GASC1 Promotes Stemness of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma via NOTCH1 Promoter Demethylation.
This study aimed to reveal the effect and mechanism of GASC1 on ESCC stemness. The biological function of GASC1 in ESCC was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. ChIP assay was performed to determine the molecular mechanism of GASC1 in epigenetic regulation of NOTCH1. We found that GASC1 expression was increased in poor differentiated ESCC cells and tissues. ESCC patients with a high level of GASC1 presented a significantly worse survival rate. GASC1 expression in purified ALDH+ ESCC cells was significantly higher than that in ALDH- cells. The stemness of ESCC was dramatically decreased after GASC1 blockade. Furthermore, bl...
Source: Journal of Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

The Roles of Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Proteins 5, 6, and 8 in Cancer: A Review.
Authors: Roslan Z, Muhamad M, Selvaratnam L, Ab-Rahim S Abstract Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) has been an object of research since the 1970s because of its role in various cell functions. The LDLR family members include LRP5, LRP6, and LRP8. Even though LRP5, 6, and 8 are in the same family, intriguingly, these three proteins have various roles in physiological events, as well as in regulating different mechanisms in various kinds of cancers. LRP5, LRP6, and LRP8 have been shown to play important roles in a broad panel of cancers. LRP5 is highly expressed in many tissues and is involved in the modulation...
Source: Journal of Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Synthetic House-Tree-Person Drawing Test: A New Method for Screening Anxiety in Cancer Patients.
Authors: Sheng L, Yang G, Pan Q, Xia C, Zhao L Abstract The synthetic house-tree-person (S-HTP) drawing test is a projective measure primarily designed to assess specific complex personality traits. It is widely used in general psychological problems and mental illness such as psychological crisis intervention. Applicability and validity of S-HTP drawing test in cancer patients suffering from anxiety are still unclear and there are no reports on such research. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of anxiety in cancer patients and to investigate the applicability of S-HTP drawing test in such patients...
Source: Journal of Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Development and Validation of the Dietary Habits and Colon Cancer Beliefs Survey (DHCCBS): An Instrument Assessing Health Beliefs Related to Red Meat and Green Leafy Vegetable Consumption.
Conclusion. The DHCCBS is a valid instrument for measuring health beliefs related to red meat, green leafy vegetables, and perceived colon cancer risk. Additionally, these findings suggest increasing GLV may be more feasible than reducing RM for CC risk reduction in meat eaters. PMID: 31015832 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oncology)
Source: Journal of Oncology - April 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Comparative Efficacy and Tolerability of Neoadjuvant Immunotherapy Regimens for Patients with HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: A Network Meta-Analysis.
In conclusion, our findings support CTP as the optimum neoadjuvant regimen for HER2-positive breast cancer, with the best pCR and acceptable toxicity compared with CT. MP provides a therapeutic option for patients with poor performance status. PMID: 31015833 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oncology)
Source: Journal of Oncology - April 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Characteristics of Mammographic Breast Density and Associated Factors for Chinese Women: Results from an Automated Measurement.
This study aims to identify factors associated with mammographic density in China using a quantitative method. Methods: Mammographic density was measured for a total of 1071 (84 with and 987 without breast cancer) women using an automatic algorithm AutoDensity. Pearson tests examined relationships between density and continuous variables and t-tests compared differences of mean density values between groupings of categorical variables. Linear models were built using multiple regression. Results: Percentage density and dense area were positively associated with each other for cancer-free (r=0.487, p
Source: Journal of Oncology - April 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Metronomic Chemotherapy: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Clinical Experience.
Authors: Simsek C, Esin E, Yalcin S Abstract Metronomic chemotherapy, continuous and dose-dense administration of chemotherapeutic drugs with lowered doses, is being evaluated for substituting, augmenting, or appending conventional maximum tolerated dose regimens, with preclinical and clinical studies for the past few decades. To date, the principle mechanisms of its action include impeding tumoral angiogenesis and modulation of hosts' immune system, affecting directly tumor cells, their progenitors, and neighboring stromal cells. Its better toxicity profile, lower cost, and easier use are main advantages over conv...
Source: Journal of Oncology - April 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Epigenetic Influences in the Obesity/Colorectal Cancer Axis: A Novel Theragnostic Avenue.
Authors: Ayers D, Boughanem H, Macías-González M Abstract The World Health Organization (WHO) considers that obesity has reached proportions of pandemic. Experts also insist on the importance of considering obesity as a chronic disease and one of the main contributors to the worldwide burden of other nontransmissible chronic diseases, which have a great impact on health, lifestyle, and economic cost. One of the most current challenges of biomedical science faces is to understand the origin of the chronic nontransmissible diseases, such as obesity and cancer. There is a large evidence, both in epidemio...
Source: Journal of Oncology - April 23, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

The Significant Influence of the Neuroendocrine Component on the Survival of Patients with Gastric Carcinoma Characterized by Coexisting Exocrine and Neuroendocrine Components.
Authors: Ren H, Shi SS, Wang NC, Wang X, Chen YT, Zhao DB Abstract Background: Gastric adenocarcinoma patients with a neuroendocrine (NE) component are frequently observed in routine practice. Several previous studies have investigated the influence of a NE component on the survival of these patients; however, the results were inconsistent. Methods: We retrospectively investigated a consecutive series of 95 gastric adenocarcinoma patients with a NE component and 190 gastric adenocarcinoma patients without a NE component. We adopted 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% as the cut-off proportions of th...
Source: Journal of Oncology - April 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

The Impact of Addition of Consolidation Chemotherapy to Standard Cisplatin-Based Chemoradiotherapy in Uterine Cervical Cancer: Matter of Distant Relapse.
Conclusions: Use of consolidation CT resulted in longer OS and PFS, mostly due to control of distant relapses. Patients at higher risk of distant relapse showed the greatest benefit. This data generates a hypothesis that could help to better select patients to consolidation CT. PMID: 30984261 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oncology)
Source: Journal of Oncology - April 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Clinical Spectrum of Complications Induced by Intravesical Immunotherapy of Bacillus Calmette-Gu érin for Bladder Cancer.
Clinical Spectrum of Complications Induced by Intravesical Immunotherapy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin for Bladder Cancer. J Oncol. 2019;2019:6230409 Authors: Liu Y, Lu J, Huang Y, Ma L Abstract Because of its proven efficacy, intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy is an important treatment for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer at high risk of recurrence or progression. However, approximately 8% of patients have to stop BCG instillation as a result of its complications. Complications induced by BCG therapy can have a variety of clinical manifestations. These adverse react...
Source: Journal of Oncology - April 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Tubal Origin of "Ovarian" Low-Grade Serous Carcinoma: A Gene Expression Profile Study.
Conclusions: This study provides evidence in a molecular level that ovarian low-grade serous carcinomas likely originate from the fallopian tube rather than from ovarian surface epithelia. Similar gene expression profiles among fallopian tube, ovarian epithelial inclusions, and serous tumors further support that ovarian low-grade serous carcinomas develop in a stepwise fashion. Such findings may have a significant implication for "ovarian" cancer-prevention strategies. PMID: 30949203 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oncology)
Source: Journal of Oncology - April 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

EF24 Suppresses Cholangiocellular Carcinoma Progression, Inhibits STAT3 Phosphorylation, and Induces Apoptosis via ROS-Mediated Oxidative Stress.
This study provides preclinical experimental evidence of therapeutic activity of the curcumin analog EF24 in cholangiocarcinoma models. In CCC cell lines, EF24 inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis through excessive ROS generation. Moreover, administration of EF24 led to depletion of total intracellular GSH levels, induced mitochondrial depolarization, and abrogated STAT3 phosphorylation. Of interest, these effects were readily averted by treating the cells with exogenous antioxidants such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or glutathione monoethyl ester (GEE). In vivo, EF24, solubilized using a cyclodextrin formulation, ...
Source: Journal of Oncology - April 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Interaction of Anticancer Drugs with Human Organic Anion Transporter hOAT4.
Authors: Liu C, Zhang J, You G Abstract Human organic anion transporter 4 (hOAT4) belongs to a family of multispecific organic anion transporters that play critical roles in the disposition of numerous drugs and therefore are the major sites for drug-drug interaction. Drug-drug interactions contribute significantly to the individual variation in drug response. hOAT4 is expressed in the kidney and placenta. In the current study, we examined the interaction of 36 anticancer drugs with hOAT4 in kidney COS-7 cells and placenta BeWo cells. Among the drugs tested, only epirubicin hydrochloride and dabrafenib mesylate exh...
Source: Journal of Oncology - April 5, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Use of Antimetastatic SOD3-Mimetic Albumin as a Primer in Triple Negative Breast Cancer.
In this study, PNA-increased survival was also correlated with reduction of lung metastasis. These results support the hypothesis that PNA works through the inhibition of extracellular superoxide/ROS production leading to the conversion of 4T1 cells from a metastatic tumorigenic state to a cytostatic state. These findings support future clinical trials of PNA as an antimetastatic SOD3-mimetic drug to increase overall survival in TNBC patients. PMID: 30941174 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oncology)
Source: Journal of Oncology - April 5, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Current Challenges in Cancer Immunotherapy: Multimodal Approaches to Improve Efficacy and Patient Response Rates.
Authors: Sambi M, Bagheri L, Szewczuk MR Abstract Cancer immunotherapy is a promising innovative treatment for many forms of cancer, particularly melanoma. Although immunotherapy has been shown to be efficacious, patient response rates vary and, more often than not, only a small subset of the patients within a large cohort respond favourably to the treatment. This issue is particularly concerning and becomes a challenge of immunotherapy to improve the effectiveness and patient response rates. Here, we review the specific types of available immunotherapy options, their proposed mechanism(s) of action, and the reason...
Source: Journal of Oncology - April 5, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Colorectal Cancer Characteristics and Outcomes after Solid Organ Transplantation.
Conclusions: Our study reports on one of the largest cohorts of patients of colorectal cancer that developed the cancer after solid organ transplant. Survival is extremely poor for advanced cases. However, long-term survivors are noted who developed the cancer at a relatively early stage. Colorectal screening recommendations may need to be revised for patients after solid organ transplant. PMID: 30941176 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oncology)
Source: Journal of Oncology - April 5, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Liver Metastases and Histological Growth Patterns: Biological Behavior and Potential Clinical Implications-Another Path to Individualized Medicine?
Authors: Oliveira RC, Alexandrino H, Cipriano MA, Tralhão JG Abstract Colorectal cancer is a major health burden and despite the recent advances in healthcare and screening programs, a great percentage of patients already present metastases once their disease is found. In those cases, liver surgery has an essential role, but even with neoadjuvant chemotherapy there is a high rate of intrahepatic recurrence. New prognostic factors are needed in order to decide the best surgical approach considering the biological behavior of the tumors in order to tailor the used therapies, moving towards individualized medic...
Source: Journal of Oncology - April 2, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Genotypic and Phenotypic Variables Affect Meiotic Cell Cycle Progression, Tumor Ploidy, and Cancer-Associated Mortality in a brca2-Mutant Zebrafish Model.
Authors: Mensah L, Ferguson JL, Shive HR Abstract Successful cell replication requires both cell cycle completion and accurate chromosomal segregation. The tumor suppressor BRCA2 is positioned to influence both of these outcomes, and thereby influence genomic integrity, during meiotic and mitotic cell cycles. Accordingly, mutations in BRCA2 induce chromosomal abnormalities and disrupt cell cycle progression in both germ cells and somatic cells. Despite these findings, aneuploidy is not more prevalent in BRCA2-associated versus non-BRCA2-associated human cancers. More puzzlingly, diploidy in BRCA2-associated cancers...
Source: Journal of Oncology - April 2, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Can We Increase the Resection Rate by Minimally Invasive Approach? Experience from 100 Minimally Invasive Esophagectomies.
Authors: Helminen O, Mrena J, Sihvo E Abstract Background: Whether we can increase the resection rate of esophageal cancer by minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) is unknown. The aim was to report the number and results of MIE in high-risk patients considered unsuitable for open surgery and compare these results to other operated patients and to high-risk patients not undergoing surgery. Methods: At Central Finland Central Hospital, between September 2012 and July 2018, the number of operated MIEs was 100. Of these, 10 patients were prospectively considered unfit for open approach. Nineteen additional high-ri...
Source: Journal of Oncology - March 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

PD-L1 Expression in Human Breast Cancer Stem Cells Is Epigenetically Regulated through Posttranslational Histone Modifications.
In this study, we analyzed CpG methylation of PD-L1 promoter in MCF-7 and BT-549 breast cancer cells and tumorspheres derived from them. PD-L1 promoter was significantly hypomethylated in MCF-7 tumorspheres, but not from BT-549 tumorspheres, compared with their cell line counterparts. The active demethylation of PD-L1 promoter was confirmed by the increase in the distribution of 5hmC and decrease in 5mC levels and the upregulation of TET3 and downregulation of DNMTs enzymes in MCF-7 tumorspheres, compared with the cell line. Additionally, we checked the distribution of repressive histones H3K9me3, H3K27me3, and active hist...
Source: Journal of Oncology - March 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Colon Cancer Sidedness, Presentation, and Survival at Different Stages.
Authors: Ulanja MB, Rishi M, Beutler BD, Sharma M, Patterson DR, Gullapalli N, Ambika S Abstract Background: Several prognostic factors have been used to guide therapy for colon cancer (CC). However, the relationship between CC laterality (sidedness) and prognosis remains under investigation. Objectives: To assess the effect of laterality on CC presentation and survival, using a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based cohort. Methods: A retrospective cohort study using data from the SEER program (2007-2015). Results: Of the 163,980 patients with CC, 85,779 (52.3%) presented w...
Source: Journal of Oncology - March 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

CAPTEM in Metastatic Well-Differentiated Intermediate to High Grade Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Single Centre Experience.
The objective of this study was to assess the functional imaging response, survival, and tolerability of CAPTEM in this population. Methods: A retrospective audit of pts with metastatic well-differentiated intermediate (WHO grade 2) or high grade (WHO grade 3) NETs treated at Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre between March 2013 and March 2017. Pts received capecitabine 750 mg/m2 orally twice daily (bd) from days1 to 14 and temozolomide 100 mg/m2 bd from days 10 to 14 every 28 days. Data regarding functional imaging response, progression-free and overall survival, and toxicities was collected. Results: Thirty-two pts re...
Source: Journal of Oncology - March 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Mechanism for Regulation of Melanoma Cell Death via Activation of Thermo-TRPV4 and TRPV2.
Conclusion: Overall, our studies revealed that TRPV4 and TRPV2 mediated melanoma cell death via channel activation and characterized the mechanism of functional TRPV4 ion channel in regulating AKT pathway driven antitumor process. Thus, they may serve as potential biomarkers for the prognosis and are targeted for the therapeutic use in human melanoma. PMID: 30881453 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oncology)
Source: Journal of Oncology - March 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Low GAS5 Levels as a Predictor of Poor Survival in Patients with Lower-Grade Gliomas.
Conclusion: Taken together, these results demonstrate that GAS5 expression is associated with OS in LGG patients and that its underlying roles involve the regulation of ribosomal biogenesis and translation initiation, which may aid in identifying a new target for the treatment of LGG. PMID: 30853980 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oncology)
Source: Journal of Oncology - March 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

From Whole-Brain Radiotherapy to Immunotherapy: A Multidisciplinary Approach for Patients with Brain Metastases from NSCLC.
Authors: Protopapa M, Kouloulias V, Nikoloudi S, Papadimitriou C, Gogalis G, Zygogianni A Abstract Non-small cell lung cancer patients with brain metastases have a multitude of treatment options, but there is currently no international and multidisciplinary consensus concerning their optimal treatment. Local therapies have the principal role, especially in symptomatic patients. Advances in surgery and radiation therapy manage considerable local control. Systemic treatments have shown effect in clinical trials and in real life clinical settings; yet, at present, this is restricted to patients with asymptomatic or st...
Source: Journal of Oncology - March 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Combinatorial Approach to Improve Cancer Immunotherapy: Rational Drug Design Strategy to Simultaneously Hit Multiple Targets to Kill Tumor Cells and to Activate the Immune System.
Authors: Joshi S, Durden DL Abstract Cancer immunotherapy, including immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive CAR T-cell therapy, has clearly established itself as an important modality to treat melanoma and other malignancies. Despite the tremendous clinical success of immunotherapy over other cancer treatments, this approach has shown substantial benefit to only some of the patients while the rest of the patients have not responded due to immune evasion. In recent years, a combination of cancer immunotherapy together with existing anticancer treatments has gained significant attention and has been extensively inve...
Source: Journal of Oncology - March 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Interaction of CD200 Overexpression on Tumor Cells with CD200R1 Overexpression on Stromal Cells: An Escape from the Host Immune Response in Rectal Cancer Patients.
We examined the immunohistochemical expressions and localizations of CD200 and CD200R1 in 140 rectal cancer patients. Among the patients, 79 underwent the preoperative radiotherapy and the others were untreated prior to the surgery. In addition, 121 matched normal rectal mucosa samples were evaluated. The results of immunohistochemical analysis showed a strikingly high level of CD200 in tumor cells (p=0.001) and CD200R1 expression in normal mucosal epithelium and stromal cells. Importantly, CD200R1 was overexpressed in stromal cells of the metastatic cancer patients compared to patients without metastases (p=0.002). More t...
Source: Journal of Oncology - February 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Selected Office Based Anticancer Treatment Strategies.
Authors: Stoff JA Abstract Over the years, the treatment of patients with cancer has varied widely as much because of recent advancements in science and medicine as the philosophies that belie their use. This paper briefly describes many of the prevailing approaches in use today with an attempt to offer some perspective of how to apply these disparate methodologies so that they may be more effectively integrated, resulting in consistently better clinical responses. PMID: 30766601 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oncology)
Source: Journal of Oncology - February 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

The Financial Impact of Hypofractionated Radiation for Localized Prostate Cancer in the United States.
Conclusions: Moderate hypofractionation may have the potential to save approximately US$0.16-0.36 billion annually, likely without impacting survival or tolerability. This may lead to lower personal financial toxicity. It would be reasonable for public and private payers to consider which type of radiation is most suited to reimbursement. PMID: 30719039 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oncology)
Source: Journal of Oncology - February 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Predictive Value of Diminished Serum PDGF-BB after Curative Resection of Hepatocellular Cancer.
Authors: Aryal B, Yamakuchi M, Shimizu T, Kadono J, Furoi A, Gejima K, Komokata T, Koriyama C, Hashiguchi T, Imoto Y Abstract Purpose: Platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) has emerged as one of the key cytokines in malignant transformation of different cells. PDGF-BB also exhibits a potent mitogenic effect on liver cells; studies have advocated clinical implications of monitoring serum PDGF-BB (sPDGF-BB) in patients with liver disease. We thus investigated the predictive relevance of perioperative sPDGF-BB after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: We evaluated perioperative sPD...
Source: Journal of Oncology - February 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Autophagy Regulated by Gain of Function Mutant p53 Enhances Proteasomal Inhibitor-Mediated Cell Death through Induction of ROS and ERK in Lung Cancer Cells.
Authors: Saini H, Hakeem I, Mukherjee S, Chowdhury S, Chowdhury R Abstract Mutations in p53, especially gain of function (GOF) mutations, are highly frequent in lung cancers and are known to facilitate tumor aggressiveness. Yet, the links between mutant GOF-p53 and lung cancers are not well established. In the present study, we set to examine how we can better sensitize resistant GOF-p53 lung cancer cells through modulation of cellular protein degradation machineries, proteasome and autophagy. H1299 p53 null lung cancer cells were stably transfected with R273H mutant GOF-p53 or wild-type (wt) p53 or empty vectors. ...
Source: Journal of Oncology - February 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Prognostic Value of CD133 and SOX2 in Advanced Cancer.
Conclusions: CD133 and SOX2 might be associated with worse prognosis in advanced cancer. More prospective studies are strongly needed. Impact: CD133 and SOX2 may be promising targeted molecular therapy for advanced cancer patients. PMID: 30693028 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oncology)
Source: Journal of Oncology - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

The Therapeutic Strategies of Regulatory T Cells in Malignancies and Stem Cell Transplantations.
Authors: Zaini RG, Al-Rehaili AA Abstract Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are considered one of the main dynamic cell types within the immune system. Because Treg cells suppress immune responses, they have potential roles in immunological self-tolerance and may help to maintain immune homeostasis. Promoting Treg cell function and increasing their numbers might be useful in treating autoimmune disorders, as well as preventing allograft rejection. However, studies of mice and humans demonstrate that Treg cells promote cancer progression and suppress antitumor immunity. Therefore, suppressing Treg cell function or red...
Source: Journal of Oncology - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Current and Emerging Targets in Immunotherapy for Osteosarcoma.
Authors: Miwa S, Shirai T, Yamamoto N, Hayashi K, Takeuchi A, Igarashi K, Tsuchiya H Abstract Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone. Although outcomes of patients with osteosarcoma have improved since the introduction of chemotherapy, outcomes of metastatic or unresectable osteosarcomas are still unsatisfactory. To improve osteosarcoma outcomes, the development of novel systemic therapies for osteosarcoma is needed. Since the 1880s, various immunotherapies have been utilized in patients with osteosarcoma and some patients have shown response to the treatment. Based on recent studies about the r...
Source: Journal of Oncology - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

UBE2C Induces Cisplatin Resistance via ZEB1/2-Dependent Upregulation of ABCG2 and ERCC1 in NSCLC Cells.
Conclusion: UBE2C may be a novel therapy target for NSCLC for sensitizing cells to the chemotherapeutic agent DDP. PMID: 30693031 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oncology)
Source: Journal of Oncology - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

The De Ritis and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratios May Aid in the Risk Assessment of Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.
This study aimed to determine whether baseline blood inflammatory markers can predict progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Methods: The study included 158 patients with mRCC treated with first-line targeted therapy between 2002 and 2016. A multivariable cox proportional hazards model identified inflammatory factors that predict PFS and OS. Using bootstrap method, new prognostic model compared with Heng and modified MSKCC risk model (mMSKCC). The effect of inflammatory factors were investigated by comparing increased C-index adding significant...
Source: Journal of Oncology - January 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Homocysteine and Digestive Tract Cancer Risk: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis.
Conclusion: Generally, our results indicated that elevated homocysteine was associated with higher risk of digestive tract cancer. That is, homocysteine concentration may be a potential biomarker for occurrence of digestive tract cancer. PMID: 30662463 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oncology)
Source: Journal of Oncology - January 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Clinical Implication and the Hereditary Factors of NM23 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Based on Bioinformatics Analysis and Genome-Wide Association Study.
Authors: Yang C, Han C, Wang X, Liao X, Liu X, Qin W, Yu L, Zhu G, Su H, Lu S, Chen Z, Yu T, Liu Z, Huang K, Liu Z, Liang Y, Huang J, Peng T Abstract NM23 expression is closely associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence, but the hereditary factors influencing NM23 levels are unknown. Using public database, the diagnostic value of NM23 in HCC was investigated. A total of 424 hepatitis B virus- (HBV-) related HCC patients were enrolled to perform a genome-wide association study for identifying candidate variants associated with NM23 expression level. Additionally, a logistic regression model, haplotype...
Source: Journal of Oncology - January 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Automated Tumour Recognition and Digital Pathology Scoring Unravels New Role for PD-L1 in Predicting Good Outcome in ER-/HER2+ Breast Cancer.
Authors: Humphries MP, Hynes S, Bingham V, Cougot D, James J, Patel-Socha F, Parkes EE, Blayney JK, O'Rorke MA, Irwin GW, McArt DG, Kennedy RD, Mullan PB, McQuaid S, Salto-Tellez M, Buckley NE Abstract The role of PD-L1 as a prognostic and predictive biomarker is an area of great interest. However, there is a lack of consensus on how to deliver PD-L1 as a clinical biomarker. At the heart of this conundrum is the subjective scoring of PD-L1 IHC in most studies to date. Current standard scoring systems involve separation of epithelial and inflammatory cells and find clinical significance in different percentages of e...
Source: Journal of Oncology - January 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Secretory High-Mobility Group Box 1 Protein Affects Regulatory T Cell Differentiation in Neuroblastoma Microenvironment In Vitro.
Authors: Vanichapol T, Chiangjong W, Panachan J, Anurathapan U, Chutipongtanate S, Hongeng S Abstract Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial tumor of childhood with poor prognosis in a high-risk group. An obstacle in the development of treatment for solid tumors is the immunosuppressive nature of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Regulatory T cells (Tregs) represent a T cell subset with specialized function in immune suppression and maintaining self-tolerance. Tregs resident within the tumor milieu is believed to play an important role in immune escape mechanisms. The role of the NB microenvironment in ...
Source: Journal of Oncology - January 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Efficacy of Immunotherapy in Patients with Metastatic Mucosal or Uveal Melanoma.
Conclusion: Immunotherapy significantly improves OS for MM. The prognosis of metastatic UM remains poor. PMID: 30631354 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oncology)
Source: Journal of Oncology - January 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Exploration of the Combination of PLK1 Inhibition with Immunotherapy in Cancer Treatment.
Conclusions: Our findings implicate that the PLK1 inhibition and immunotherapy combination may achieve a synergistic antitumor efficacy. PMID: 30631355 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oncology)
Source: Journal of Oncology - January 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Glucose and Lactate Transport in Pancreatic Cancer: Glycolytic Metabolism Revisited.
Authors: Cameron ME, Yakovenko A, Trevino JG Abstract Membrane transporters fulfill essential roles in maintaining normal cellular function in health. In cancer, transporters likewise facilitate the aberrant characteristics typical of proliferating tumor cells. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is remarkable in its aggressiveness, and its metabolism is supported by a variety of membrane transporters. Glucose transporter 1 is upregulated in pancreatic cancer, enables rapid cellular uptake of glucose, and contributes to the invasiveness and metastatic ability of the disease. Likewise, the machinery of glycolysis, enzy...
Source: Journal of Oncology - January 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Quantitative Metastatic Lymph Node Regions on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Are Superior to AJCC N Classification for the Prognosis of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.
This study aimed to investigate the impact of the number of metastatic lymph node regions (LRN) on prognosis of NPC and to establish a new N classification system based on LRN. Methods and Materials: The magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 354 nondisseminated NPC patients before radical treatment were retrospectively evaluated. The regions with positive lymph nodes (LNs) were quantified according to 2013 updated guidelines for neck node levels. Prognostic value of LRN on distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) was analyzed using multivariable Cox model after adjusting for other nodal characteristics and therapeutic fact...
Source: Journal of Oncology - January 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Transforming of the Tumor Microenvironment: Implications for TGF- β Inhibition in the Context of Immune-Checkpoint Therapy.
Transforming of the Tumor Microenvironment: Implications for TGF-β Inhibition in the Context of Immune-Checkpoint Therapy. J Oncol. 2018;2018:9732939 Authors: Löffek S Abstract Significant breakthroughs have been achieved in the fields of oncogenic signaling inhibition and particularly immune-checkpoint blockade has triggered substantial enthusiasm during the last decade. Antibody-mediated blockade of negative immune-checkpoint molecules (e.g., PD-1/PD-L1, CTLA-4) has been shown to achieve profound responses in several of solid cancers. Unfortunately, these responses only occur in a subset of...
Source: Journal of Oncology - January 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Differential Expression of Prostaglandin I2 Synthase Associated with Arachidonic Acid Pathway in the Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Authors: Russo A, Biselli-Chicote PM, Kawasaki-Oyama RS, Castanhole-Nunes MMU, Maniglia JV, de Santi Neto D, Pavarino ÉC, Goloni-Bertollo EM Abstract Introduction: Differential expression of genes encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP) and other oxygenases enzymes involved in biotransformation mechanisms of endogenous and exogenous compounds can lead to oral tumor development. Objective: We aimed to identify the expression profile of these genes, searching for susceptibility biomarkers in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Patients and Methods: Sixteen oral squamous cell carcinoma samples were included in this st...
Source: Journal of Oncology - December 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Resection of Liver Metastases: A Treatment Provides a Long-Term Survival Benefit for Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Conclusions: Liver resection is a safe treatment and could significantly prolong the long-term prognosis for highly selected patients with resectable liver metastases from PNET. Further randomized, controlled trials are needed. PMID: 30538745 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oncology)
Source: Journal of Oncology - December 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

PPAR α Enhances Cancer Cell Chemotherapy Sensitivity by Autophagy Induction.
PPARα Enhances Cancer Cell Chemotherapy Sensitivity by Autophagy Induction. J Oncol. 2018;2018:6458537 Authors: You M, Gao J, Jin J, Hou Y Abstract PPARα (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α) plays a critical role in regulation of inflammation and cancer, while the regulatory mechanism of PPARα on cancer cell autophagy is still unclear. Here we found that PPARα enhanced autophagy in HEK293T, SW480, and Hela cell lines, which was independent of PPARα transcription activity. PPARα induced antiapoptotic Bcl2 protein degradation resulting in release of the...
Source: Journal of Oncology - December 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Fatal Pulmonary Hemorrhage following Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Stage 3B/C Squamous-Cell Lung Carcinoma Patients.
Authors: Topkan E, Selek U, Ozdemir Y, Besen AA, Guler OC, Yildirim BA, Mertsoylu H, Findikcioglu A, Ozyilkan O, Pehlivan B Abstract We aimed to identify the fatal pulmonary hemorrhage- (FPH-) related risk factors in stage 3B/C squamous-cell lung carcinoma (SqCLC) patients treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (C-CRT). Medical records of 505 stage 3B/C SqCLC patients who underwent 66 Gy radiotherapy plus 1-3 cycles of concurrent chemotherapy with available pretreatment thoracic computerized tomography scans were retrospectively analyzed. Primary end-point was the identification of FPH-related ...
Source: Journal of Oncology - December 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research