Imaging findings in acute pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)
AbstractThe two primary manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in children are acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). While most pediatric cases of acute COVID-19 disease are mild or asymptomatic, some children are at risk for developing severe pneumonia. In MIS-C, children present a few weeks after SARS-CoV-2 exposure with a febrile illness that can rapidly progress to shock and multiorgan dysfunction. In both diseases, the clinical and laboratory findings can be nonspecific and present a diagnostic challenge. Thoracic imag...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 26, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiographic features of magnesium-based bioabsorbable screw resorption in paediatric fractures
ConclusionGas bubbles in bone and soft tissue are normal findings in the context of screw resorption and should not be confused with soft-tissue infection or osteomyelitis. Gas is rarely visible in the physis. Breakage of the fixed bone fragment and/or screw can occur. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 24, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Reversible bronchiectasis caused by influenza virus mimicking Williams –Campbell syndrome
AbstractThe term bronchiectasis refers to permanent enlargement of the bronchi. It is increasingly diagnosed because of high-resolution computed investigations. It can be congenital or acquired, the latter mostly following infection. Williams –Campbell syndrome is a rare form of congenital non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Here we report a 5-month-old girl with reversible bronchiectasis treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by influenza virus following surgery for conge nital heart disease. Chest CT showed an abnormally large bronchial tree mimicking Will...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 24, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Deep learning of birth-related infant clavicle fractures: a potential virtual consultant for fracture dating
ConclusionOur deep learning study provides encouraging results for radiographic dating of infant clavicle fractures. With further development and validation, this model might serve as a virtual consultant to radiologists estimating fracture ages in cases of suspected infant abuse. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 17, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Lung and large airway imaging: magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography
AbstractDisorders of the respiratory system are common in children and imaging plays an important role for initial diagnosis and follow-up evaluation. Radiographs are typically the first-line imaging test for respiratory symptoms in children and, when advanced imaging is required, CT has been the most frequently used imaging modality. However, because of increasing concern about potentially harmful effects of ionizing radiation on children, there has been a shift toward MRI in pediatric imaging. Although MRI of chest in children presents many technical challenges, recent advances in MRI technology are overcoming many of th...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 16, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ultrasound findings of acute pancreatitis in children
ConclusionPeripancreatic edema was the most frequently identified finding in children with acute pancreatitis, present in up to 63%, with almost perfect interobserver agreement. Duct dilation, cited in the literature as a reliable finding of acute pancreatitis, was rarely identified in our sample. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 13, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantitative cardiopulmonary magnetic resonance imaging in neonatal  congenital diaphragmatic hernia
ConclusionCardiopulmonary MRI is a viable method to serially evaluate cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and function in critically ill infants and is useful for capturing left –right asymmetries in pulmonary blood flow and lung volume. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 12, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Psychology and ethics: Erik Erikson
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 11, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pediatric large airway imaging: evolution and revolution
AbstractInfants and children often present with respiratory symptoms referable to the airway. For these pediatric patients, airway imaging is frequently performed to evaluate for underlying disorders of the large airway. Various imaging modalities have been used to evaluate the pediatric large airway, and pediatric airway imaging techniques have continued to evolve. Therefore, clear understanding of the status and new advances in pediatric large airway imaging is essential for practicing radiologists to make timely and accurate diagnoses, which can lead to optimal pediatric patient management. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 10, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Disorders of phosphate homeostasis in children, part 1: primer on mineral ion homeostasis and the roles of phosphate in skeletal biology
AbstractPhosphate has extensive physiological roles including energy metabolism, genetic function, signal transduction and membrane integrity. Regarding the skeleton, not only do phosphate and calcium form the mineral component of the skeleton, but phosphate is also essential in regulating function of skeletal cells. Although our understanding of phosphate homeostasis has lagged behind and remains less than that for calcium, considerable advances have been made since the recognition of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) as a bone-derived phosphaturic hormone that is a major regulator of phosphate homeostasis. In this two-...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 10, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Disorders of phosphate homeostasis in children, part 2: hypophosphatemic and hyperphosphatemic disorders
AbstractPhosphorus, predominantly in the form of inorganic phosphate PO4−3, has many essential physiological functions. In the skeleton, phosphate and calcium form the mineral component and phosphate is also essential in regulating function of skeletal cells. Considerable advances have been made in our understanding of phosphate homeostasis since the recognition of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) as a bone-derived phosphaturic hormone. This second part of a two-part review of disorders of phosphate homeostasis in children covers hypophosphatemic and hyperphosphatemic disorders that are of interest to the pediatric ra...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 10, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of inflicted and neglectful femur shaft fractures in young children in national level I trauma centers
ConclusionIt is unlikely that an isolated femur fracture in ambulatory children age  >  24 months is caused by inflicted trauma/neglect. Caution is advised in children younger than 24 months because that age is the main factor associated with inflicted trauma/neglect and inflicted femur fractures. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 7, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Spectrum of bowel wall thickening on ultrasound with pathological correlation in children
AbstractApplications for bowel US in children have been well described; however, less focus has been placed on patterns of bowel wall architectural change in specific disease states. This pictorial essay reviews normal bowel wall architecture and covers a variety of inflammatory, infectious, vascular and neoplastic disorders outside the neonatal period as seen on US, with illustrative pathological correlation. A thorough understanding of normal and abnormal bowel wall architecture can enrich sonographic interpretation and provide a valuable adjunct to appropriate clinical investigation. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 6, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for localising peripherally inserted central catheter tips in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionAnalyses indicated that US is an excellent imaging test for localising catheter tip position in the NICU when compared to radiography. Ultrasonography is a sensitive, specific and timely imaging modality for confirming PICC tip position. In cases where US is unable to locate malpositioned PICC tips, a chest or combined chest –abdominal radiograph should be performed. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 5, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Espr 2022
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - May 4, 2022 Category: Radiology Source Type: research