Acute Ischemic Stroke
Multimodal MR imaging provides valuable information in the management of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), with diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic implications. MR imaging plays a critical role in treatment decision making for (1) thrombolytic treatment of AIS patients with unknown symptom-onset and (2) endovascular treatment of patients with large vessel occlusion presenting beyond 6  hours from the symptom onset. MR imaging provides the most accurate information for detection of ischemic brain and is invaluable for differentiating AIS from stroke mimics. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Kambiz Nael, Bryan Yoo, Noriko Salamon, David S. Liebeskind Source Type: research

Imaging for Treated Aneurysms (Including Clipping, Coiling, Stents, Flow Diverters)
Intracranial aneurysms are common in the adult population and carry a risk of rupture leading to catastrophic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Treatment of aneurysms has evolved significantly, with the introduction of new techniques and devices for minimally invasive and endovascular approaches. Follow-up imaging after aneurysm treatment is standard of care to monitor for recurrence or other complications, and the preferred imaging modality and schedule for follow-up are areas of active research. The modality and follow-up schedule should be tailored to treatment technique, aneurysm characteristics, and patient factors. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Jason Hostetter, Timothy R. Miller, Dheeraj Gandhi Source Type: research

Vasospasm
Cerebral vasospasm (VS) and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) are important complications of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (ASAH). Imaging approaches to VS monitoring include noninvasive bedside assessment with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, angiographic evaluation with digital subtraction angiography, and computed tomography (CT) angiography. DCI is a clinical diagnosis and is not fully explained by the presence of angiographic VS. CT perfusion has shown clinical utility and implications for future research in the evaluation of DCI in patients with ASAH. This review article discusses the common approaches to dia...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Jana Ivanidze, Pina C. Sanelli Source Type: research

Management of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms
Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) are common and are being detected with increasing frequency given the improved quality and higher frequency of cross-sectional imaging. The long-term natural history of UIAs remains poorly understood. To date, there is relative lack of clear guidelines for selection of patients with UIAs for treatment. Surveillance imaging for untreated UIAs is frequently performed, but frequency, duration, and modality of surveillance imaging need clearer guidelines. The authors review the current evidence on prevalence, natural history, role of treatment, and surveillance and screening imaging and...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Ajay Malhotra, Xiao Wu, Dheeraj Gandhi Source Type: research

Extracranial Vascular Disease
This article briefly describes some of the most commonly encountered plaque features, including plaque calcification, intraplaque hemorrhage, lipid-rich necrotic core, and plaque ulceration. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Hediyeh Baradaran, Ajay Gupta Source Type: research

Imaging of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage
This article discusses the neuroimaging methods of ICH, imaging markers for clinical outcome prediction, and future research directions with attention to the latest evidence-based guidelines. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Abhi Jain, Ajay Malhotra, Seyedmehdi Payabvash Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Vascular Neuroimaging
The fact that an opinion has been widely held is no evidence whatever that it is not utterly absurd. —Bertrand RussellThe practice of medicine has traditionally relied heavily on physicians’ personal experiences and observations from retrospective or case control studies. During the past century, there has been a gradual shift and recognition that the science and practice of medicine should ins tead be grounded in scientifically sound evidence. The current shift to “value-based” health care model means the evidentiary basis of studies is increasingly scrutinized, and sophisticated hierarchies of evi...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Ajay Malhotra, Dheeraj Gandhi Tags: Preface Source Type: research

CME Accreditation Page
(Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Vascular Neuroimaging
NEUROIMAGING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Ajay Malhotra, Dheeraj Gandhi Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
Imaging of the Thyroid and Parathyroid (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contributors
SURESH K. MUKHERJI, MD, MBA, FACR (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contents
Suresh K. Mukherji (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Brain Arteriovenous Malformations
Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are characterized by shunting between pial arteries and cortical or deep veins, with the presence of an intervening nidus of tortuous blood vessels. These lesions present a therapeutic challenge, because their natural history entails a risk of intracranial hemorrhage, but treatment may cause significant morbidity. In this article, imaging features of AVMs on MR imaging and catheter angiography are reviewed to stratify the risk of hemorrhage and guide appropriate management. The angioarchitecture of AVMs may evolve over time, spontaneously or in response to treatment, necessitating o...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - March 24, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Will Guest, Timo Krings Source Type: research

Computed Tomography –Based Imaging Algorithms for Patient Selection in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Computed tomography remains the most widely used imaging modality for evaluating patients with acute ischemic stroke. Landmark trials have used computed tomography imaging to select patients for intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment. This review summarizes the most important acute ischemic stroke trials, provides an outlook of ongoing studies, and proposes possible image algorithms for patient selection. Although evaluation with anatomic computed tomography imaging techniques is sufficient in early window patients, more advanced imaging techniques should be used beyond 6  hours from symptoms onset to qua...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - March 23, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Benjamin Pulli, Jeremy J. Heit, Max Wintermark Source Type: research

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage of Unknown Cause
Subarachnoid hemorrhage of unknown cause represents approximately 10% to 15% of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhages. The key factors in determining the management strategy for a presumed nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage are the distribution, location, and amount of subarachnoid blood. Hemorrhage distribution on computed tomography can be categorized as follows: perimesencephalic, diffuse, sulcal, and primary intraventricular. The extent of the workup required in determining the cause of hemorrhage depends on the distribution of blood. The authors review the potential causes, differential diagnoses, and acute and lon...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - March 23, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Anthony S. Larson, Waleed Brinjikji Source Type: research

High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Vessel Wall Imaging for the Evaluation of Intracranial Vascular Pathology
Intracranial vessel wall imaging (IVWI) is an advanced MR imaging technique that allows for direct visualization of the walls of intracranial blood vessels and detection of subtle pathologic vessel wall changes before they become apparent on conventional luminal imaging. When performed correctly, IVWI can increase diagnostic confidence, aid in the differentiation of intracranial vasculopathies, and assist in patient risk stratification and prognostication. This review covers the essential technical underpinnings of IVWI and presents emerging clinical research highlighting its utility for the evaluation of multiple intracra...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - March 23, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Justin E. Vranic, Jason B. Hartman, Mahmud Mossa-Basha Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Vascular Neuroimaging
For better or worse, I trained in the “last century,” and during my “journey,” I have witnessed a plethora of disruptive innovations that we would have never imagined 35 years ago. The dissemination of new technology tends evolve through a consistent process that starts at “wow … this is cool,” leads to “it works,” to “let’s report our results,” and then, it is hoped, to comparative effectiveness studies. During the past century, there have been a gradual shift and recognition that the science and practice of medicine should be based on scientific evi...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - February 22, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Suresh K. Mukherji Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Utility of Preoperative Blood-Oxygen-Level –Dependent Functional MR Imaging in Patients with a Central Nervous System Neoplasm
This article discusses the applications, significance, and interpretation of BOLD fMR imaging, and its applications in presurgical planning for CNS neoplasms. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Ammar A. Chaudhry, Sohaib Naim, Maryam Gul, Abbas Chaudhry, Mike Chen, Rahul Jandial, Behnam Badie Source Type: research

Imaging Glioblastoma Posttreatment
Radiographic monitoring of posttreatment glioblastoma is important for clinical trials and determining next steps in management. Evaluation for tumor progression is confounded by the presence of treatment-related radiographic changes, making a definitive determination less straight-forward. The purpose of this article was to describe imaging tools available for assessing treatment response in glioblastoma, as well as to highlight the definitions, pathophysiology, and imaging features typical of true progression, pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and radiation necrosis. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Sara B. Strauss, Alicia Meng, Edward J. Ebani, Gloria C. Chiang Source Type: research

Adult Primary Brain Neoplasm, Including 2016 World Health Organization Classification
This article provides a brief discussion of the major 2016 updates to the WHO CNS classification scheme and reviews typical MR imaging findings of adult primary CNS neoplasms, including diffuse infiltrating gliomas, ependymal tumors, neuronal/glioneuronal tumors, pineal gland tumors, meningiomas, nerve sheath tumors, solitary fibrous tumors, and lymphoma. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kevin Yuqi Wang, Melissa M. Chen, Christie M. Malayil Lincoln Source Type: research

CME Accreditation Page
(Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

fMRI in the Pre-Operative Brain Tumor Setting
NEUROIMAGING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Andrei I. Holodny Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Evidence-Based Vascular Neuroimaging (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contributors
SURESH K. MUKHERJI, MD, MBA, FACR (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contents
Suresh K. Mukherji (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dynamic Brain Connectivity in Resting State Functional MR Imaging
This article provides a broad overview of dynamic functional connectivity and reviews its general principles, techniques, and potential clinical applications. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Rozita Jalilianhasanpour, Daniel Ryan, Shruti Agarwal, Elham Beheshtian, Sachin K. Gujar, Jay J. Pillai, Haris I. Sair Source Type: research

Resting State Functional MR Imaging of Language Function
Resting state functional MR imaging methods can provide localization of the language system; however, presurgical functional localization of the language system with task-based functional MR imaging is the current standard of care before resection of brain tumors. These methods provide similar results and comparing them could be helpful for presurgical planning. We combine information from 3 data resources to provide quantitative information on the components of the language system. Tables and figures compare anatomic information, localization information from resting state fMR imaging, and activation patterns in different...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: John J. Lee, Patrick Luckett, Mohammad M. Fakhri, Eric C. Leuthardt, Joshua S. Shimony Source Type: research

Functional Brain Anatomy
Knowledge of functional neuroanatomy is essential to design the most appropriate clinical functional MR imaging (fMR imaging) paradigms and to properly interpret fMR imaging study results. The correlation between neuroanatomy and brain function is also useful in general radiologic practice, as it improves the radiologist's ability to read routine brain examinations. Functional MR imaging is used primarily to determine the areas involved in functioning of movements, speech, and vision. Preoperative fMR imaging findings also play a key role in the neurosurgeon's decision to perform a biopsy, a subtotal resection, or a maxima...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Raquel A. Moreno, Andrei I. Holodny Source Type: research

Methods of Analysis
There are many technical and nontechnical steps involved in a successful clinical functional MRI (fMRI) scan. The output from scanning and analysis can only be as good as the input, so task instruction and rehearsal are the most important steps during an clinical fMRI procedure. Properly pre-processed data significantly affects statistical analysis, which has a great impact on image interpretation. Even though there is general agreement on how to process clinical fMRI data, such as algorithms for head motion detection and correction, the theory and practicalities associated with data processing remain complex and constantl...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 29, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kyung K. Peck, Nicholas S. Cho, Andrei I. Holodny Source Type: research

Patient Preparation and Paradigm Design in fMRI
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is useful for localizing eloquent cortex in the brain prior to neurosurgery. Language and motor paradigms offer a wide range of tasks to test brain regions within the language and motor networks. With the help of fMRI, hemispheric language dominance can be determined. It also is possible to localize specific motor and sensory areas within the motor and sensory gyri. These findings are critical for presurgical planning. The most important factor in presurgical fMRI is patient performance. Patient interview and instruction time are crucial to ensure that patients understand and co...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 29, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Madeleine Gene, Nicole Petrovich Brennan, Andrei Holodny Source Type: research

Functional MR Imaging: Ready for Clinical Prime Time
Functional MR imaging (fMR imaging) has clearly revolutionized the imaging and understanding of the human brain. Within the past few years, this powerful technology has advanced into the clinical arena, not only in major academic centers but also into small-group private practices. At the present time, fMR imaging (or an analogous method, such as magnetoencephalography or transcranial magnetic stimulation) should be part of the preoperative workup in patients with brain tumors or seizure disorders. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 29, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Andrei I. Holodny Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Introduction to Functional MR Imaging
During the past decade, functional MR imaging has rapidly moved from the research environment into clinical practice. Preoperative functional MR imaging is now standard clinical practice not only in major academic institutions, but also in community neurosurgical and neuroradiologic practices. The clinical use of functional MR imaging will only increase in the years to come. Application of functional MR imaging (including resting-state functional MR imaging) to the context of neuropsychiatric diseases is likely to continue to advance. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 28, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Natallia Sopich, Andrei I. Holodny Source Type: research

The Problem of Neurovascular Uncoupling
This article reviews the assessment of NVU related to focal brain lesions with emphasis on the use of cerebrovascular reactivity mapping measurement methods and resting state BOLD fMR imaging metrics in the detection of NVU, as well as the use of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation metrics to mitigate the effects of NVU on clinical fMR imaging activation. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 28, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Shruti Agarwal, Haris I. Sair, Jay J. Pillai Source Type: research

Foreword
This issue of Neuroimaging Clinics focuses on the fascinating field of functional MR imaging (fMR imaging). I remember my complete amazement when I first saw the brain “think” on MR images. One of the fun things I routinely do is give a talk to a high-school anatomy class on neuroradiology, and it is really cool to see their excitement when I show the fMR images. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 28, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Suresh K. Mukherji Source Type: research

Review of Natural Language Processing in Radiology
Natural language processing (NLP) is an interdisciplinary field, combining linguistics, computer science, and artificial intelligence to enable machines to read and understand human language for meaningful purposes. Recent advancements in deep learning have begun to offer significant improvements in NLP task performance. These techniques have the potential to create new automated tools that could improve clinical workflows and unlock unstructured textual information contained in radiology and clinical reports for the development of radiology and clinical artificial intelligence applications. These applications will combine...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Jack W. Luo, Jaron J.R. Chong Source Type: research

An East Coast Perspective on Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
This article reviews the use of deep learning convolutional neural networks in the management of ischemic stroke. Artificial intelligence-based algorithms may be used in patient triage to detect and sound the alarm based on early imaging, alert care teams, and assist in treatment selection. This article reviews algorithms for artificial intelligence techniques that may be used to detect and localize acute ischemic stroke. We describe artificial intelligence algorithms for these tasks and illustrate them with examples. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Rajiv Gupta, Sanjith Prahas Krishnam, Pamela W. Schaefer, Michael H. Lev, R. Gilberto Gonzalez Source Type: research

Machine Learning Applications for Head and Neck Imaging
This article reviews the recent applications of machine learning (ML) in HN imaging with a focus on deep learning approaches. It categorizes ML applications in HN imaging into deep learning and traditional ML applications and provides examples of each category. It also discusses the main challenges facing the successful deployment of ML-based applications in the clinical setting and provides suggestions for addressing these challenges. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Farhad Maleki, William Trung Le, Thiparom Sananmuang, Samuel Kadoury, Reza Forghani Source Type: research

Machine Learning Algorithm Validation
This article describes the fundamental concepts and processes for ML model evaluation and highlights common workflows. It concludes with a discussion of the requirements for the deployment of ML models in clinical settings. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Farhad Maleki, Nikesh Muthukrishnan, Katie Ovens, Caroline Reinhold, Reza Forghani Source Type: research

Overview of Machine Learning Part 1
This article provides an overview of the classic supervised and unsupervised ML methods as well as fundamental concepts required for understanding how to develop generalizable and high-performing ML applications. It also describes the important steps for developing a ML model and how decisions made in these steps affect model performance and ability to generalize. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Farhad Maleki, Katie Ovens, Keyhan Najafian, Behzad Forghani, Caroline Reinhold, Reza Forghani Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence Applications for Workflow, Process Optimization and Predictive Analytics
This article reviews the important potential applications of informatics and AI related to process improvement and operations in the radiology department. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Laurent Letourneau-Guillon, David Camirand, Francois Guilbert, Reza Forghani Source Type: research

CME Accreditation Page
(Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Machine Learning and Other Artificial Intelligence Applications
NEUROIMAGING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Reza Forghani Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
fMRI for the Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Brain Tumors (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contributors
SURESH K. MUKHERJI, MD, MBA, FACR (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contents
Suresh K. Mukherji (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Overview of Machine Learning: Part 2
This article provides the fundamental background required to understand and develop deep learning models for medical imaging applications. The authors review the main deep learning architectures such as multilayer perceptron, convolutional neural networks, autoencoders, recurrent neural networks, and generative adversarial neural networks. They also discuss the strategies for training deep learning models when the available datasets are imbalanced or of limited size and conclude with a discussion of the obstacles and challenges hindering the deployment of deep learning solutions in clinical settings. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - September 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: William Trung Le, Farhad Maleki, Francisco Perdig ón Romero, Reza Forghani, Samuel Kadoury Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence and Stroke Imaging
This article addresses this topic and seeks to present an overview of machine learning and/or deep learning applied to stroke imaging. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - September 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Guangming Zhu, Bin Jiang, Hui Chen, Elizabeth Tong, Yuan Xie, Tobias D. Faizy, Jeremy J. Heit, Greg Zaharchuk, Max Wintermark Source Type: research