Imaging of Cervical Lymph Nodes in Thyroid Cancer
Sonographic evaluation of cervical lymph nodes in patients with thyroid malignancy is important both for preoperative staging and for post-treatment surveillance, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography plays a complementary role. Knowledge of anatomy and surgical approaches, combined with an understanding of the various imaging features that distinguish malignant from benign lymph nodes, allows for accurate staging, thereby enabling complete surgical initial resection. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Noah Nathan Chasen, Jennifer Rui Wang, Qiong Gan, Salmaan Ahmed Source Type: research

Radioiodine Imaging and Treatment in Thyroid Disorders
Thyroid hormones T3 and T4 are crucial for development and differentiation of various cells in the body. They are also essential for regulating metabolism in nearly all tissues. Iodine is an integral element in the synthesis of thyroid hormone and is actively transported into the thyroid by a Na+/I − symporter. The thyroid can take up radioactive iodine just like it would take iodine and hence can be used to evaluate and treat several thyroid diseases. Radioactive iodine is one of the first radioisotopes to be used in medicine. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Jeena Varghese, Eric Rohren, Xu Guofan Source Type: research

PET/Computed Tomography in Thyroid Cancer
Primary thyroid cancers demonstrate distinct biological behaviors depending on their histologic characteristics. The ability to accumulate radioiodine by differentiated thyroid cancer cells is lost in primary aggressive, poorly differentiated and dedifferentiated tumor cells. PET imaging comes into play in these challenging situations where it can provide additive information to radioiodine scintigraphy and conventional imaging. This review focuses on the current guidelines and future prospects of PET imaging in thyroid cancers. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Divya Yadav, Komal Shah, Kylan Naidoo, Devaki Shilpa Sudha Surasi Source Type: research

Management of Anaplastic and Recurrent Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancer are tumors derived from follicular thyroid cancers and are clinically and genetically distinct. Treatment of these tumors has evolved over the past decade, with 6 drugs/drug combinations that are US Food and Drug Administration approved. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Maria E. Cabanillas, Salmaan Ahmed, Jennifer Rui Wang Source Type: research

Extrathyroidal Manifestations of Thyroid Disease
Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder caused by the breakdown of immune tolerance to thyroid antigens against the TSH receptor. In approximately 25% of patients, an inflammatory condition, Graves eye disease (GED), affects the orbital soft tissues. About 60% of patients develop mild symptoms including fat expansion and inflammation of the levator muscle complex with resultant proptosis, eyelid retraction, and exposure of the globe. The remaining patients experience enlargement of one or more of the extraocular muscles, leading to conjunctival and eyelid edema and congestion, restricted ocular movement with resultant dip...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: James Matthew Debnam, Kirthi Koka, Bita Esmaeli Source Type: research

Parathyroid Imaging
This article discusses technical and interpretive approaches for the available modalities, and reviews their strengths and weaknesses. Updates to the individual modalities and approaches for problem solving in lesion detection are also addressed. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Sara B. Strauss, Michelle Roytman, C. Douglas Phillips Source Type: research

Imaging of the Thyroid
Imaging evaluation of the thyroid gland spans a plethora of modalities, including ultrasound imaging, cross-sectional studies, and nuclear medicine techniques. The overlapping of clinical and imaging findings of benign and malignant thyroid disease can make interpretation a complex undertaking. We aim to review and simplify the vast current literature and provide a practical approach to the imaging of thyroid disease for application in daily practice. Our approach highlights the keys to differentiating and diagnosing common benign and malignant disease affecting the thyroid gland. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Susana Calle, Jeanie Choi, Salmaan Ahmed, Diana Bell, Kim O. Learned Source Type: research

Preoperative Molecular Testing of Thyroid Nodules
Robust molecular testing is commercially available for adjuvant assessment of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. Testing has been developed and optimized for fine needle aspiration biopsy collections of thyroid nodules typically under ultrasound evaluation. These assays use a combination of gene expression and/or DNA and RNA assessments for molecular alterations to stratify indeterminate thyroid nodules as benign with risk level similar to benign cytologic read or suspicious with increased risk of malignancy. Guidelines for when to consider adjuvant molecular testing will be discussed. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Michelle D. Williams Source Type: research

Surgical Considerations in Thyroid Cancer
This article assumes that a diagnosis of thyroid cancer has been made and does not discuss the workup or surveillance of thyroid nodules. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Daniel Vinh, Mark Zafereo Source Type: research

Parathyroid Surgery
Surgical intervention remains the mainstay of treatment of hyperparathyroidism and provides the highest chance at cure. After the disease is confirmed by biochemical testing, surgeons must use a combination of patient clinical history and radiographic imaging to determine the most appropriate surgical strategy. Through either minimally invasive parathyroidectomy or bilateral cervical exploration, surgeons provide high rates of cure for hyperparathyroidism with low rates of persistence or recurrence. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Aditya S. Shirali, Uriel Clemente-Gutierrez, Nancy D. Perrier Source Type: research

Thyroid and Parathyroid Imaging
Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer coupled with advances in the triage of thyroid nodules and management of thyroid cancer. In particular, the development of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) allows for an evidenced-based standardized approach to reduce the number of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirations (FNAs) performed on benign nodules and the majority of the small well-differentiated thyroid cancers that may not meet size criteria for biopsy, as these are likely indolent. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Salmaan Ahmed, James Matthew Debnam Tags: Preface Source Type: research

CME Accreditation Page
(Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Thyroid and Parathyroid Imaging
NEUROIMAGING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Salmaan Ahmed, James Matthew Debnam Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Skull Base Neuroimaging (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contributors
SURESH K. MUKHERJI, MD, MBA, FACR (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contents
Suresh K. Mukherji (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - July 7, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Thyroid and Parathyroid Imaging
Thyroid disorders have always been one of the most challenging areas for me. Thyroid imaging is “shared” by many radiologists, including the subspecialists (neuroradiologists, nuclear medicine, and so forth) and modality (ultrasound, PET/CT). As a Head& Neck/Neuroradiologist, I have always had a hard time keeping abreast of the latest advances in thyroid and parathyroid diseases because the advances have occurred in multiple disciplines. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - June 14, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Suresh K. Mukherji Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Ultrasound of Thyroid Nodules and the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System
Benign or malignant thyroid nodules are common in adults. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosis. Most thyroid nodules are benign. Ultrasound imaging is the optimal noninvasive imaging modality to determine which nodules demonstrate malignant features. The American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System committee published a standardized approach to classifying nodules on ultrasound. The ultrasound features in this system are categorized as benign, minimally suspicious, moderately suspicious, or highly suspicious for malignancy. Applying the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Da...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - June 14, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Harshawn S. Malhi, Edward G. Grant Source Type: research

Imaging of the Thyroid and Parathyroid
Thyroid disorders have always been one of the most challenging areas for me. Thyroid imaging is “shared” by many radiologists, including the subspecialists (neuroradiologists, nuclear medicine, and so forth) and modality (ultrasound, PET/CT). As a Head& Neck/Neuroradiologist, I have always had a hard time keeping abreast of the latest advances in thyroid and parathyroid diseases because the advances have occurred in multiple disciplines. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - June 14, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Suresh K. Mukherji Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Acute Ischemic Stroke
Multimodal MR imaging provides valuable information in the management of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), with diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic implications. MR imaging plays a critical role in treatment decision making for (1) thrombolytic treatment of AIS patients with unknown symptom-onset and (2) endovascular treatment of patients with large vessel occlusion presenting beyond 6  hours from the symptom onset. MR imaging provides the most accurate information for detection of ischemic brain and is invaluable for differentiating AIS from stroke mimics. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Kambiz Nael, Bryan Yoo, Noriko Salamon, David S. Liebeskind Source Type: research

Imaging for Treated Aneurysms (Including Clipping, Coiling, Stents, Flow Diverters)
Intracranial aneurysms are common in the adult population and carry a risk of rupture leading to catastrophic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Treatment of aneurysms has evolved significantly, with the introduction of new techniques and devices for minimally invasive and endovascular approaches. Follow-up imaging after aneurysm treatment is standard of care to monitor for recurrence or other complications, and the preferred imaging modality and schedule for follow-up are areas of active research. The modality and follow-up schedule should be tailored to treatment technique, aneurysm characteristics, and patient factors. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Jason Hostetter, Timothy R. Miller, Dheeraj Gandhi Source Type: research

Vasospasm
Cerebral vasospasm (VS) and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) are important complications of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (ASAH). Imaging approaches to VS monitoring include noninvasive bedside assessment with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, angiographic evaluation with digital subtraction angiography, and computed tomography (CT) angiography. DCI is a clinical diagnosis and is not fully explained by the presence of angiographic VS. CT perfusion has shown clinical utility and implications for future research in the evaluation of DCI in patients with ASAH. This review article discusses the common approaches to dia...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Jana Ivanidze, Pina C. Sanelli Source Type: research

Management of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms
Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) are common and are being detected with increasing frequency given the improved quality and higher frequency of cross-sectional imaging. The long-term natural history of UIAs remains poorly understood. To date, there is relative lack of clear guidelines for selection of patients with UIAs for treatment. Surveillance imaging for untreated UIAs is frequently performed, but frequency, duration, and modality of surveillance imaging need clearer guidelines. The authors review the current evidence on prevalence, natural history, role of treatment, and surveillance and screening imaging and...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Ajay Malhotra, Xiao Wu, Dheeraj Gandhi Source Type: research

Extracranial Vascular Disease
This article briefly describes some of the most commonly encountered plaque features, including plaque calcification, intraplaque hemorrhage, lipid-rich necrotic core, and plaque ulceration. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Hediyeh Baradaran, Ajay Gupta Source Type: research

Imaging of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage
This article discusses the neuroimaging methods of ICH, imaging markers for clinical outcome prediction, and future research directions with attention to the latest evidence-based guidelines. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Abhi Jain, Ajay Malhotra, Seyedmehdi Payabvash Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Vascular Neuroimaging
The fact that an opinion has been widely held is no evidence whatever that it is not utterly absurd. —Bertrand RussellThe practice of medicine has traditionally relied heavily on physicians’ personal experiences and observations from retrospective or case control studies. During the past century, there has been a gradual shift and recognition that the science and practice of medicine should ins tead be grounded in scientifically sound evidence. The current shift to “value-based” health care model means the evidentiary basis of studies is increasingly scrutinized, and sophisticated hierarchies of evi...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Ajay Malhotra, Dheeraj Gandhi Tags: Preface Source Type: research

CME Accreditation Page
(Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Vascular Neuroimaging
NEUROIMAGING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Ajay Malhotra, Dheeraj Gandhi Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
Imaging of the Thyroid and Parathyroid (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contributors
SURESH K. MUKHERJI, MD, MBA, FACR (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contents
Suresh K. Mukherji (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - April 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Brain Arteriovenous Malformations
Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are characterized by shunting between pial arteries and cortical or deep veins, with the presence of an intervening nidus of tortuous blood vessels. These lesions present a therapeutic challenge, because their natural history entails a risk of intracranial hemorrhage, but treatment may cause significant morbidity. In this article, imaging features of AVMs on MR imaging and catheter angiography are reviewed to stratify the risk of hemorrhage and guide appropriate management. The angioarchitecture of AVMs may evolve over time, spontaneously or in response to treatment, necessitating o...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - March 24, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Will Guest, Timo Krings Source Type: research

Computed Tomography –Based Imaging Algorithms for Patient Selection in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Computed tomography remains the most widely used imaging modality for evaluating patients with acute ischemic stroke. Landmark trials have used computed tomography imaging to select patients for intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment. This review summarizes the most important acute ischemic stroke trials, provides an outlook of ongoing studies, and proposes possible image algorithms for patient selection. Although evaluation with anatomic computed tomography imaging techniques is sufficient in early window patients, more advanced imaging techniques should be used beyond 6  hours from symptoms onset to qua...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - March 23, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Benjamin Pulli, Jeremy J. Heit, Max Wintermark Source Type: research

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage of Unknown Cause
Subarachnoid hemorrhage of unknown cause represents approximately 10% to 15% of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhages. The key factors in determining the management strategy for a presumed nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage are the distribution, location, and amount of subarachnoid blood. Hemorrhage distribution on computed tomography can be categorized as follows: perimesencephalic, diffuse, sulcal, and primary intraventricular. The extent of the workup required in determining the cause of hemorrhage depends on the distribution of blood. The authors review the potential causes, differential diagnoses, and acute and lon...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - March 23, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Anthony S. Larson, Waleed Brinjikji Source Type: research

High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Vessel Wall Imaging for the Evaluation of Intracranial Vascular Pathology
Intracranial vessel wall imaging (IVWI) is an advanced MR imaging technique that allows for direct visualization of the walls of intracranial blood vessels and detection of subtle pathologic vessel wall changes before they become apparent on conventional luminal imaging. When performed correctly, IVWI can increase diagnostic confidence, aid in the differentiation of intracranial vasculopathies, and assist in patient risk stratification and prognostication. This review covers the essential technical underpinnings of IVWI and presents emerging clinical research highlighting its utility for the evaluation of multiple intracra...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - March 23, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Justin E. Vranic, Jason B. Hartman, Mahmud Mossa-Basha Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Vascular Neuroimaging
For better or worse, I trained in the “last century,” and during my “journey,” I have witnessed a plethora of disruptive innovations that we would have never imagined 35 years ago. The dissemination of new technology tends evolve through a consistent process that starts at “wow … this is cool,” leads to “it works,” to “let’s report our results,” and then, it is hoped, to comparative effectiveness studies. During the past century, there have been a gradual shift and recognition that the science and practice of medicine should be based on scientific evi...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - February 22, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Suresh K. Mukherji Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Utility of Preoperative Blood-Oxygen-Level –Dependent Functional MR Imaging in Patients with a Central Nervous System Neoplasm
This article discusses the applications, significance, and interpretation of BOLD fMR imaging, and its applications in presurgical planning for CNS neoplasms. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Ammar A. Chaudhry, Sohaib Naim, Maryam Gul, Abbas Chaudhry, Mike Chen, Rahul Jandial, Behnam Badie Source Type: research

Imaging Glioblastoma Posttreatment
Radiographic monitoring of posttreatment glioblastoma is important for clinical trials and determining next steps in management. Evaluation for tumor progression is confounded by the presence of treatment-related radiographic changes, making a definitive determination less straight-forward. The purpose of this article was to describe imaging tools available for assessing treatment response in glioblastoma, as well as to highlight the definitions, pathophysiology, and imaging features typical of true progression, pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and radiation necrosis. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Sara B. Strauss, Alicia Meng, Edward J. Ebani, Gloria C. Chiang Source Type: research

Adult Primary Brain Neoplasm, Including 2016 World Health Organization Classification
This article provides a brief discussion of the major 2016 updates to the WHO CNS classification scheme and reviews typical MR imaging findings of adult primary CNS neoplasms, including diffuse infiltrating gliomas, ependymal tumors, neuronal/glioneuronal tumors, pineal gland tumors, meningiomas, nerve sheath tumors, solitary fibrous tumors, and lymphoma. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kevin Yuqi Wang, Melissa M. Chen, Christie M. Malayil Lincoln Source Type: research

CME Accreditation Page
(Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

fMRI in the Pre-Operative Brain Tumor Setting
NEUROIMAGING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Andrei I. Holodny Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Evidence-Based Vascular Neuroimaging (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contributors
SURESH K. MUKHERJI, MD, MBA, FACR (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contents
Suresh K. Mukherji (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - November 19, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dynamic Brain Connectivity in Resting State Functional MR Imaging
This article provides a broad overview of dynamic functional connectivity and reviews its general principles, techniques, and potential clinical applications. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Rozita Jalilianhasanpour, Daniel Ryan, Shruti Agarwal, Elham Beheshtian, Sachin K. Gujar, Jay J. Pillai, Haris I. Sair Source Type: research

Resting State Functional MR Imaging of Language Function
Resting state functional MR imaging methods can provide localization of the language system; however, presurgical functional localization of the language system with task-based functional MR imaging is the current standard of care before resection of brain tumors. These methods provide similar results and comparing them could be helpful for presurgical planning. We combine information from 3 data resources to provide quantitative information on the components of the language system. Tables and figures compare anatomic information, localization information from resting state fMR imaging, and activation patterns in different...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: John J. Lee, Patrick Luckett, Mohammad M. Fakhri, Eric C. Leuthardt, Joshua S. Shimony Source Type: research

Functional Brain Anatomy
Knowledge of functional neuroanatomy is essential to design the most appropriate clinical functional MR imaging (fMR imaging) paradigms and to properly interpret fMR imaging study results. The correlation between neuroanatomy and brain function is also useful in general radiologic practice, as it improves the radiologist's ability to read routine brain examinations. Functional MR imaging is used primarily to determine the areas involved in functioning of movements, speech, and vision. Preoperative fMR imaging findings also play a key role in the neurosurgeon's decision to perform a biopsy, a subtotal resection, or a maxima...
Source: Neuroimaging Clinics - October 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Raquel A. Moreno, Andrei I. Holodny Source Type: research