produce high-resolution images of anatomical structures, characterize tissue composition, and detect physiological states and organ function. Shortening imaging sequences in any manner possible has been a topic of research and development in MRI since its emergence. Selection of imaging sequence parameters influences more than just the appearance and signal qualities of the imaged tissues; these details along with spatial encoding and data readout s...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pediatric versus adult magnetic resonance imaging patterns in acute high ankle sprains
ConclusionThe normal interosseous ligament/membrane complex typically attaches to fibrous periosteum rather than bony cortex. Tibial periosteal stripping, usually without tibial fracture, is significantly more common among pediatric high ankle sprains. MRI patterns of high ankle sprains are otherwise not significantly different between children and adults. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Utilization of 3-T fetal magnetic resonance imaging in clinical practice: a single-institution experience
AbstractBackgroundAs the safety and efficacy of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 tesla (T) continues to evolve, understanding its potential benefits and limitations is becoming increasingly important.ObjectiveWe aim to compare the image quality of fetal MRI between 1.5  T and 3 T in routine clinical practice.Materials and methodsFetal MRIs performed at 3  T between Jan. 1, 2019, and Dec. 31, 2019, at our institution were retrospectively reviewed by four fellowship-trained subspecialty radiologists. Imaging quality by system, sequence and artifacts were compared with matched controls at 1.5 T ...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pediatric Radiology Continuing Medical Education Activity
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Translational research in pediatric contrast-enhanced ultrasound
AbstractThe role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging is being widely explored by various groups for its use in the pediatric population. Clinical implementation of new diagnostic or therapeutic techniques requires extensive and meticulous preclinical testing and evaluation. The impact of CEUS will be determined in part by the extent to which studies are oriented specifically toward a pediatric population. Rather than simply applying principles and techniques used in the adult population, these studies are expected to advance and augment preexisting knowledge with pediatric-specific information. To further develo...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 15, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Correlation between the lateral and anteroposterior sacral ratios in anorectal malformations
The objective of the study was to determine the correlation and agreement in sacral ratio calculations.Materials and methodsIn this single institution retrospective cohort study, we reviewed medical charts of all pediatric anorectal malformation patients treated between March 2014 and September 2018 who had both AP and lateral images of their sacrum. All sacral ratios were measured by three radiologists. Pearson ’s correlation coefficients and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the correlation between the AP and lateral radiographs. A weighted Kappa statistic was used to measure the agre...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 15, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of stress and anxiety caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in pediatric radiology
ConclusionThe early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic caused additional stress and anxiety for pediatric radiology faculty and disproportionally affected women. Given the continuously evolving state of the COVID-19 pandemic, these results could aid in planning and implementation of future strategies to combat burnout in radiology. Specific attention should be directed to different stressors experienced by female versus male radiologists, especially in regard to dependent care. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 14, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Value of parametric indexes to identify tracheal atresia with or without fistula on fetal magnetic resonance imaging
This study evaluated fetal MR images of tracheal atresia and the secondary changes, focusing on the presence of a fistula.Materials and methodsWe assessed fetal MR images of tracheal atresia without fistula (n=4, median 26  weeks), tracheal atresia with fistula (n=4, median 33  weeks) and controls (n=30, median 32  weeks). We evaluated airway obstruction using true-positive rate in tracheal atresia and false-positive rate in controls indicating they are likely normal variants. Tracheal diameter, craniocaudal-anteroposterior ratio of the right hemidiaphragm, lung-to-liver signal intensity ratio, and cardiotho...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 14, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging: normal values of spleen stiffness in healthy children
ConclusionNormal spleen stiffness values using ARFI imaging in children do not vary with age and correspond to a median of 2.43  m/s. No significant difference was found when using different probe positions. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Gadolinium retention: should pediatric radiologists be concerned, and how to frame conversations with families
This article briefly describes the characteristics of GBCAs; reviews and differentiates gadolinium retention, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, and “gadolinium deposition disease” or “gadolinium toxicity”; and discusses societal guidelines and current usage in children. With the belief that GBCAs should not be withheld for appropriate indications in the absence of evidence of its potential risks, we offer a framework for determining whe n GBCA use is appropriate and suggestions for discussing its risks and benefits with children and their families. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of blunt abdominal trauma in children
AbstractTrauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children, and rapid identification of organ injury is essential for successful treatment. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an appealing alternative to contrast-enhanced CT in the evaluation of children with blunt abdominal trauma, mainly with respect to the potential reduction of population-level exposure to ionizing radiation. This is particularly important in children, who are more vulnerable to the hazards of ionizing radiation than adults. CEUS is useful in hemodynamically stable children with isolated blunt low- to moderate-energy abdominal trauma...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contrast-enhanced body magnetic resonance angiography: how we do it
We present and discuss indications, technical considerations, sequence optimization, advantages and disadvantages, along with practical tips and illustrative case examples for each sequence. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Current and emerging artificial intelligence applications for pediatric interventional radiology
AbstractArtificial intelligence in medicine can help improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnostics, selection of therapies and prediction of outcomes. Machine learning describes a subset of artificial intelligence that utilizes algorithms that can learn modeling functions from datasets. More complex algorithms, or deep learning, can similarly learn modeling functions for a variety of tasks leveraging massive complex datasets. The aggregation of artificial intelligence tools has the potential to improve many facets of health care delivery, from mundane tasks such as scheduling appointments to more complex functions suc...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Paranasal sinus development and implications for imaging
AbstractBecause the paranasal sinuses continue to develop throughout childhood, radiologists encounter significant anatomical variation when confronted with pediatric imaging studies. Knowledge of the stages of sinus growth is vital to differentiate normal development from abnormally large, hypoplastic or malformed sinuses. Understanding how the paranasal sinuses develop and their expected appearance at different patient ages is important for accurate interpretation of diagnostic imaging. To that end, we provide a brief review of paranasal sinus anatomy and discuss the mechanisms by which each paranasal sinus develops, as ...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of the fetal oral cavity, airway and neck
AbstractMagnetic resonance imaging has proved to be an extraordinarily useful adjunct modality in assessment of the fetal face, oral cavity, head and neck because of its soft-tissue contrast, utility for acquiring more precise planar imaging and the inherent advantage of contrast provided by fluid-filled structures, including the oropharyngeal cavity, nasal passages and vascular structures. In this review, the author presents an organized approach to assessing normal anatomical structures of the fetus. The author presents cystic and solid lesions as well as structural and developmental abnormalities and discusses potential...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the pediatric bowel
AbstractContrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has emerged as a valuable modality for bowel imaging in adults and children. CEUS enables visualization of the perfusion of the bowel wall and of the associated mesentery in healthy and disease states. In addition, CEUS images can be used to make quantitative measurements of contrast kinetics, allowing for objective assessment of bowel wall enhancement. Bowel CEUS is commonly applied to evaluate inflammatory bowel disease and to monitor treatment response. It has also been applied to evaluate necrotizing enterocolitis, intussusception, appendicitis and epiploic appendagitis, alth...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of orbital infectious and inflammatory disease in children
AbstractMost acute nontraumatic periorbital and intraorbital pathologies in pediatric patients have an underlying infectious or inflammatory etiology, and imaging frequently plays a key role in the workup and management of these children. In this paper we review the clinical presentation and imaging findings in children with some of the most common infectious and inflammatory diseases involving the orbit. Basic relevant anatomy and imaging findings on various imaging modalities are also reviewed. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Starting a pediatric contrast ultrasound service: made simple!
AbstractThe addition of contrast US to an existing pediatric US service requires several preparatory steps. This overview provides a guide to simplify the process. Initially, it is important to communicate to all stakeholders the justifications for pediatric contrast US, including (1) its comparable or better diagnostic results relative to other modalities; (2) its reduction in procedural sedation or anesthesia by avoiding MRI or CT; (3) its reduction or elimination of radiation exposure by not having to perform fluoroscopy or CT; (4) the higher safety profile of US contrast agents (UCA) compared to other contrast agents; ...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging glossary of findings of pediatric pancreatitis and the revised Atlanta classification
AbstractWhile still uncommon, the incidence of acute pancreatitis in children has been increasing over the last two decades. The Atlanta classification for acute pancreatitis, developed for adults, stratifies cases of acute pancreatitis based on imaging and clinical criteria. This classification scheme allows for standardized use of terminology to facilitate treatment and prognostication. Although US and CT should be used in critical or unstable patients, MRI is an ideal imaging modality in pediatric patients with acute pancreatitis because of its ability to characterize tissue without ionizing radiation. We review MRI exa...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the kidneys and adrenals in children
AbstractPediatric applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are growing. Evaluation of the kidneys and adrenal glands in children using intravenous administration of US contrast agents, however, is still an off-label indication. Pediatric CEUS applications for kidneys are similar to those in adults, including ischemic disorders, pseudo- versus real tumors, indeterminate lesions, complex cystic lesions, complicated pyelonephritis, and abscesses. CEUS applications for evaluation of adrenal glands in children are limited, mainly focusing on the assessment and follow-up of adrenal trauma and the differentiation betwe...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in pediatric interventional radiology
AbstractThere is growing interest in the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in diagnostic and interventional radiology. CEUS applications in interventional radiology are performed with intravascular or intracavitary administration of microbubble-based US contrast agents to allow for real-time evaluation of their distribution within the vascular bed or in body cavities, respectively, providing additional information beyond gray-scale US alone. The most common interventional-radiology-related CEUS applications in children have been extrapolated from those in adults, and they include the use of CEUS to guide lesion bi...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of pediatric lungs
AbstractIn addition to radiography, ultrasound (US) has long proved to be a valuable imaging modality to evaluate the pediatric lung and pleural cavity. Its many inherent advantages, including real-time performance, high spatial resolution, lack of ionizing radiation and lack of need for sedation make it preferable over other imaging modalities such as CT. Since the introduction of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs), contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has become a valuable complementary US technique, with many well-established uses in adults and evolving uses in children. Lung CEUS applications are still not licensed and a...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research