Value of parametric indexes to identify tracheal atresia with or without fistula on fetal magnetic resonance imaging
ConclusionFetal MRI is useful for the diagnosis of tracheal atresia, and detection of airway obstruction is essential. Lower craniocaudal-anteroposterior ratio and cardiothoracic ratio might be reliable measures even if a fistula is present. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - October 1, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pediatric versus adult magnetic resonance imaging patterns in acute high ankle sprains
ConclusionThe normal interosseous ligament/membrane complex typically attaches to fibrous periosteum rather than bony cortex. Tibial periosteal stripping, usually without tibial fracture, is significantly more common among pediatric high ankle sprains. MRI patterns of high ankle sprains are otherwise not significantly different between children and adults. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - October 1, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pediatric interventional radiology workforce in North America: a descriptive analysis of demographics, educational backgrounds and scholarly activities
ConclusionPediatric interventionalists in North America are predominantly male, with about a quarter having graduated from international medical schools. Pediatric radiology fellowship, followed by pediatric interventional radiology fellowship, was the most frequently pursued training pathway. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - October 1, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Breast development in pediatric patients from birth to puberty: physiology, pathology and imaging correlation
AbstractBreast tissue undergoes a series of changes from birth to puberty. The majority of the changes are transient, related to physiological hormonal changes. Although the breast is identical in both sexes at birth, its histology and development will eventually differ. It is important for radiologists to have a basic understanding of endocrinological changes and appearance on imaging to avoid potential pitfalls, particularly on ultrasound, which is the primary modality used to evaluate the breast. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - October 1, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Benign longitudinal T2-hyperintense signal in the lateral cord in infancy: a cross-sectional study of spinal cord white matter maturation on magnetic resonance imaging
ConclusionCharacteristic symmetrical longitudinal T2 hyperintensity in the lateral spinal cord is common in infants and should not be mistaken for pathology, and it was not seen in children older than 21  months. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - October 1, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Harriet Lane: the remarkable woman behind the name
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - October 1, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hermes
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - October 1, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Point-of-care ultrasound: reply to Andronikou et al. and Gy örgyi et al.
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Electrical impedance tomography clues to detect pulmonary thrombosis in a teenager with COVID-19
We report a case of pulmonary thrombosis in a teenager during a hypercoagulable state associated with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). A condition rare in children and adolescents, pulmonary thrombosis underdiagnosis likely increases morbidity and mortality. A pulmonary thrombosis diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and relies on the combination of clinical presentation, D-dimer elevation, and computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography or ventilation/perfusion scans, imaging techniques that are difficult to perform. Electrical impedance...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ultrasound assessment of glenohumeral dysplasia in infants
AbstractBrachial plexus birth injury can lead to irreversible neuromuscular dysfunction and skeletal deformity of the upper extremity and shoulder girdle, ultimately resulting in glenohumeral dysplasia. Diagnosis and treatment of affected infants requires a multi-disciplinary approach in which imaging plays a vital role. While MRI is excellent for assessing both the shoulder and spine of these children, it is costly and requires sedation and is thus typically reserved for preoperative planning. US, however, is inexpensive, dynamic and readily available and provides excellent visualization of the largely cartilaginous gleno...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - September 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging findings in the normal pediatric sacroiliac joint space that can simulate disease
ConclusionSacroiliac joint spaces of most children demonstrate mildly increased signal on STIR, compared to normal bone marrow, and thin rim-like enhancement on post-contrast T1 images, likely related to cartilage. These findings should not be confused with sacroiliitis. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - September 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ipr 2021
(Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - September 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging of focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia — findings derived from a three-dimensional gradient echo sequence
ConclusionThe 3-D VIBE sequence reveals useful details in focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - September 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Improving the detection of ventricular shunt disruption using volume-rendered three-dimensional head computed tomography
AbstractHydrocephalus is the most common neurosurgical disorder in children, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion with shunt placement is the most commonly performed pediatric neurosurgical procedure. CT is frequently used to evaluate children with suspected CSF shunt malfunction to assess change in ventricular size. Moreover, careful review of the CT images is important to confirm the integrity of the imaged portions of the shunt system. Subtle shunt disruptions can be missed on multiplanar two-dimensional (2-D) CT images, especially when the disruption lies in the plane of imaging. The use of volume-rendered CT images...
Source: Pediatric Radiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Patient-level dose monitoring in computed tomography: tracking cumulative dose from multiple multi-sequence exams with tube current modulation in children
ConclusionOur methodology represents a novel approach for evaluating radiation exposure in recurring pediatric abdominal CT examinations, both at the individual and population levels. Under a wide range of patient variables and acquisition conditions, graphic depiction of the cumulative z-axis dose profile across and beyond scan ranges, including the peak dose of the profile, provides a better tool for cumulative dose documentation than simple summations of SSDE. ΣDLI is advantageous in characterizing overall energy absorption over ΣDLP, which significantly underestimated this in all children. (Source: Pediatric Radiology)
Source: Pediatric Radiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research