Host selectively contributes to shaping intestinal microbiota of carnivorous and omnivorous fish.
This study demonstrates that in fish the host species imparts substantial impact in shaping the community structure of the intestinal microbiota. PMID: 30416165 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - November 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Co-culture development and bioformulation efficacy of psychrotrophic PGPRs to promote growth and development of Pea (Pisum sativum) plant.
Authors: Anwar MS, Paliwal A, Firdous N, Verma A, Kumar A, Pande V Abstract Numerous microbes reside in the rhizosphere having plant growth promoting activity, and enhancing the property by increasing plant yield. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has gradually increased in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. Soil was collected from the rhizosphere of an agricultural farm and the psychrotrophic bacterial strains STA3 (KY888133) and RM2 (KY888134) were successfully isolated, and screened on the basis of phosphate solubilization. Further char...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - November 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

The neutral N-linked glycans of the Basidiomycetous yeasts Pseudozyma antarctica and Malassezia furfur (Subphylum Ustilaginomycotina).
This report is the first to analyze the neutral N-linked glycans of P. antarctica and M. furfur. PMID: 30305477 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - October 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Function of alkyl hydroperoxidase AhpD in resistance to oxidative stress in Corynebacterium glutamicum.
Authors: Su T, Si M, Zhao Y, Yao S, Che C, Liu Y, Chen C Abstract Alkyl hydroperoxidase reductase AhpD, which is functionally equivalent to the bacterial flavin-containing disulfide reductase AhpF, acts as a proton donor for the organic peroxide-scavenging alkyl hydroperoxidase AhpC. Although AhpD has long been demonstrated in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, its physiological and biochemical functions remain largely unknown in other actinobacteria, including Corynebacterium glutamicum, Streptomyces, Mycobacterium smegmatis. Here, we report that C. glutamicum AhpD contributed to regenerate a variety of thiol-dependent p...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - September 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Biotic and abiotic substrates for enhancing Acinetobacter baumannii biofilm formation: New approach using extracellular matrix and slanted coverslip technique.
Authors: Ramalingam K, Lee V Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii has been well recognized as a problematic human pathogen and several reports has shown the incidence of multidrug and pandrug-resistant A. baumannii strains in infirmary infections. A. baumannii grows only on an air-liquid interface and does not form a contiguous biofilm. Extracellular matrices (ECM) and slanted glass coverslips are (SGC) used as biofilm substrates and biofilms have been investigated by SEM, confocal and crystal violet staining. ECM has shown enhanced biofilm formation under dynamic conditions rather than static conditions. SGC biofilm y...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - September 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Extracellular DNA enhances the formation and stability of symplasmata in Pantoea agglomerans YS19.
Authors: Zheng J, Xia Y, Liu Q, He X, Yu J, Feng Y Abstract Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is an important polymeric substance that plays essential roles in cell aggregation and nutrient provision for the sessile bacteria. eDNA in bacterial biofilms was extensively studied. Here we found that eDNA also exists in symplasmata, a bacterial cell aggregate, which is different to a biofilm, in the rice enophyte Pantoea agglomerans YS19. We found that exogenous eDNA enhanced the formation and stability of symplasmata significantly, and that, exogenous eDNA also improved the stress resistance and colonization ability of the bact...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - September 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Culturable fungal diversity and cellulase production by mixed culture Aspergillus fungi from Sanya mangrove.
Authors: Zeng S, Ling J, Ahmad M, Lin L, Zhang Y, Wang C, Dong J Abstract Fungi are the most suitable cellulase producers attributing to its ability to produce a complete cellulase system. 33 Genus, 175 Species fungi were isolated from Sanya mangrove, Hainan, China. Using congo red cellulose (CMC) medium, five fungi of cellulose-degrading were selected for further study. Molecular biology and morphological identification showed that all of these five fungi belong to Aspergillus fungi. The cellulase produced by these fungi were monitored during liquid state fermentation. The optimum conditions study for enzyme produ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - August 31, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Activated sludge microbial communities of a chemical plant wastewater treatment facility with high-strength bromide ions and aromatic substances.
Authors: Zhao YJ, Sato Y, Inaba T, Aoyagi T, Hori T, Habe H Abstract The prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities of activated sludge in a chemical plant wastewater treatment facility, processing relatively oligotrophic wastewater containing aromatic compounds and high-strength bromide ions, were characterized by high-throughput sequencing of rRNA genes based on DNA and RNA extracts. The microbial community structure was distinct from those previously reported from domestic wastewater treatment plants. Several abundant OTUs in the RNA-based prokaryotic community were related to aromatic compound-degrading b...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - August 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparative microbial communities in tidal flats sediment on Incheon, South Korea.
Authors: Choi HJ, Jeong TY, Yoon H, Oh BY, Han YS, Hur MJ, Kang S, Kim JG Abstract Coastal ecosystems, play critical ecological roles of which tidal flats are a significant component of coastal wetlands, such as habitat and nutrient cycling in aquatic biology. Microbial communities in tidal flats are known to play vital roles of self-purification. And the microbial ecology of the sediment is easily affected by human activities and pollution. In this paper, we applied pyrosequencing technology to investigate microbial communities in three different tidal flats (Ganghwa Island, Ongnyeon land region and Yeongjong Isla...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - July 25, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Enzymatic and molecular characterization of α-1,3-glucanase (AglST2) from Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF3-3 and its relation with α-1,3-glucanase HF65 (AglST1).
Enzymatic and molecular characterization of α-1,3-glucanase (AglST2) from Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF3-3 and its relation with α-1,3-glucanase HF65 (AglST1). J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2018 Jul 17;: Authors: Cherdvorapong V, Fujiki H, Suyotha W, Takeda Y, Yano S, Takagi K, Wakayama M Abstract Extracellular α-1,3-glucanase HF90 (AglST2), with a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE-estimated molecular mass of approximately 91 kDa, was homogenously purified from the culture filtrate of Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF3-3. AglST2 showed a high homology with mycodextranase in an amino acid ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - July 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Physiological properties and genetic analysis related to exopolysaccharide (EPS) production in the fresh-water unicellular cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum (Suizenji Nori).
Authors: Ohki K, Kanesaki Y, Suzuki N, Okajima M, Kaneko T, Yoshikawa S Abstract The clonal strains, phycoerythrin(PE)-rich- and PE-poor strains, of the unicellular, fresh water cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum (Suringar) Okada (Suizenji Nori, in Japanese) were isolated from traditional open-air aquafarms in Japan. A. sacrum appeared to be oligotrophic on the basis of its growth characteristics. The optimum temperature for growth was around 20°C. Maximum growth and biomass increase at 20°C was obtained under light intensities between 40 to 80 μmol m-2 s-1 (fluorescent lamps, 12 h light/12 h dark cycles)...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - July 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

RNase E/G-dependent degradation of metE mRNA, encoding methionine synthase, in Corynebacterium glutamicum.
In this study, we found that the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase MetE was overexpressed in ΔrneG mutant cells grown on various carbon sources. The level of metE mRNA was also approximately 6- to 10-fold higher in the ΔrneG mutant strain than in the wild-type strain. A rifampicin chase experiment showed that the half-life of metE mRNA was approximately 4.2 times longer in the ΔrneG mutant than in the wild-type strain. These results showed that RNase E/G is involved in the degradation of metE mRNA in C. glutamicum. PMID: 29984738 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Thermo and halo tolerant laccase from Bacillus sp. SS4: Evaluation for its industrial usefulness.
Authors: Singh G, Singh S, Kaur K, Kumar Arya S, Sharma P Abstract Laccases are unable to oxidize the non-phenolic components of complex lignin polymer due to their less redox potential (E0). Catalytic efficiency of laccases relies on the mediators that potentiates their oxidative strength; for breaking the recalcitrant lignin. Laccase from Bacillus sp. SS4 was evaluated for its compatibility with natural and synthetic mediators. (2 mM). It was found that acetosyringone, vanillin, orcinol and veratraldehyde have no adverse effect on the laccase activity up to 3 h. Syringaldehyde, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and h...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 30, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

A new method for determining the mycelial weight of the koji-mold Aspergillus oryzae by measuring its glycosylceramide content.
Authors: Ferdouse J, Miyagawa M, Hirano M, Kitajima Y, Inaba S, Kitagaki H Abstract At present, the quantitation of the mycelial weight of the industrially important non-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus oryzae, which is used for manufacturing koji, is performed by quantitating N-acetylglucosamine. However, since N-acetylglucosamine is a cell wall component, the extraction procedure is costly and tedious, and its quantitative performance is poor. Here, we report a novel method for the quantitation of A. oryzae mycelial weight. The amount of glycosylceramide significantly correlated with both the mycelial weight of A. o...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 22, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Lability in sulfur acidic cultivation medium explains unstable effects of CDK inhibitors on Cyanidioschyzon merolae cell proliferation.
Authors: Kobayashi Y, Tanaka K Abstract We previously showed that nuclear DNA replication (NDR) is regulated by a checkpoint monitoring the occurrence of organelle DNA replication (ODR) in a unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. These analyses depended on the use of chemical CDK inhibitors such as CDK2 inhibitor II and roscovitine, but subsequent analyses yielded conflicting results depending on the experimental conditions. In the present study, we identified significantly short half-lives of the used chemicals in the sulfur acidic cultivation medium, which reconciles the discrepancy among these results. ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 15, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Dipeptide synthesis by internal adenylation domains of a multidomain enzyme involved in nonribosomal peptide synthesis.
Authors: Abe T, Kobayashi K, Kawamura S, Sakaguchi T, Shiiba K, Kobayashi M Abstract The adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) is responsible for its selective substrate recognition and activation of the substrate (yielding an acyl-O-AMP intermediate) on ATP consumption. DhbF is an NRPS involved in bacillibactin synthesis and consists of multiple domains [adenylation domain, condensation domain, peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domain, and thioesterase domain]; DhbFA1 and DhbFA2 (here named) are "internal" adenylation domains in the multidomain enzyme DhbF. We firstly succeeded in exp...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 15, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli isolates from tropical environments in Southeast Asia.
Authors: Hara H, Yusaimi YA, Zulkeflle SNM, Sugiura N, Iwamoto K, Goto M, Utsumi M, Othman NB, Zakaria Z Abstract The emergence of antibiotic resistance among multidrug-resistant (MDR) microbes is of growing concern, and threatens public health globally. A total of 129 Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from lowland aqueous environments near hospitals and medical service centers in the vicinity of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Among the eleven antibacterial agents tested, the isolates were highly resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (83.7%) and nalidixic acid (71.3%) and moderately resistant to ampicillin and...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization and overexpression of a glycosyl hydrolase family 16 β-agarase Aga0917 from Pseudoalteromonas fuliginea YTW1-15-1.
Characterization and overexpression of a glycosyl hydrolase family 16 β-agarase Aga0917 from Pseudoalteromonas fuliginea YTW1-15-1. J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2018 May 30;: Authors: Wang Y, Liu T, Guo S, Zhang P, Sun P, Chen M, Ming H Abstract A gene (aga0917) encoding a putative β-agarase was identified from the genome of Pseudoalteromonas fuliginea YTW1-15-1. The nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that aga0917 had significant homology to the agarase genes of the GH16 family. aga0917 encodes a putative protein of 290 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 32.5 kDa, including a 21-amin...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Susceptibility of bacteria isolated from dental unit waterlines to disinfecting chemical agents.
Authors: Yoon HY, Lee SY Abstract Susceptibility testing of bacteria to disinfecting chemical agents isolated from dental unit waterlines (DUWL) is necessary for the development of effective disinfectant products. However, until now, susceptibility tests for chemical agents, which are components of DUWL disinfectant products, have not been conducted on bacteria isolated from DUWL water. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the susceptibilities of DUWL isolates in planktonic and biofilm states to cetylpyridinium chloride, as well as to the four chemical agents currently used for DUWL management. A total...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

5-Methylmellein is a novel inhibitor of fungal sirtuin and modulates fungal secondary metabolite production.
Authors: Shigemoto R, Matsumoto T, Masuo S, Takaya N Abstract Sirtuin is an NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase that is highly conserved among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Sirtuin deacetylates histones and non-histone proteins, and it is involved in fungal growth and secondary metabolite production. Here, we screened 579 fungal culture extracts that inhibited the histone deacetylase activity of Sirtuin A (SirA), produced by the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Eight fungal strains containing three Ascomycota, two Basidiomycota and three Deuteromycetes produced SirA inhibitors. We purified the SirA inhibitor from the cult...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 31, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Construction of a β-galactosidase-gene-based fusion is convenient for screening candidate genes involved in regulation of pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis in Pseudomonas chlororaphis G05.
Construction of a β-galactosidase-gene-based fusion is convenient for screening candidate genes involved in regulation of pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis in Pseudomonas chlororaphis G05. J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2018 May 28;: Authors: Luo W, Miao J, Feng Z, Lu R, Sun X, Zhang B, Ding W, Lu Y, Wang Y, Chi X, Ge Y Abstract In our recent work, we found that pyrrolnitrin, and not phenazines, pyrrolnitrin contributed to the suppression of the mycelia growth of Fusarium graminearum that causes heavy Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in cereal crops. However, pyrrolnitrin production of Pseudomonas chlororaphis G...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 31, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Identification of novel potential acetate-oxidizing bacteria in an acetate-fed methanogenic chemostat based on DNA stable isotope probing.
In this study, we investigated the major phylogenetic groups of acetate-utilizing bacteria (AUB) in a mesophilic methanogenic chemostat fed with acetate as the sole carbon source by using DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) technology. The results indicated that acetoclastic methanogenesis and acetate oxidization/hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis coexisted in the mesophilic chemostat fed with acetate, operated at a dilution rate of 0.1 d-1. OTU Ace13(9-17) (KU869530), Ace13(9-4) (KU667241), and Ace13(9-23) (KU667236), assigned to the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were probably potential SAOB in the chemostat, which needs ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Identification of Chlamydia pneumoniae candidate genes that interact with human apoptotic factor caspase-9.
This study could provide a clue to understanding host-Chlamydia interactions, especially the apoptosis repression by Chlamydia infection. PMID: 29760350 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of active sorbitol-6-phosphate phosphatase in the haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolase superfamily.
Authors: Chin T, Ikeuchi M Abstract Sorbitol-6-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.50) catalyzes sorbitol production from sorbitol-6-phosphate in certain organisms, but has not been identified unequivocally. We screened the activity of the haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolases (HAD) superfamily and identified four HAD proteins from Escherichia coli as sorbitol-6-phosphatase. Of these proteins, HAD2 (YfbT) exhibited catalytic activity (kcat/Km) that was better than that of the previously reported "preferred" substrate. HAD1 (YniC) and HAD2 exhibited higher sorbitol-6-phosphatase activity than that of HAD12 (YbiV) and HA...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 12, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Deletion of uncharacterized domain from α-1,3-glucanase of Bacillus circulans KA-304 enhances heterologous enzyme production in Escherichia coli.
In this study, UCD deletion mutant (AglΔUCD) was constructed, and its properties were compared with those of Agl-KA. α-1,3-Glucan hydrolyzing, α-1,3-glucan binding, and protoplast-forming activities of AglΔUCD were almost the same as those of Agl-KA. kcat/Km values of AgΔUCD and Agl-KA were 11.4 and 11.1 s-1 mg-1 mL, respectively. AglΔUCD and Agl-KA exhibited similar characteristics, such as optimal pH, pH stability, optimal temperature, and thermostability. These results suggest that UCD is not α-1,3-glucan-binding and flexible linker domain, and that deletion of UCD does not affe...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 12, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Enzymatic and molecular characterization of an acidic and thermostable chitinase 1 from Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF 3-3.
In this study, Chi1 was purified from the bacterium Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF 3-3, and its properties were carefully characterized. The molecular mass of Chi1 was estimated to be approximately 46 kDa and, through sequencing, its N-terminal amino acid sequence was identified as ADSGKVKL. Although the optimal operating temperature and pH for Chi1 were determined to be 65°C and pH 5.5, respectively, the purified enzyme was stable over wide pH (1.5-9) and temperature ranges. Moreover, Chi1 retained 87% of its activity in the presence of 15% NaCl. While Chi1 activity was inhibited by Ag+ and Mn2+, other chemicals te...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization of mycosporine-like amino acids in the cyanobacterium Nostoc verrucosum.
In this study, water-soluble sunscreen pigments of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were characterized in N. verrucosum, and the mysABCD genes responsible for MAA biosynthesis in N. verrucosum and N. commune were compared. N. verrucosum produced porphyra-334 and shinorine, with porphyra-334 accounting for>90% of the total MAAs. Interestingly, porphyra-334 is an atypical cyanobacteial MAA, whereas shinorine is known as a common and dominant MAA in cyanobacteria. Porphyra-334 from N. verrucosum showed little or no radical scavenging activity in vitro, although the glycosylated derivatives of porphyra-334 from N. commun...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Enhanced delignification of lignocellulosic substrates by Pichia GS115 expressed recombinant laccase.
Authors: Kumar VP, Kolte AP, Dhali A, Naik C, Sridhar M Abstract Utilization of energy-rich crop residues by ruminants is restricted by the presence of lignin, which is recalcitrant to digestion. Application of lignin degrading enzymes on the lignocellulosic biomass exposes the cellulose for easy digestion by ruminants. Laccases have been found to be considerably effective in improving the digestibility by way of delignification. However, laccase yields from natural hosts are not sufficient for industrial scale applications, which restricts their use. A viable option would be to express the laccase gene in compatib...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - April 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

A high-throughput method for screening of L-tyrosine high-yield strains by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Authors: Mao J, Liu Q, Li Y, Yang J, Song X, Liu X, Xu H, Qiao M Abstract A biosensor screening assay based on the synthesis of betaxanthin was applied to relatively high throughput screening of the L-tyrosine mutant library. In the assays, fluorescence output showed a linear relationship between extracellular L-tyrosine content and yellow pigment formation. In addition, the yellow pigment accumulation of the L-tyrosine high-yield strain can be easily distinguished with the naked eye compared with the wild-type strain. As a result, numerous mutants that exhibited significantly increased coloration, were screened ou...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - April 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

A highly efficient targeted recombination system for engineering linear chromosomes of industrial bacteria Streptomyces.
Authors: Pan HY, Chen CW, Huang CH Abstract Soil bacteria Streptomyces are the most important producers of secondary metabolites, including most known antibiotics. These bacteria and their close relatives are unique in possessing linear chromosomes, which typically harbor 20 to 30 biosynthetic gene clusters of tens to hundreds of kb in length. Many Streptomyces chromosomes are accompanied by linear plasmids with sizes ranging from several to several hundred kb. The large linear plasmids also often contain biosynthetic gene clusters. We have developed a targeted recombination procedure for arm exchanges between a li...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - April 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Aciduricity and acid tolerance mechanisms of Streptococcus anginosus.
Authors: Sasaki M, Kodama Y, Shimoyama Y, Ishikawa T, Kimura S Abstract Although Streptococcus anginosus constitutes a proportion of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal and genital tracts, and the oral cavity, it has been reported that S. anginosus infection could be closely associated with abscesses at various body sites, infective endocarditis, and upper gastrointestinal cancers. The colonization in an acidic environment due to the aciduricity of S. anginosus could be the etiology of the systemic infection of the bacteria. To elucidate the aciduricity and acid tolerance mechanisms of the microbe, we examined...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - April 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Analysis of microbial abundance and community composition in esophagus and intestinal tract of wild veined rapa whelk (Rapana venosa) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
Authors: Song H, Yu ZL, Yang MJ, Zhang T, Wang HY Abstract The rapa whelk Rapana venosa is a commercially important gastropod in China, but a major invader worldwide. There is little information on the bacterial community composition in the digestive system of this species, despite the microflora has important roles in digestion, nutrition, disease resistance, and immune response. The present study investigated the bacterial flora community in the esophagus and intestinal tract of wild R. venosa by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The esophagus and intestine had 1175 and 526 unique operational taxonomic units, respectivel...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - April 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of gene expression levels of appA, ppsR, and EL368 in Erythrobacter litoralis spheroplasts under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and under blue light, red light, and dark conditions.
Authors: Nishino K, Takahashi S, Nishida H Abstract We compared the gene expression levels of the blue-light-responsive genes, appA (encoding photosynthesis promoting protein AppA), ppsR (encoding photosynthesis suppressing protein PpsR), and EL368 (encoding a blue-light-activated histidine kinase with a light, oxygen, or voltage domain) between aerobic and anaerobic conditions in spheroplasts of the aerobic photosynthetic bacterium Erythrobacter litoralis. The spheroplasts conducted photosynthesis under red light but not under blue light. All three blue-light-responsive genes showed higher expression under aerobic...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - April 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Functional and expression studies of two novel STL1 genes of the osmotolerant and glycerol utilization yeast Candida glycerinogenes.
Authors: Ji H, Lu X, Zong H, Zhuge B Abstract Candida glycerinogenes is an osmotolerant yeast used for commercial glycerol production, as well as a glycerol utilization yeast which produces high biomass on glycerol medium. In the present study, two STL1 homologues CgSTL1 and CgSTL2 encoding the putative glycerol transporters were identified, and their products were found to be localized to plasma membranes by tagging GFP protein. The functions of CgSTL1 and CgSTL2 on glycerol transport were confirmed by their expression in S. cerevisiae STL1 null mutant and simultaneous deletion in C. glycerinogenes. The expression...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - April 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Variations in mating-type-like (MTL) loci direct PCR-based tracking of Zygosaccharomyces strains formed by mating.
Authors: Ogata T, Kuroki K, Ito K, Kondo A, Nakamura K Abstract Variations of chromosomal structures and nucleotide sequences around mating-type-like (MTL) loci among Zygosaccharomyces species have been reported. We have analyzed these differences in more detail and, on the basis of PCR- and next-generation sequencing data, we describe the MTL loci on chromosomes C and F for Z. rouxii type-strain NBRC1130, Z. rouxii NBRC0740 and Zygosaccharomyces sp. NBRC1876. We developed a mating strategy for Zygosaccharomyces sp. NBRC1876 and Z. rouxii NBRC0740, and found that the mated stains could be identified from parental s...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - April 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Oxidative stress tolerance of a spore clone isolated from Shirakami kodama yeast depends on altered regulation of Msn2 leading to enhanced expression of ROS-degrading enzymes.
Authors: Nakazawa N, Yanata H, Ito N, Kaneta E, Takahashi K Abstract We analyzed the stress response in a spore clone from Shirakami kodama yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with an exceptional high tolerance to oxidative stress. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this clone were very low, whereas the genes for superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and catalase (CTT1) were highly expressed and those enzymes also had high activities even under non-stress conditions. Both genes are regulated by general stress-responsive transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4, and Yap1, a transcription factor required for oxidative stre...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - April 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Oxoberkedienoic acid: a new octadienoic acid derivative isolated from Talaromyces verruculosus using a chemical screening system.
Authors: Sakai K, Asami Y, Chiba T, Suga T, Nonaka K, Iwatsuki M, Ōmura S, Shiomi K PMID: 29553054 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 23, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Deletion of the cell wall peptidoglycan hydrolase gene cwlO or lytE severely impairs transformation efficiency in Bacillus subtilis.
Authors: Liu TY, Chu SH, Shaw GC PMID: 29553055 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 23, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Beauvericin synthetase contains a calmodulin binding motif in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.
In this report, we describe that B. bassiana BEAS (BbBEAS) can interact with CaM in a Ca2+-dependent manner. A synthetic BbBEAS peptide, corresponding to the putative CaM-binding motif, formed a stable complex with CaM in the presence of Ca2+. In addition, in vitro CaM-binding assay revealed that the His-tagged BbBEAS (amino acids 2421-2538) binds to CaM in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Therefore, this work suggests that BbBEAS is a novel CaM-binding protein in B. bassiana. PMID: 29553056 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 23, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

γ-aminobutyric acid accumulation enhances the cell growth of Candida glycerinogenes  under hyperosmotic conditions.
The objectives of this study was to test the hypothesis that intracellular accumulation of GABA improves osmotic tolerance in the unconventional yeast Candida glycerinogenes. In C. glycerinogenes, the expression of UGA4 encoding GABA-specific permease is highly induced by hyperosmotic stress. Exogenous GABA application enhanced intracellular GABA accumulation and promoted cell growth under hyperosmotic conditions. Overexpression of the glutamate decarboxylase gene GAD1 resulted in an increased intracellular GABA and improvement in cell growth under hyperosmotic conditions. These results indicated that improving intracellul...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Involvement of the response regulator CtrA in the extracellular DNA production of the marine bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum.
Authors: Komatsu H, Yamamoto J, Suzuki H, Nagao N, Hirose Y, Ohyama T, Umekage S, Kikuchi Y Abstract The marine bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum is a nonsulfur phototrophic bacterium, which is known to produce extracellular nucleic acids in soluble form in culture medium. In the present paper, constructing the response regulator ctrA-deficient mutant of R. sulfidophilum, we found that this mutation causes a significant decrease in the extracellular DNA production. However, by the introduction of a plasmid containing the wild type ctrA gene into the mutant, the amount of extracellular DNA produced was recovered. T...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Metagenomic insights into lignocellulose-degrading genes through Illumina-based de novo sequencing of the microbiome in Vietnamese native goats' rumen.
Authors: Do TH, Le NG, Dao TK, Nguyen TMP, Le TL, Luu HL, Nguyen KHV, Nguyen VL, Le LA, Phung TN, van Straalen NM, Roelofs D, Truong NH Abstract The scarcity of enzymes having an optimal activity in lignocellulose deconstruction is an obstacle for industrial-scale conversion of cellulosic biomass into biofuels. With the aim of mining novel lignocellulolytic enzymes, a ~9 Gb metagenome of bacteria in Vietnamese native goats' rumen was sequenced by Illumina platform. From the data, 821 ORFs encoding carbohydrate esterases (CEs) and polysaccharide lyases (PLs) serving for lignocellulose pre-treatment, 816 ORFs encodin...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Improvement of bilirubin oxidase productivity of Myrothecium verrucaria and studies on the enzyme overproduced by the mutant strain in the solid-state fermentation.
We report here the development of a mutant strain of Myrothecium verrucaria by using UV-rays, which produced 28.8 times more enzyme compared with the parent and was higher than the yields reported in earlier submerged cultures. The mutant strain produced 35.6 times more enzyme than the parent in solid-state fermentation, which is better than that previously reported for a solid-state fermentation process. The specific activity of the enzyme produced by the mutant was higher than that of the parental enzyme. Bilirubin oxidase from both strains showed an optimum activity at pH 7 and 40°C. However, the time required to in...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 3, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Marker-free insertion of a series of C-terminal epitopes based on the 50:50 method in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Authors: Nonaka M, Kishi T PMID: 29491249 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 3, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid droplet associated enzyme Ypr147cp shows both TAG lipase and ester hydrolase activities.
Authors: M NK, V B S C T, B CS, J S B Abstract Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ypr147cp was found localized to lipid droplets but the physiological role of Ypr147cp remains unknown. Sequence analysis of Ypr147cp revealed an α/β hydrolase domain along with the conserved GXSXG lipase motif. Recombinant Ypr147cp showed both triacylglycerol lipase and ester hydrolase activities. Knock out of YPR147C led to accumulation of TAG in ypr147cΔ when compared to wild type (WT). In addition, transmission electron microscopic analysis of ypr147cΔ cells revealed a greater number of lipid bodies, justifying the inc...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 3, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Inhibitory effect of Lactococcus lactis on the bioactivity of periodontopathogens.
Authors: Shin HS, Baek DH, Lee SH Abstract Lactococcus lactis is a probiotic bacterium that produces various bacteriocins. Periodontopathogens induce inflammation and halitosis through the actions of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and trypsin-like enzymes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of L. lactis on the bioactivity of periodontopathogens. To investigate the antimicrobial peptide of L. lactis, the spent culture medium (SCM) of L. lactis was treated with or without proteinase K after collection by centrifugation, and the antibacterial activity of SCM against periodontopathogens was a...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - January 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Mumiamicin: Structure and bioactivity of a new furan fatty acid from Mumia sp. YSP-2-79.
Authors: Kimura T, Tajima A, Inahashi Y, Iwatsuki M, Kasai H, Mokudai T, Niwano Y, Shiomi K, Takahashi Y, Ōmura S, Nakashima T Abstract A new antibiotic, designated mumiamicin, was isolated from the cultured broth of the rare actinomycete strain, Mumia sp. YSP-2-79, by Diaion HP-20, silica gel and ODS column chromatography, followed by HPLC purification. The chemical structure of mumiamicin was elucidated as a new furan fatty acid by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Mumiamicin showed antimicrobial activity and antioxidative activity. PMID: 29367492 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - January 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Substrate specificity of Nudix hydrolases from Myxococcus xanthus.
Authors: Kimura Y, Yamamoto Y, Kajimoto S, Sakai A, Takegawa K PMID: 29367493 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - January 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Identification of essential biosynthetic genes and a true biosynthetic product for thioviridamide.
Authors: Izawa M, Nagamine S, Aoki H, Hayakawa Y PMID: 29311496 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - January 11, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

The effects of abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid on lipid accumulation in two freshwater Chlorella strains.
Authors: Wu G, Gao Z, Du H, Lin B, Yan Y, Li G, Guo Y, Fu S, Wei G, Wang M, Cui M, Meng C Abstract Sustainable renewable energy is being hotly debated globally because the continued use of finite fossil fuels is now widely recognized as being unsustainable. Microalgae potentially offer great opportunities for resolving this challenge. Abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are involved in regulating many physiological properties and have been widely used in higher plants. To test if phytohormones have an impact on accumulating lipid for microalgae, ABA, JA and SA were used to induce two Chl...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - January 11, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research