Clinical Updates in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (Concussion)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects> 3 million people in the United States annually. Although the number of deaths related to severe TBIs has stabalized, mild TBIs, often termed concussions, are increasing. As evidence indicates that a significant proportion of these mild injuries are associated with long-lasting functional deficits that impact work performance, social integration, and may predispose to later cognitive decline, it is important that we (a) recognize these injuries, (b) identify those at highest risk of poor recovery, and (c) initiate appropriate treatments promptly. We discuss the epidemiology of TBI, the ...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - February 4, 2023 Category: Radiology Authors: Megan Moore, Danielle K. Sandsmark Source Type: research
The Changing Epidemiology of Central Nervous System Infection
This article reviews the changing global disease patterns, as well as zoonotic outbreaks of henipaviruses, coronaviruses, and other emerging, reemerging, and vector-borne organisms; case examples highlight typical imaging features of CNS infections and their mimics. Technical advances in neuroimaging help to enhance the value of radiologists to the multidisciplinary team and the responses to future pandemic preparation. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 18, 2022 Category: Radiology Authors: Brenda Sze Peng Ang, Thirugnanam Umapathi, Tchoyoson Lim Source Type: research
Neuroimaging Patterns of Intracranial Infections
Neuroimaging provides rapid, noninvasive visualization of central nervous system infections for optimal diagnosis and management. Generalizable and characteristic imaging patterns help radiologists distinguish different types of intracranial infections including meningitis and cerebritis from a variety of bacterial, viral, fungal, and/or parasitic causes. Here, we describe key radiologic patterns of meningeal enhancement and diffusion restriction through profiles of meningitis, cerebritis, abscess, and ventriculitis. We discuss various imaging modalities and recent diagnostic advances such as deep learning through a surv...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 18, 2022 Category: Radiology Authors: Michael Tran Duong, Jeffrey D. Rudie, Suyash Mohan Source Type: research
Structured Imaging Approach for Viral Encephalitis
MR imaging is essential in diagnosing viral encephalitis. Clinical features, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and pathogen confirmation by polymerase chain reaction can be supported by assessing imaging features. MR imaging patterns with typical locations can identify pathogens such as temporal lobe for herpes simplex virus type 1; bilateral thalami for Japanese encephalitis and influenza virus ; and brainstem for enterovirus and rabies. In this article, we have reviewed representative viral encephalitis and its MR imaging patterns. In addition, we also presented acute viral encephalitis without typical MR imaging patterns, su...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 18, 2022 Category: Radiology Authors: Norlisah Mohd Ramli, Yun Jung Bae Source Type: research
Imaging of Uncommon Bacterial, Rickettsia, Spirochete, and Fungal Infections
This article reviews uncommon bacterial (brucellosis, actinomycosis, neuromelioidosis, nocardiosis, whipple disease, and listeriosis), Rickettsia, spirochete (neurosyphilis and Lyme disease), and fungal (mucormycosis, aspergillosis, candidiasis, cryptococcosis, and Cladophialophora bantiana) diseases affecting central nervous system (CNS), focusing primarily on their cranial manifestations. These infections often show a variety of neuroimaging features that may be similar or differ from typical pyogenic bacterial meningitis and abscess. Familiarity with these patterns is essential for timely recognition and initiation of a...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 18, 2022 Category: Radiology Authors: Jitender Saini, Shilpa S. Sankhe, Aleum Lee Source Type: research
Central Nervous System Mycobacterium Infection
This article presents an extensive review of pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, typical and atypical imaging appearances of intracranial and spinal tuberculosis, and advanced imaging of intracranial tuberculosis. Furthermore, we explore central nervous system infection of nontuberculous mycobacteria and leprosy and their imaging findings. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 18, 2022 Category: Radiology Authors: Mina Park, Rakesh K. Gupta Source Type: research
Imaging of Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections
Parasitic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) constitute a wide range of diseases, some quite prevalent across the world, some exceedingly rare. Causative parasites can be divided into two groups: unicellular protozoa and multicellular helminthic worms. This includes diseases such as neurotoxoplasmosis and neurocysticercosis, which represent a major cause of pathology among certain populations, and some more uncommon diseases, as primary amebic meningoencephalitis and neuroschistosomiasis. In this review, we focus on imaging manifestation and some helpful clinical and epidemiologic features of such conditions, p...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 18, 2022 Category: Radiology Authors: Thiago Augusto Vasconcelos Miranda, Kazuhiro Tsuchiya, Leandro Tavares Lucato Source Type: research
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has changed the epidemiology of HIV in the last 20 years with increased survival and decreasing incidence of opportunistic infections (OI), CNS OI remain a major cause of morbidity. Improved survival has also increased neurological presentations due to co morbid conditions, treatment related side effects and inflammatory syndromes. Being familiar with the imaging findings, the impact of ART and interpretation of imaging in the context of clinical and laboratory findings is important for r...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 18, 2022 Category: Radiology Authors: Rekha Siripurapu, Yoshiaki Ota Source Type: research
Spinal cord infections can present with a wide variety of imaging findings, depending on the pathogen and the host ’s immune status. Infectious myelitis can have a characteristic distribution of lesions within the spinal cord, which refine the differential disease. Some spinal infections do not show typical imaging features, and many noninfectious may mimic spinal infections with similar MR imaging findings. I nfectious arachnoiditis and meningitis must be differentiated from neoplasms. Spondylitis has many mimickers and requires careful interpretations of images, clinical findings, and follow-up information. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 18, 2022 Category: Radiology Authors: Hajime Yokota, E. Turgut Tali Source Type: research
Imaging of Head and Neck Infections
The complex anatomy and deep spaces of the head and neck limit physical examination while also offering many points for entry and spread of infection. Radiologic imaging plays a crucial role in managing head and neck infections by defining the location and extent of disease, facilitating abscess drainage, and identifying complications. This review provides essential background and examples for imaging infection throughout the head and neck region. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 18, 2022 Category: Radiology Authors: Joel M. Stein, Junfang Xian Source Type: research
Imaging of Congenital/Childhood Central Nervous System Infections
This article highlights the changing profile of the pediatric patient with central nervous system infection as countries develop and the roles of different imaging modalities such as cranial ultrasound, MR imaging, and computed tomography. It discusses the commonly encountered congenital toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex (TORCH) infections, Group B Streptococcal and Escherichia coli infections in the neonatal period, and disease outbreaks affecting children. Iatrogenic, opportunistic, and immune-mediated changes as well as long-term effects of infection and mimics of infection are also discussed. Vari...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 18, 2022 Category: Radiology Authors: TANG Phua Hwee, THOON Koh Cheng Source Type: research
Beyond Pattern Recognition
Radiology-pathology correlation is essential for multidisciplinary collaboration in diagnosis and understanding the mechanism of CNS damage in infectious processes. The microscopic acute inflammatory processes are well established and are supplemented by a variety of less-invasive microbial and immunohistochemical investigations. Understanding the pathogenesis of pathogen spread and neuroinvasion, vascular and immune-mediated brain, and spinal cord damage are essential for interpreting radiological images. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 18, 2022 Category: Radiology Authors: Kum Thong Wong, Chong Tin Tan, Tchoyoson Lim Source Type: research
Imaging CNS Infection: Now more relevant than ever
As the authors were preparing and writing the 2023 issue of central nervous system (CNS) infections, they did so in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. Sickness, uncertainty, and fear affected us radiologists and other health care professionals just as they did all humanity; however, this difficult time can also represent an opportunity to increase our awareness of the importance of infectious diseases. For too long, these diseases have been neglected and underserved, with an unequal burden of human suffering falling on low- and middle-income countries: what might appear to be an “exotic” case to radiologists in the de...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 18, 2022 Category: Radiology Authors: Tchoyoson Lim Tags: Preface Source Type: research
Central Nervous System Infections
I could not help but notice the unfortunate irony that Dr Tchoyoson C.C. Lim has been working on his issue of Neuroimaging Clinics devoted to Central Nervous System Infections as we were all struggling with the COVID pandemic. This issue is certainly timely and topical, and I thank Dr Lim, who persevered during this difficult time to produce such an outstanding issue. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 18, 2022 Category: Radiology Authors: Suresh K. Mukherji Tags: Foreword Source Type: research