Biosynthesis of glycolipid MPIase (membrane protein integrase) is independent of the genes for ECA (enterobacterial common antigen).
In this study, we found that knockouts as to the respective genes for ECA biosynthesis can grow in the minimum medium with the normal expression level of MPIase, indicating that MPIase can be biosynthesized de novo without the utilization of any compounds generated through ECA biosynthesis. Conversely, ECA was expressed normally upon MPIase depletion. From these results, we conclude that the biosynthetic genes for MPIase and ECA are independent. PMID: 31511443 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - September 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Identification and analysis of a principal sigma factor interacting protein SinA, essential for growth at high temperatures in a cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.
In this study, we identified a candidate of the principal sigma factor interacting protein in cyanobacteria, named SinA, based on a previous comprehensive protein interaction study (Sato et al., 2007) and analyzed this in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. SinA is highly conserved among cyanobacteria and a knock out mutant showed defective growth at a usually permissive high temperature (40°C). Because this observation suggested SinA involvement in heat-inducible transcriptional activation, we examined heat-inducible protein gene hspA expression after temperature upshifts. The second-step induction di...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - September 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Tetrad analysis of sake yeast and identification of an RFLP marker for the absence of phenolic off-flavour production.
Authors: Ogata T, Ayuzawa R, Yamada R Abstract Mating is a promising breeding method for industrial yeast. Although sake yeast has a low spore-formation ability, segregants exhibiting a mating type have been isolated from sake yeast K7. Here, we constructed zygotes from a cross between those segregants and a laboratory yeast strain. Because most sake and brewing yeast strains are prototrophs, we developed a PCR-based method to confirm that mating had taken place based on genome sequencing data and differences in nucleotide sequences between the two parental strains. The mated strain, termed S. cerevisiae MITOY123, ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - September 10, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Induction of mutation in Monascus purpureus isolated from Thai fermented food to develop low citrinin-producing strain for application in the red koji industry.
In this study, Monascus purpureus KUPM5 isolated from the Thai fermented food, sufu, was mutagenized to reduce its citrinin production using UV irradiation, NTG treatment, and a combination of UV and NTG. Screening of the mutants using plate bioassay based on the inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis enables the selection of 10 mutants. The mutant strains KS301U and KS302U showed an 80% reduction in citrinin production in red koji compared with the wild type (wt), and maintained the ability to produce red pigments similar to the wild type. Activities of enzymes, α-amylase, protease, and lipase, from red koji ex...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - August 31, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 using a broad host-range pBBR1-based plasmid.
Authors: Suzuki Y, Kouzuma A, Watanabe K Abstract Here, we developed an all-in-one, broad host-range CRISPR/Cas9 vector system widely applicable to genome editing of proteobacteria. Plasmid pBBR1-Cas9 was constructed by cloning the cas9 gene from Streptococcus pyogenes into the broad host-range plasmid pBBR1MCS-2. We evaluated its applicability for frameshift mutagenesis of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Significant cell death was observed when MR-1 cells were transformed with a pBBR1-Cas9 derivative that expressed a single-guide RNA targeting the crp gene. However, cell death was partially prevented when a donor DNA ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - August 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Anticancer and antifungal efficiencies of purified chitinase produced from Trichoderma viride under submerged fermentation.
Authors: Abu-Tahon MA, Isaac GS Abstract Trichoderma viride AUMC 13021 isolated from Mangrove soil of Ras Mohammed protected area at Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, was optimized to enhance chitinase activity under submerged fermentation. The maximum enzyme yield (38.33 U/mg protein) was obtained at 1.4% of colloidal chitin, 96 h of incubation, 35°C, pH 6.5 and 125, rpm and using maltose (1%) and yeast extract (1%) as supplementation of salt basal medium. The enzyme has been purified with an overall yield of 73.1% and 5.48 purification fold, and a specific activity of 210.16 U/mg protein. The molecular mass of the puri...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - August 24, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Genome sequencing, purification, and biochemical characterization of a strongly fibrinolytic enzyme from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Jxnuwx-1 isolated from Chinese traditional douchi.
Authors: Yang H, Yang L, Li X, Li H, Tu Z, Wang X Abstract A strongly fibrinolytic enzyme was purified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Jxnuwx-1, found in Chinese traditional fermented black soya bean (douchi). The molecular mass of the enzyme, estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), was 29 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature for the enzyme were 7.6 and 41°C, respectively. The enzyme was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, soybean trypsin inhibitor, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Fe3+, and Fe2+. The highest affinity exhibited by the enzyme was towards N-Succin...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - August 17, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Endophytic actinomycetes associated with Cinnamomum cassia Presl in Hoa Binh province, Vietnam: Distribution, antimicrobial activity and, genetic features.
Authors: Vu THN, Nguyen QH, Dinh TML, Quach NT, Khieu TN, Hoang H, Son CK, Vu TT, Chu HH, Lee J, Kang H, Li WJ, Phi QT Abstract Endophytic microbes associated with medicinal plants are considered to be potential producers of various bioactive secondary metabolites. The present study investigated the distribution, antimicrobial activity and genetic features of endophytic actinomycetes isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum cassia Presl collected in Hoa Binh province of northern Vietnam. Based on phenotypic characteristics, 111 actinomycetes were isolated from roots, stems and leaves of the host plants by using...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - August 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Kinetic studies on the expression of alginate and extracellular proteins by Pseudomonas aeruginosa FRD1 and PAO1.
Authors: El-Helow ER, Atalla RG, Sabra WA, Lotfy WA Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is characterized by its capability to produce extracellular virulence proteins and to establish biofilm-based infections that do not respond easily to conventional treatments. However, the physiological conditions that decrease the fitness of such a persistent pathogen would assist the host to defend itself and reduce the infection prevalence. Therefore, developing treatments against P. aeruginosa requires a quantitative understanding of the relationship between bacterial growth kinetics and secretion of alginate and proteins, in ad...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - August 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization of the latex clearing protein of the poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and poly(trans-1,4-isoprene) degrading bacterium Nocardia nova SH22a.
In this study, we showed that LcpSH22a-contrary to other already characterized rubber cleaving enzymes-is responsible for the initial cleavage of both polyisoprene isomers. For this purpose, lcpSH22a was heterologously expressed in an Escherichia coli strain and purified with a functional His6- or Strep-tag. Applying liquid chromatography electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-ToF-MS) and a spectrophotometric pyridine hemochrome assay, heme b was identified as a cofactor. Furthermore, heme-associated iron was identified using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis and inhibition tests...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - July 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Enzymatic characteristics of Nudix hydrolase 2 (Nud2), an 8-oxo-dGTP hydrolase from Myxococcus xanthus.
Authors: Kimura Y, Kajimoto S, Yamamoto Y, Tanaka N Abstract Myxococcus xanthus Nudix hydrolase 2 (Nud2) hydrolyzed oxidized deoxynucleotides, such as 8-oxo-dGTP, 8-oxo-dGDP, 8-OH-dTP, and 2-OH-dATP, and showed the highest specific activity toward 8-oxo-dGTP. Mn2+ was the most effective co-factor for stimulating oxidized deoxynucleotide hydrolase activity. The Km of Nud2 with 8-oxo-dGTP for Mn2+ was 19-fold lower than that for Mg2+, and was 2-fold lower than that with dGTP for Mn2+. The specificity constant (kcat/Km) for 8-oxo-dGTP was 6-fold higher than that for dGTP. Nud2 contains a similar Nudix motif (84AX590GX...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - July 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Elucidation of prazosin biodegradation by isolated Bacillus spp. from the tropical environment.
Authors: Mohd Mohsi NF, Apandi A, Megat Mohd Noor MJ, Md Akhir FN, Sugiura N, Utsumi M, Othman N, Zakaria Z, Hara H Abstract Prazosin (PRZ), a drug used to treat hypertensive patients, is an emergent contaminant in water systems. PRZ is an alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker used to treat anxiety, and is believed to reach the environment through human excretion, irresponsible disposal of unused medicine, and waste products from manufacturing plants. The purpose of this research was to isolate and characterize potential microbes for PRZ biodegradation and to identify the degradation pathway. After screening, isolated ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - July 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Free flavins accelerate release of ferrous iron from iron storage proteins by both free flavin-dependent and -independent ferric reductases in Escherichia coli.
Authors: Satoh J, Kimata S, Nakamoto S, Ishii T, Tanaka E, Yumoto S, Takeda K, Yoshimura E, Kanesaki Y, Ishige T, Tanaka K, Abe A, Kawasaki S, Niimura Y Abstract Ferredoxin NADP+ oxidoreductase (Fpr) and oxygen-insensitive NAD(P)H nitroreductase (NfnB) are purified from Escherichia coli JM109 (E. coli JM109) as a predominant free flavin-independent ferric reductase. In the present study, we prepared natural iron storage proteins, E. coli ferritin A (FtnA) and bacterioferritin (Bfr), to show the effective ferrous iron release from these proteins by Fpr and NfnB in the presence of free flavins. Fpr and NfnB showed fl...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - July 11, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Isolation, characterization and the effect of indigenous heavy metal-resistant plant growth-promoting bacteria on sorghum grown in acid mine drainage polluted soils.
Authors: Wu Z, Kong Z, Lu S, Huang C, Huang S, He Y, Wu L Abstract The research purpose was the characterization of indigenous heavy metal-resistant plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) from the farmlands located on the Le'an River basin contaminated by acid mine drainage and their effects on plant growth, nutrient uptake, antioxidant enzyme activities and metal accumulation. The plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits, including 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indoleacetic acid, siderophore, ammonia production and phosphate solubilization, as well as antibiotics, acid/alkali and salt resistance were...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

An efficient shortened genetic transformation strategy for filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei.
Authors: Wu C, Chen Y, Huang X, Sun S, Luo J, Lu Z, Wang W, Ma Y Abstract The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is one of the most important fungi for the production of cellulases and xylanases, which can be used for biofuel production from lignocellulose. We aimed to develop an effective selection marker system for more extensive functional genomic studies in the fungus T. reesei, and to construct better industrial transformants for producing cellulases. Here, we present a novel effective G418 selection marker to use a codon-optimized neomycin phosphotransferase II gene nptII to transform T. reesei. We develop...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Suppression of the pathogenicity of Candida albicans by the quorum-sensing molecules farnesol and tryptophol.
This study examines the ability of the quorum-sensing molecules (QSMs) farnesol and tryptophol to induce programmed cell death of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans, to alter the expression of apoptosis-related genes, and to reduce the pathogenicity and virulence of C. albicans in Galleria mellonella. Our results showed that both farnesol and tryptophol inhibited C. albicans germ tube formation. In the QSM-treated group, the expression levels of the apoptosis genes increased, whereas the expression level of the anti-apoptosis gene decreased. Further, pretreatment of C. albicans with tryptophol or farnesol prior to G. m...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Growth promotion in Corynebacterium glutamicum by overexpression of the NCgl2986 gene encoding a protein homologous to peptidoglycan amidases.
Authors: Utami MF, Matsuda Y, Takada A, Iwai N, Hirasawa T, Wachi M Abstract We previously reported the extracellular production of antibody fragment Fab by Corynebacterium glutamicum. In the course of searching for genes which improve the secretion efficiency of Fab, we coincidentally found that the final growth increased significantly when the NCgl2986 gene encoding an amidase-like protein was overexpressed. This effect was observed when cells were grown on the production medium MMTG, which contains high concentrations of glucose and neutralizing agent CaCO3, but not on MMTG without CaCO3 or Lennox medium. Not on...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 22, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Optimization of RK2-based gene introduction system for Bacillus subtilis.
Authors: Yokoi T, Itaya M, Mori H, Kataoka M Abstract The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis plays important roles in both industrial applications and basic research. However, transformation of competent B. subtilis cells is more difficult to achieve compared with that of Escherichia coli. It has been reported that the conjugative broad host range plasmid RK2 can be transferred to various organisms, including B. subtilis. Nevertheless, the protocol for conjugation from E. coli to B. subtilis has not been properly established. Thus, we optimized interspecies conjugation from E. coli to B. subtilis using the R...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 8, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Purification, characterization and anticancer efficiency of L-glutaminase from Aspergillus flavus.
Authors: Abu-Tahon MA, Isaac GS Abstract The aim of this study was to purify L-glutaminase from Aspergillus flavus. The enzyme was purified 12.47-fold from a cell-free extract with a final specific activity of 613.3 U/mg and the yield was 51.11%. The molecular weight of the enzyme, as determined by SDS-PAGE, was found to be 69 kDa. The maximal activity of L-glutaminase was recorded at pH 8 and 40°C. The highest activity was reported towards its natural substrate, L-glutamine, with an apparent Km value of 4.5 mmol and Vmax was 20 Uml-1. The enzyme was activated by Na+ and Co+2, while it was strongly inhibited by...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 29, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Formation of sporangiospores in Dictyobacter aurantiacus (class Ktedonobacteria in phylum Chloroflexi).
Authors: Yabe S, Wang CM, Zheng Y, Sakai Y, Abe K, Yokota A Abstract Currently, actinomycetes and myxobacteria are the only bacteria believed to form sporangia. Here, we describe a sporangium-forming process identified in Dictyobacter aurantiacus strain S27T belonging to the class Ktedonobacteria in the phylum Chloroflexi. Microscopic observations showed that strain S27T forms a substrate mycelium and subsequently produces globose or subglobose terminal sporangia arising from the vegetative mycelia through short stalk cells. This morphogenetic differentiation is similar to that seen in members of Actinoplanes belon...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 63, 63-113 (2017) doi 10.2323/jgam.2017.01.007.
Authors: PMID: 31092750 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 18, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Isolation of a novel Co2+-resistant bacterium and the application of its siderophore in Co2+ recovery from an aqueous solution.
Authors: Shinozaki Y, Kitamoto H, Sameshima-Yamashita Y, Kinoshita A, Nakajima-Kambe T Abstract Siderophores are considered to have a good potential as decontamination agents owing to their metal-chelating abilities. In order to confirm whether siderophores can be used in the recovery of metal ions, a siderophore (or metallophore) exhibiting Co2+-chelating activity was screened to demonstrate its ability to recover Co2+ from an aqueous solution. A siderophore-producing bacterium, Pandoraea sp. HCo-4B, was identified from a screen of Co2+-resistant bacteria grown in an aerobic enrichment culture with a Co2+-suppleme...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - April 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Diversity of salt-tolerant tellurate-reducing bacteria in a marine environment.
Authors: Horiike T, Otsuka O, Tanaka Y, Terahara T, Imada C, Yamashita M Abstract Tellurium (Te) has been increasingly used as a semiconductor material in copious amounts, with a concomitant increase in its discharge from industrial effluents and mining wastewater into the environment. However, soluble Te, such as tellurate (VI) and tellurite (IV), is toxic to organisms. Thus, highly efficient technologies need to be developed for a double-benefit detoxification and recovery of soluble Te from industrial and mining wastewater. Since industrial wastewater contains high concentrations of salt, salt-tolerant microorga...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - April 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Effect of introducing disulfide bridges in C-terminal structure on the thermostability of xylanase XynZF-2 from Aspergillus niger.
In this study, a mutant xylanase of high thermostability was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. The homologous 3D structure of xylanase was successfully modeled and the mutation sites were predicted using bioinformatics software. Two amino acids of XynZF-2 were respectively substituted by cysteines (T205C and A52C) and a disulfide bridge was introduced into the C-terminal of XynZF-2. The mutant gene xynZFTA was cloned into pPIC9K and expressed in P. pastoris. The optimum temperature of the variant XynZFTA was improved from 45°C to 60°C, and XynZFTA retained greater than 90.0% activity (XynZF-2 retained only 50....
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Generation of hydrogen sulfide from sulfur assimilation in Escherichia coli.
Authors: Tanaka N, Hatano T, Saito S, Wakabayashi Y, Abe T, Kawano Y, Ohtsu I Abstract Many organisms produce endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a by-product of protein, peptide, or L-cysteine degradation. Recent reports concerning mammalian cells have demonstrated that H2S acts as a signaling molecule playing important roles in various biological processes. In contrast to mammals, bacterial H2S signaling remains unclear. In this work, we demonstrate that Escherichia coli generates H2S through the assimilation of inorganic sulfur, without L-cysteine degradation. Comparison of phenotypes and genomes between labora...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Ecological impact assessment of a bioaugmentation site on remediation of chlorinated ethylenes by multi-omics analysis.
In this study, we have assessed the ecological impact of bioaugmentation using metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches to remove trichlorinated ethylene/cis-dichloroethylene (TCE/cDCE) by Rhodococcus jostii strain RHA1 as an aerobic chemical compound degrader. Metagenomic analysis showed that the number of organisms belonging to the genus Rhodococcus, including strain RHA1, increased from 0.1% to 76.6% of the total microbial community on day 0 at the injection site. Subsequently, the populations of strain RHA1 and other TCE/cDCE-degrading bacteria gradually decreased over time, whereas the populations of the anaerobi...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Both Svp26 and Mnn6 are required for the efficient ER exit of Mnn4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Authors: Noda Y, Arai S, Wada I, Yoda K Abstract Incorporation of membrane and secretory proteins into COPII vesicles are facilitated either by the direct interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins, or by ER exit adaptor proteins which mediate the interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins. Svp26 is one of the ER exit adaptor proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ER exit of several type II membrane proteins have been reported to be facilitated by Svp26. We demonstrate here that the efficient incorporation of Mnn4, a type II membrane protein required for mannosyl phosphate trans...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro antiviral activity of spirotetronate compounds against dengue virus serotype 2.
Authors: Euanorasetr J, Intra B, Thunmrongsiri N, Limthongkul J, Ubol S, Anuegoonpipat A, Kurosu T, Ikuta K, Nihira T, Panbangred W Abstract Spirotetronate compounds are polyketide secondary metabolites with diverse biological functions, such as antibacterial, antitumor and antiviral activities. Three pure spirotetronate compounds (2EPS-A, -B, -C) isolated from Actinomadura strain 2EPS showed inhibitory activity against dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). 2EPS-A, -B and -C demonstrated the LC50 values of 11.6, 27.5 and 12.0 μg/ml, respectively, in a test of cytotoxicity to Vero cells. The least cytotoxic, 2EPS-B, ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Isolation and molecular identification for autochthonous starter Saccharomyces cerevisiae with low biogenic amine synthesis for black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) wine fermentation.
Authors: Song NE, Lee CM, Baik SH Abstract Biogenic amines (BAs) are widely present in nearly all fermented foods and beverages, and excess consumption can cause adverse health effects. To prepare BA-free Korean black raspberry wine (BRW), four autochthonous starter yeast strains without hazardous BA synthesis activity were selected and their physiological and biochemical properties were examined. The selected strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on 26S rDNA sequencing and microsatellite analysis. Molecular fingerprinting revealed that isolates were quite different from commercial wine yeast S....
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - February 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Response surface optimization of conditions for culturing Azotobacter chroococcum in Agaricus bisporus industrial wastewater.
Authors: Huang JF, Zhang DF, Leng B, Lin ZC, Pan YT Abstract In the present study, the conditions for Azotobacter chroococcum fermentation using Agaricus bisporus wastewater as the culture medium were optimized. We analyzed the total number of living A. chroococcum in the fermentation broth, using multispectral imaging flow cytometry. Single-factor experiments were carried out, where a Plackett-Burman design was used to screen out three factors from the original six processing factors wastewater solubility, initial pH, inoculum size, liquid volume, culture temperature, and rotation speed that affected the total num...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - February 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Localization of the reb operon expression is inconsistent with that of the R-body production in the stem nodules formed by Azorhizobium caulinodans mutants having a deletion of praR.
Authors: Matsuoka JI, Ishizuna F, Ogawa T, Hidaka M, Siarot L, Aono T Abstract Azorhizobium caulinodans, a kind of rhizobia, has a reb operon encoding pathogenic R-body components, whose expression is usually repressed by a transcription factor PraR. Mutation on praR induced a high expression of reb operon and the formation of aberrant nodules, in which both morphologically normal and shrunken host cells were observed. Histochemical GUS analyses of praR mutant expressing reb operon-uidA fusion revealed that the bacterial cells within the normal host cells highly expressed the reb operon, but rarely produced R-bodie...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - February 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of hexahydro-1,3-5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) with a microbial sensor.
Authors: Eberly JO, Mayo ML, Carr MR, Crocker FH, Indest KJ Abstract Explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) are common contaminants found in soil and groundwater at military facilities worldwide, but large-scale monitoring of these contaminants at low concentrations is difficult. Biosensors that incorporate aptamers μ with high affinity and specificity for a target are a novel way of detecting these compounds. This work describes novel riboswitch-based biosensors for detecting RDX. The performance of the RDX riboswitch was characterized in Escherichia coli using a range of RDX concentra...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - February 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Svp26 facilitates ER exit of mannosyltransferases Mnt2 and Mnt3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Authors: Tanabe Y, Arai S, Wada I, Adachi H, Kamakura T, Yoda K, Noda Y Abstract After being translocated into the ER lumen, membrane and secretory proteins are transported from the ER to the early Golgi by COPII vesicles. Incorporation of these cargo proteins into COPII vesicles are facilitated either by direct interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins or by ER exit adaptor proteins which mediate the interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins. Svp26 is one of the ER exit adaptor proteins in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ER exit of several type II membrane proteins have been reported to b...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - February 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Enhancement of lactate fraction in poly(lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesized by Escherichia coli harboring the D-lactate dehydrogenase gene from Lactobacillus acetotolerans HT.
Authors: Goto S, Suzuki N, Matsumoto K, Taguchi S, Tanaka K, Matsusaki H Abstract For enhancing the lactate (LA) fraction of poly(lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate)s [P(LA-co-3HB)s], an exogenous D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhD) was introduced into Escherichia coli. Recombinant strains of E. coli DH5α, LS5218, and XL1-Blue harboring the ldhD gene from Lactobacillus acetotolerans HT, together with polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-biosynthetic genes containing a lactate-polymerizing enzyme (modified PHA synthase) gene, accumulated the P(LA-co-3HB) copolymer from glucose under microaerobic conditions (100 strokes/min). ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - February 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Combination of heterotrophic nitrifying bacterium and duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) enhances ammonium nitrogen removal efficiency in aquaculture water via mutual growth promotion.
Authors: Shen M, Yin Z, Xia D, Zhao Q, Kang Y Abstract We created a combined system using duckweed and bacteria to enhance the efficiency of ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) and total nitrogen (TN) removal from aquaculture wastewater. Heterotrophic nitrifying bacterium was isolated from a sediment sample at an intensive land-based aquaculture farm. It was identified as Acinetobacter sp. strain A6 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence (accession number MF767879). The NH4+-N removal efficiency of the strain and duckweed in culture media and sampled aquaculture wastewater at 15°C was over 99% without any accumulation of nitri...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - January 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Whole gene transcriptomic analysis of PCB/biphenyl degrading Rhodococcus jostii RHA1.
This study gives the first picture of whole RNA-Sequencing analysis of a PCB-degrading microbe, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. Genes that were highly expressed in biphenyl-grown cells, compared with pyruvate-grown cells, were chosen based on the Reads Per Kilobase Million (RPKM) value and were summarized based on the criteria of RPKM ≥100 and fold change ≥2.0. Consequently, 266 total genes were identified as genes expressed particularly for the degradation of biphenyl. After comparison with previous microarray data that identified highly-expressed genes, based on a fold change ≥2.0 and p-value ≤0.05, 62 highly-expres...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - January 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Isolation, purification and characterization of an extracellular L-asparaginase produced by a newly isolated Bacillus megaterium strain MG1 from the water bodies of Moraghat forest, Jalpaiguri, India.
Authors: Pal Roy M, Das V, Patra A Abstract An extracellular L-asparaginase was isolated and purified from Bacillus megaterium MG1 to apparent homogeneity. The purification procedure involved a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration techniques, resulting in a purification factor of 31.52 fold with a specific activity of 215 U mg-1. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was approximately 47 kDa on SDS-PAGE and 185 kDa on native PAGE gel as well as in gel filtration column chromatography, revealing that the enzyme was a homotetramer. The Km and Vmax values o...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - December 22, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed the improved β-carotene production in Sporidiobolus pararoseus yellow mutant MuY9.
In this study, we characterized an over-producing β-carotene mutant of Sporidiobolus pararoseus, obtained by ultraviolet mutagenesis, named MuY9. We compared the transcriptome between the wild-type and MuY9. A total of 348 differential expressed genes (DEGs) were found, and only one DEG crtYB is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. The overproduction of β-carotene in MuY9 should be attributed to the up-regulation of crtYB. Functional identification of crtYB was performed using heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli. Our findings indicate that the enzymatic conversions of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - December 15, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

An alternative genome-integrated method for undomesticated Bacillus subtilis and related species.
This study validates the possibility of the application of Bacillus-replicative vector as well as the developed protocol in a variety of genome modification of undomesticated Bacillus species. PMID: 30487367 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - December 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Salt stress increases carotenoid production of Sporidiobolus pararoseus NGR via torulene biosynthetic pathway.
Authors: Li C, Li B, Zhang N, Wei N, Wang Q, Wang W, Xie Y, Zou H Abstract Carotenoids represent a diverse class of aliphatic C40 molecules with a variety of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Sporidiobolus pararoseus NGR produces various carotenoids, including torulene, torularhodin and β-carotene. Salt stress significantly increases the torulene accumulation of S. pararoseus NGR. However, little is known, about the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased torulene biosynthesis. In this work, we investigated the effects of NaCl treatment on the contents of carotenoids (both qualitati...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - December 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Screening for Lipomyces strains with high ability to accumulate lipids from renewable resources.
In this study, we aimed to use this yeast to produce lipids from renewable resources. Using plate culture and micrograph methods, strains with a high lipid-accumulation ability were screened from 15,408 types of systems combining renewable resources, strains, and culture temperatures. The lipid-accumulation ability of the strains was estimated from the fat globule volume, which was calculated using a micrograph. The reliability of this method was examined, and strains with a high lipid-accumulation ability were identified for each renewable resource. Seventy-seven Lipomyces strains (7 deposit, 68 wild-type, 2 mutants) with...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - November 24, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Host selectively contributes to shaping intestinal microbiota of carnivorous and omnivorous fish.
This study demonstrates that in fish the host species imparts substantial impact in shaping the community structure of the intestinal microbiota. PMID: 30416165 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Co-culture development and bioformulation efficacy of psychrotrophic PGPRs to promote growth and development of Pea (Pisum sativum) plant.
Authors: Anwar MS, Paliwal A, Firdous N, Verma A, Kumar A, Pande V Abstract Numerous microbes reside in the rhizosphere having plant growth promoting activity, and enhancing the property by increasing plant yield. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has gradually increased in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. Soil was collected from the rhizosphere of an agricultural farm and the psychrotrophic bacterial strains STA3 (KY888133) and RM2 (KY888134) were successfully isolated, and screened on the basis of phosphate solubilization. Further char...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - November 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

The neutral N-linked glycans of the Basidiomycetous yeasts Pseudozyma antarctica and Malassezia furfur (Subphylum Ustilaginomycotina).
This report is the first to analyze the neutral N-linked glycans of P. antarctica and M. furfur. PMID: 30305477 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - October 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Function of alkyl hydroperoxidase AhpD in resistance to oxidative stress in Corynebacterium glutamicum.
Authors: Su T, Si M, Zhao Y, Yao S, Che C, Liu Y, Chen C Abstract Alkyl hydroperoxidase reductase AhpD, which is functionally equivalent to the bacterial flavin-containing disulfide reductase AhpF, acts as a proton donor for the organic peroxide-scavenging alkyl hydroperoxidase AhpC. Although AhpD has long been demonstrated in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, its physiological and biochemical functions remain largely unknown in other actinobacteria, including Corynebacterium glutamicum, Streptomyces, Mycobacterium smegmatis. Here, we report that C. glutamicum AhpD contributed to regenerate a variety of thiol-dependent p...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - September 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Biotic and abiotic substrates for enhancing Acinetobacter baumannii biofilm formation: New approach using extracellular matrix and slanted coverslip technique.
Authors: Ramalingam K, Lee V Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii has been well recognized as a problematic human pathogen and several reports has shown the incidence of multidrug and pandrug-resistant A. baumannii strains in infirmary infections. A. baumannii grows only on an air-liquid interface and does not form a contiguous biofilm. Extracellular matrices (ECM) and slanted glass coverslips are (SGC) used as biofilm substrates and biofilms have been investigated by SEM, confocal and crystal violet staining. ECM has shown enhanced biofilm formation under dynamic conditions rather than static conditions. SGC biofilm y...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - September 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Extracellular DNA enhances the formation and stability of symplasmata in Pantoea agglomerans YS19.
Authors: Zheng J, Xia Y, Liu Q, He X, Yu J, Feng Y Abstract Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is an important polymeric substance that plays essential roles in cell aggregation and nutrient provision for the sessile bacteria. eDNA in bacterial biofilms was extensively studied. Here we found that eDNA also exists in symplasmata, a bacterial cell aggregate, which is different to a biofilm, in the rice enophyte Pantoea agglomerans YS19. We found that exogenous eDNA enhanced the formation and stability of symplasmata significantly, and that, exogenous eDNA also improved the stress resistance and colonization ability of the bact...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - September 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Culturable fungal diversity and cellulase production by mixed culture Aspergillus fungi from Sanya mangrove.
Authors: Zeng S, Ling J, Ahmad M, Lin L, Zhang Y, Wang C, Dong J Abstract Fungi are the most suitable cellulase producers attributing to its ability to produce a complete cellulase system. 33 Genus, 175 Species fungi were isolated from Sanya mangrove, Hainan, China. Using congo red cellulose (CMC) medium, five fungi of cellulose-degrading were selected for further study. Molecular biology and morphological identification showed that all of these five fungi belong to Aspergillus fungi. The cellulase produced by these fungi were monitored during liquid state fermentation. The optimum conditions study for enzyme produ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - August 31, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Activated sludge microbial communities of a chemical plant wastewater treatment facility with high-strength bromide ions and aromatic substances.
Authors: Zhao YJ, Sato Y, Inaba T, Aoyagi T, Hori T, Habe H Abstract The prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities of activated sludge in a chemical plant wastewater treatment facility, processing relatively oligotrophic wastewater containing aromatic compounds and high-strength bromide ions, were characterized by high-throughput sequencing of rRNA genes based on DNA and RNA extracts. The microbial community structure was distinct from those previously reported from domestic wastewater treatment plants. Several abundant OTUs in the RNA-based prokaryotic community were related to aromatic compound-degrading b...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - August 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparative microbial communities in tidal flats sediment on Incheon, South Korea.
Authors: Choi HJ, Jeong TY, Yoon H, Oh BY, Han YS, Hur MJ, Kang S, Kim JG Abstract Coastal ecosystems, play critical ecological roles of which tidal flats are a significant component of coastal wetlands, such as habitat and nutrient cycling in aquatic biology. Microbial communities in tidal flats are known to play vital roles of self-purification. And the microbial ecology of the sediment is easily affected by human activities and pollution. In this paper, we applied pyrosequencing technology to investigate microbial communities in three different tidal flats (Ganghwa Island, Ongnyeon land region and Yeongjong Isla...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - July 25, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research