Diversity of salt-tolerant tellurate-reducing bacteria in a marine environment.
Authors: Horiike T, Otsuka O, Tanaka Y, Terahara T, Imada C, Yamashita M Abstract Tellurium (Te) has been increasingly used as a semiconductor material in copious amounts, with a concomitant increase in its discharge from industrial effluents and mining wastewater into the environment. However, soluble Te, such as tellurate (VI) and tellurite (IV), is toxic to organisms. Thus, highly efficient technologies need to be developed for a double-benefit detoxification and recovery of soluble Te from industrial and mining wastewater. Since industrial wastewater contains high concentrations of salt, salt-tolerant microorga...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - April 3, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Effect of introducing disulfide bridges in C-terminal structure on the thermostability of xylanase XynZF-2 from Aspergillus niger.
In this study, a mutant xylanase of high thermostability was obtained by site-directed mutagenesis. The homologous 3D structure of xylanase was successfully modeled and the mutation sites were predicted using bioinformatics software. Two amino acids of XynZF-2 were respectively substituted by cysteines (T205C and A52C) and a disulfide bridge was introduced into the C-terminal of XynZF-2. The mutant gene xynZFTA was cloned into pPIC9K and expressed in P. pastoris. The optimum temperature of the variant XynZFTA was improved from 45°C to 60°C, and XynZFTA retained greater than 90.0% activity (XynZF-2 retained only 50....
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 26, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Generation of hydrogen sulfide from sulfur assimilation in Escherichia coli.
Authors: Tanaka N, Hatano T, Saito S, Wakabayashi Y, Abe T, Kawano Y, Ohtsu I Abstract Many organisms produce endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a by-product of protein, peptide, or L-cysteine degradation. Recent reports concerning mammalian cells have demonstrated that H2S acts as a signaling molecule playing important roles in various biological processes. In contrast to mammals, bacterial H2S signaling remains unclear. In this work, we demonstrate that Escherichia coli generates H2S through the assimilation of inorganic sulfur, without L-cysteine degradation. Comparison of phenotypes and genomes between labora...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Ecological impact assessment of a bioaugmentation site on remediation of chlorinated ethylenes by multi-omics analysis.
In this study, we have assessed the ecological impact of bioaugmentation using metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches to remove trichlorinated ethylene/cis-dichloroethylene (TCE/cDCE) by Rhodococcus jostii strain RHA1 as an aerobic chemical compound degrader. Metagenomic analysis showed that the number of organisms belonging to the genus Rhodococcus, including strain RHA1, increased from 0.1% to 76.6% of the total microbial community on day 0 at the injection site. Subsequently, the populations of strain RHA1 and other TCE/cDCE-degrading bacteria gradually decreased over time, whereas the populations of the anaerobi...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 13, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Both Svp26 and Mnn6 are required for the efficient ER exit of Mnn4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Authors: Noda Y, Arai S, Wada I, Yoda K Abstract Incorporation of membrane and secretory proteins into COPII vesicles are facilitated either by the direct interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins, or by ER exit adaptor proteins which mediate the interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins. Svp26 is one of the ER exit adaptor proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ER exit of several type II membrane proteins have been reported to be facilitated by Svp26. We demonstrate here that the efficient incorporation of Mnn4, a type II membrane protein required for mannosyl phosphate trans...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 9, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

In vitro antiviral activity of spirotetronate compounds against dengue virus serotype 2.
Authors: Euanorasetr J, Intra B, Thunmrongsiri N, Limthongkul J, Ubol S, Anuegoonpipat A, Kurosu T, Ikuta K, Nihira T, Panbangred W Abstract Spirotetronate compounds are polyketide secondary metabolites with diverse biological functions, such as antibacterial, antitumor and antiviral activities. Three pure spirotetronate compounds (2EPS-A, -B, -C) isolated from Actinomadura strain 2EPS showed inhibitory activity against dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). 2EPS-A, -B and -C demonstrated the LC50 values of 11.6, 27.5 and 12.0 μg/ml, respectively, in a test of cytotoxicity to Vero cells. The least cytotoxic, 2EPS-B, ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - March 4, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Isolation and molecular identification for autochthonous starter Saccharomyces cerevisiae with low biogenic amine synthesis for black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) wine fermentation.
Authors: Song NE, Lee CM, Baik SH Abstract Biogenic amines (BAs) are widely present in nearly all fermented foods and beverages, and excess consumption can cause adverse health effects. To prepare BA-free Korean black raspberry wine (BRW), four autochthonous starter yeast strains without hazardous BA synthesis activity were selected and their physiological and biochemical properties were examined. The selected strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on 26S rDNA sequencing and microsatellite analysis. Molecular fingerprinting revealed that isolates were quite different from commercial wine yeast S....
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - February 20, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Response surface optimization of conditions for culturing Azotobacter chroococcum in Agaricus bisporus industrial wastewater.
Authors: Huang JF, Zhang DF, Leng B, Lin ZC, Pan YT Abstract In the present study, the conditions for Azotobacter chroococcum fermentation using Agaricus bisporus wastewater as the culture medium were optimized. We analyzed the total number of living A. chroococcum in the fermentation broth, using multispectral imaging flow cytometry. Single-factor experiments were carried out, where a Plackett-Burman design was used to screen out three factors from the original six processing factors wastewater solubility, initial pH, inoculum size, liquid volume, culture temperature, and rotation speed that affected the total num...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - February 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Localization of the reb operon expression is inconsistent with that of the R-body production in the stem nodules formed by Azorhizobium caulinodans mutants having a deletion of praR.
Authors: Matsuoka JI, Ishizuna F, Ogawa T, Hidaka M, Siarot L, Aono T Abstract Azorhizobium caulinodans, a kind of rhizobia, has a reb operon encoding pathogenic R-body components, whose expression is usually repressed by a transcription factor PraR. Mutation on praR induced a high expression of reb operon and the formation of aberrant nodules, in which both morphologically normal and shrunken host cells were observed. Histochemical GUS analyses of praR mutant expressing reb operon-uidA fusion revealed that the bacterial cells within the normal host cells highly expressed the reb operon, but rarely produced R-bodie...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - February 7, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of hexahydro-1,3-5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) with a microbial sensor.
Authors: Eberly JO, Mayo ML, Carr MR, Crocker FH, Indest KJ Abstract Explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) are common contaminants found in soil and groundwater at military facilities worldwide, but large-scale monitoring of these contaminants at low concentrations is difficult. Biosensors that incorporate aptamers μ with high affinity and specificity for a target are a novel way of detecting these compounds. This work describes novel riboswitch-based biosensors for detecting RDX. The performance of the RDX riboswitch was characterized in Escherichia coli using a range of RDX concentra...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - February 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Svp26 facilitates ER exit of mannosyltransferases Mnt2 and Mnt3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Authors: Tanabe Y, Arai S, Wada I, Adachi H, Kamakura T, Yoda K, Noda Y Abstract After being translocated into the ER lumen, membrane and secretory proteins are transported from the ER to the early Golgi by COPII vesicles. Incorporation of these cargo proteins into COPII vesicles are facilitated either by direct interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins or by ER exit adaptor proteins which mediate the interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins. Svp26 is one of the ER exit adaptor proteins in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ER exit of several type II membrane proteins have been reported to b...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - February 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Enhancement of lactate fraction in poly(lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesized by Escherichia coli harboring the D-lactate dehydrogenase gene from Lactobacillus acetotolerans HT.
Authors: Goto S, Suzuki N, Matsumoto K, Taguchi S, Tanaka K, Matsusaki H Abstract For enhancing the lactate (LA) fraction of poly(lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate)s [P(LA-co-3HB)s], an exogenous D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhD) was introduced into Escherichia coli. Recombinant strains of E. coli DH5α, LS5218, and XL1-Blue harboring the ldhD gene from Lactobacillus acetotolerans HT, together with polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-biosynthetic genes containing a lactate-polymerizing enzyme (modified PHA synthase) gene, accumulated the P(LA-co-3HB) copolymer from glucose under microaerobic conditions (100 strokes/min). ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - February 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Combination of heterotrophic nitrifying bacterium and duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) enhances ammonium nitrogen removal efficiency in aquaculture water via mutual growth promotion.
Authors: Shen M, Yin Z, Xia D, Zhao Q, Kang Y Abstract We created a combined system using duckweed and bacteria to enhance the efficiency of ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) and total nitrogen (TN) removal from aquaculture wastewater. Heterotrophic nitrifying bacterium was isolated from a sediment sample at an intensive land-based aquaculture farm. It was identified as Acinetobacter sp. strain A6 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence (accession number MF767879). The NH4+-N removal efficiency of the strain and duckweed in culture media and sampled aquaculture wastewater at 15°C was over 99% without any accumulation of nitri...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - January 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Whole gene transcriptomic analysis of PCB/biphenyl degrading Rhodococcus jostii RHA1.
This study gives the first picture of whole RNA-Sequencing analysis of a PCB-degrading microbe, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. Genes that were highly expressed in biphenyl-grown cells, compared with pyruvate-grown cells, were chosen based on the Reads Per Kilobase Million (RPKM) value and were summarized based on the criteria of RPKM ≥100 and fold change ≥2.0. Consequently, 266 total genes were identified as genes expressed particularly for the degradation of biphenyl. After comparison with previous microarray data that identified highly-expressed genes, based on a fold change ≥2.0 and p-value ≤0.05, 62 highly-expres...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - January 30, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Isolation, purification and characterization of an extracellular L-asparaginase produced by a newly isolated Bacillus megaterium strain MG1 from the water bodies of Moraghat forest, Jalpaiguri, India.
Authors: Pal Roy M, Das V, Patra A Abstract An extracellular L-asparaginase was isolated and purified from Bacillus megaterium MG1 to apparent homogeneity. The purification procedure involved a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration techniques, resulting in a purification factor of 31.52 fold with a specific activity of 215 U mg-1. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was approximately 47 kDa on SDS-PAGE and 185 kDa on native PAGE gel as well as in gel filtration column chromatography, revealing that the enzyme was a homotetramer. The Km and Vmax values o...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - December 22, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed the improved β-carotene production in Sporidiobolus pararoseus yellow mutant MuY9.
In this study, we characterized an over-producing β-carotene mutant of Sporidiobolus pararoseus, obtained by ultraviolet mutagenesis, named MuY9. We compared the transcriptome between the wild-type and MuY9. A total of 348 differential expressed genes (DEGs) were found, and only one DEG crtYB is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. The overproduction of β-carotene in MuY9 should be attributed to the up-regulation of crtYB. Functional identification of crtYB was performed using heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli. Our findings indicate that the enzymatic conversions of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - December 15, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

An alternative genome-integrated method for undomesticated Bacillus subtilis and related species.
This study validates the possibility of the application of Bacillus-replicative vector as well as the developed protocol in a variety of genome modification of undomesticated Bacillus species. PMID: 30487367 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - December 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Salt stress increases carotenoid production of Sporidiobolus pararoseus NGR via torulene biosynthetic pathway.
Authors: Li C, Li B, Zhang N, Wei N, Wang Q, Wang W, Xie Y, Zou H Abstract Carotenoids represent a diverse class of aliphatic C40 molecules with a variety of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Sporidiobolus pararoseus NGR produces various carotenoids, including torulene, torularhodin and β-carotene. Salt stress significantly increases the torulene accumulation of S. pararoseus NGR. However, little is known, about the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased torulene biosynthesis. In this work, we investigated the effects of NaCl treatment on the contents of carotenoids (both qualitati...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - December 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Screening for Lipomyces strains with high ability to accumulate lipids from renewable resources.
In this study, we aimed to use this yeast to produce lipids from renewable resources. Using plate culture and micrograph methods, strains with a high lipid-accumulation ability were screened from 15,408 types of systems combining renewable resources, strains, and culture temperatures. The lipid-accumulation ability of the strains was estimated from the fat globule volume, which was calculated using a micrograph. The reliability of this method was examined, and strains with a high lipid-accumulation ability were identified for each renewable resource. Seventy-seven Lipomyces strains (7 deposit, 68 wild-type, 2 mutants) with...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - November 24, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Host selectively contributes to shaping intestinal microbiota of carnivorous and omnivorous fish.
This study demonstrates that in fish the host species imparts substantial impact in shaping the community structure of the intestinal microbiota. PMID: 30416165 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - November 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Co-culture development and bioformulation efficacy of psychrotrophic PGPRs to promote growth and development of Pea (Pisum sativum) plant.
Authors: Anwar MS, Paliwal A, Firdous N, Verma A, Kumar A, Pande V Abstract Numerous microbes reside in the rhizosphere having plant growth promoting activity, and enhancing the property by increasing plant yield. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has gradually increased in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. Soil was collected from the rhizosphere of an agricultural farm and the psychrotrophic bacterial strains STA3 (KY888133) and RM2 (KY888134) were successfully isolated, and screened on the basis of phosphate solubilization. Further char...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - November 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

The neutral N-linked glycans of the Basidiomycetous yeasts Pseudozyma antarctica and Malassezia furfur (Subphylum Ustilaginomycotina).
This report is the first to analyze the neutral N-linked glycans of P. antarctica and M. furfur. PMID: 30305477 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - October 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Function of alkyl hydroperoxidase AhpD in resistance to oxidative stress in Corynebacterium glutamicum.
Authors: Su T, Si M, Zhao Y, Yao S, Che C, Liu Y, Chen C Abstract Alkyl hydroperoxidase reductase AhpD, which is functionally equivalent to the bacterial flavin-containing disulfide reductase AhpF, acts as a proton donor for the organic peroxide-scavenging alkyl hydroperoxidase AhpC. Although AhpD has long been demonstrated in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, its physiological and biochemical functions remain largely unknown in other actinobacteria, including Corynebacterium glutamicum, Streptomyces, Mycobacterium smegmatis. Here, we report that C. glutamicum AhpD contributed to regenerate a variety of thiol-dependent p...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - September 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Biotic and abiotic substrates for enhancing Acinetobacter baumannii biofilm formation: New approach using extracellular matrix and slanted coverslip technique.
Authors: Ramalingam K, Lee V Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii has been well recognized as a problematic human pathogen and several reports has shown the incidence of multidrug and pandrug-resistant A. baumannii strains in infirmary infections. A. baumannii grows only on an air-liquid interface and does not form a contiguous biofilm. Extracellular matrices (ECM) and slanted glass coverslips are (SGC) used as biofilm substrates and biofilms have been investigated by SEM, confocal and crystal violet staining. ECM has shown enhanced biofilm formation under dynamic conditions rather than static conditions. SGC biofilm y...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - September 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Extracellular DNA enhances the formation and stability of symplasmata in Pantoea agglomerans YS19.
Authors: Zheng J, Xia Y, Liu Q, He X, Yu J, Feng Y Abstract Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is an important polymeric substance that plays essential roles in cell aggregation and nutrient provision for the sessile bacteria. eDNA in bacterial biofilms was extensively studied. Here we found that eDNA also exists in symplasmata, a bacterial cell aggregate, which is different to a biofilm, in the rice enophyte Pantoea agglomerans YS19. We found that exogenous eDNA enhanced the formation and stability of symplasmata significantly, and that, exogenous eDNA also improved the stress resistance and colonization ability of the bact...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - September 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Culturable fungal diversity and cellulase production by mixed culture Aspergillus fungi from Sanya mangrove.
Authors: Zeng S, Ling J, Ahmad M, Lin L, Zhang Y, Wang C, Dong J Abstract Fungi are the most suitable cellulase producers attributing to its ability to produce a complete cellulase system. 33 Genus, 175 Species fungi were isolated from Sanya mangrove, Hainan, China. Using congo red cellulose (CMC) medium, five fungi of cellulose-degrading were selected for further study. Molecular biology and morphological identification showed that all of these five fungi belong to Aspergillus fungi. The cellulase produced by these fungi were monitored during liquid state fermentation. The optimum conditions study for enzyme produ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - August 31, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Activated sludge microbial communities of a chemical plant wastewater treatment facility with high-strength bromide ions and aromatic substances.
Authors: Zhao YJ, Sato Y, Inaba T, Aoyagi T, Hori T, Habe H Abstract The prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities of activated sludge in a chemical plant wastewater treatment facility, processing relatively oligotrophic wastewater containing aromatic compounds and high-strength bromide ions, were characterized by high-throughput sequencing of rRNA genes based on DNA and RNA extracts. The microbial community structure was distinct from those previously reported from domestic wastewater treatment plants. Several abundant OTUs in the RNA-based prokaryotic community were related to aromatic compound-degrading b...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - August 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparative microbial communities in tidal flats sediment on Incheon, South Korea.
Authors: Choi HJ, Jeong TY, Yoon H, Oh BY, Han YS, Hur MJ, Kang S, Kim JG Abstract Coastal ecosystems, play critical ecological roles of which tidal flats are a significant component of coastal wetlands, such as habitat and nutrient cycling in aquatic biology. Microbial communities in tidal flats are known to play vital roles of self-purification. And the microbial ecology of the sediment is easily affected by human activities and pollution. In this paper, we applied pyrosequencing technology to investigate microbial communities in three different tidal flats (Ganghwa Island, Ongnyeon land region and Yeongjong Isla...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - July 25, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Enzymatic and molecular characterization of α-1,3-glucanase (AglST2) from Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF3-3 and its relation with α-1,3-glucanase HF65 (AglST1).
Enzymatic and molecular characterization of α-1,3-glucanase (AglST2) from Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF3-3 and its relation with α-1,3-glucanase HF65 (AglST1). J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2018 Jul 17;: Authors: Cherdvorapong V, Fujiki H, Suyotha W, Takeda Y, Yano S, Takagi K, Wakayama M Abstract Extracellular α-1,3-glucanase HF90 (AglST2), with a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE-estimated molecular mass of approximately 91 kDa, was homogenously purified from the culture filtrate of Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF3-3. AglST2 showed a high homology with mycodextranase in an amino acid ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - July 18, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Physiological properties and genetic analysis related to exopolysaccharide (EPS) production in the fresh-water unicellular cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum (Suizenji Nori).
Authors: Ohki K, Kanesaki Y, Suzuki N, Okajima M, Kaneko T, Yoshikawa S Abstract The clonal strains, phycoerythrin(PE)-rich- and PE-poor strains, of the unicellular, fresh water cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum (Suringar) Okada (Suizenji Nori, in Japanese) were isolated from traditional open-air aquafarms in Japan. A. sacrum appeared to be oligotrophic on the basis of its growth characteristics. The optimum temperature for growth was around 20°C. Maximum growth and biomass increase at 20°C was obtained under light intensities between 40 to 80 μmol m-2 s-1 (fluorescent lamps, 12 h light/12 h dark cycles)...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - July 14, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

RNase E/G-dependent degradation of metE mRNA, encoding methionine synthase, in Corynebacterium glutamicum.
In this study, we found that the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase MetE was overexpressed in ΔrneG mutant cells grown on various carbon sources. The level of metE mRNA was also approximately 6- to 10-fold higher in the ΔrneG mutant strain than in the wild-type strain. A rifampicin chase experiment showed that the half-life of metE mRNA was approximately 4.2 times longer in the ΔrneG mutant than in the wild-type strain. These results showed that RNase E/G is involved in the degradation of metE mRNA in C. glutamicum. PMID: 29984738 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - July 11, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Thermo and halo tolerant laccase from Bacillus sp. SS4: Evaluation for its industrial usefulness.
Authors: Singh G, Singh S, Kaur K, Kumar Arya S, Sharma P Abstract Laccases are unable to oxidize the non-phenolic components of complex lignin polymer due to their less redox potential (E0). Catalytic efficiency of laccases relies on the mediators that potentiates their oxidative strength; for breaking the recalcitrant lignin. Laccase from Bacillus sp. SS4 was evaluated for its compatibility with natural and synthetic mediators. (2 mM). It was found that acetosyringone, vanillin, orcinol and veratraldehyde have no adverse effect on the laccase activity up to 3 h. Syringaldehyde, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and h...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 30, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

A new method for determining the mycelial weight of the koji-mold Aspergillus oryzae by measuring its glycosylceramide content.
Authors: Ferdouse J, Miyagawa M, Hirano M, Kitajima Y, Inaba S, Kitagaki H Abstract At present, the quantitation of the mycelial weight of the industrially important non-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus oryzae, which is used for manufacturing koji, is performed by quantitating N-acetylglucosamine. However, since N-acetylglucosamine is a cell wall component, the extraction procedure is costly and tedious, and its quantitative performance is poor. Here, we report a novel method for the quantitation of A. oryzae mycelial weight. The amount of glycosylceramide significantly correlated with both the mycelial weight of A. o...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 23, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Lability in sulfur acidic cultivation medium explains unstable effects of CDK inhibitors on Cyanidioschyzon merolae cell proliferation.
Authors: Kobayashi Y, Tanaka K Abstract We previously showed that nuclear DNA replication (NDR) is regulated by a checkpoint monitoring the occurrence of organelle DNA replication (ODR) in a unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae. These analyses depended on the use of chemical CDK inhibitors such as CDK2 inhibitor II and roscovitine, but subsequent analyses yielded conflicting results depending on the experimental conditions. In the present study, we identified significantly short half-lives of the used chemicals in the sulfur acidic cultivation medium, which reconciles the discrepancy among these results. ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 15, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Dipeptide synthesis by internal adenylation domains of a multidomain enzyme involved in nonribosomal peptide synthesis.
Authors: Abe T, Kobayashi K, Kawamura S, Sakaguchi T, Shiiba K, Kobayashi M Abstract The adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) is responsible for its selective substrate recognition and activation of the substrate (yielding an acyl-O-AMP intermediate) on ATP consumption. DhbF is an NRPS involved in bacillibactin synthesis and consists of multiple domains [adenylation domain, condensation domain, peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domain, and thioesterase domain]; DhbFA1 and DhbFA2 (here named) are "internal" adenylation domains in the multidomain enzyme DhbF. We firstly succeeded in exp...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 15, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli isolates from tropical environments in Southeast Asia.
Authors: Hara H, Yusaimi YA, Zulkeflle SNM, Sugiura N, Iwamoto K, Goto M, Utsumi M, Othman NB, Zakaria Z Abstract The emergence of antibiotic resistance among multidrug-resistant (MDR) microbes is of growing concern, and threatens public health globally. A total of 129 Escherichia coli isolates were recovered from lowland aqueous environments near hospitals and medical service centers in the vicinity of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Among the eleven antibacterial agents tested, the isolates were highly resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (83.7%) and nalidixic acid (71.3%) and moderately resistant to ampicillin and...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 8, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization and overexpression of a glycosyl hydrolase family 16 β-agarase Aga0917 from Pseudoalteromonas fuliginea YTW1-15-1.
Characterization and overexpression of a glycosyl hydrolase family 16 β-agarase Aga0917 from Pseudoalteromonas fuliginea YTW1-15-1. J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2018 May 30;: Authors: Wang Y, Liu T, Guo S, Zhang P, Sun P, Chen M, Ming H Abstract A gene (aga0917) encoding a putative β-agarase was identified from the genome of Pseudoalteromonas fuliginea YTW1-15-1. The nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that aga0917 had significant homology to the agarase genes of the GH16 family. aga0917 encodes a putative protein of 290 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 32.5 kDa, including a 21-amin...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Susceptibility of bacteria isolated from dental unit waterlines to disinfecting chemical agents.
Authors: Yoon HY, Lee SY Abstract Susceptibility testing of bacteria to disinfecting chemical agents isolated from dental unit waterlines (DUWL) is necessary for the development of effective disinfectant products. However, until now, susceptibility tests for chemical agents, which are components of DUWL disinfectant products, have not been conducted on bacteria isolated from DUWL water. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the susceptibilities of DUWL isolates in planktonic and biofilm states to cetylpyridinium chloride, as well as to the four chemical agents currently used for DUWL management. A total...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - June 1, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

5-Methylmellein is a novel inhibitor of fungal sirtuin and modulates fungal secondary metabolite production.
Authors: Shigemoto R, Matsumoto T, Masuo S, Takaya N Abstract Sirtuin is an NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase that is highly conserved among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Sirtuin deacetylates histones and non-histone proteins, and it is involved in fungal growth and secondary metabolite production. Here, we screened 579 fungal culture extracts that inhibited the histone deacetylase activity of Sirtuin A (SirA), produced by the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Eight fungal strains containing three Ascomycota, two Basidiomycota and three Deuteromycetes produced SirA inhibitors. We purified the SirA inhibitor from the cult...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 31, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Construction of a β-galactosidase-gene-based fusion is convenient for screening candidate genes involved in regulation of pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis in Pseudomonas chlororaphis G05.
Construction of a β-galactosidase-gene-based fusion is convenient for screening candidate genes involved in regulation of pyrrolnitrin biosynthesis in Pseudomonas chlororaphis G05. J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2018 May 28;: Authors: Luo W, Miao J, Feng Z, Lu R, Sun X, Zhang B, Ding W, Lu Y, Wang Y, Chi X, Ge Y Abstract In our recent work, we found that pyrrolnitrin, and not phenazines, pyrrolnitrin contributed to the suppression of the mycelia growth of Fusarium graminearum that causes heavy Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in cereal crops. However, pyrrolnitrin production of Pseudomonas chlororaphis G...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 31, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Identification of novel potential acetate-oxidizing bacteria in an acetate-fed methanogenic chemostat based on DNA stable isotope probing.
In this study, we investigated the major phylogenetic groups of acetate-utilizing bacteria (AUB) in a mesophilic methanogenic chemostat fed with acetate as the sole carbon source by using DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) technology. The results indicated that acetoclastic methanogenesis and acetate oxidization/hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis coexisted in the mesophilic chemostat fed with acetate, operated at a dilution rate of 0.1 d-1. OTU Ace13(9-17) (KU869530), Ace13(9-4) (KU667241), and Ace13(9-23) (KU667236), assigned to the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were probably potential SAOB in the chemostat, which needs ...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Identification of Chlamydia pneumoniae candidate genes that interact with human apoptotic factor caspase-9.
This study could provide a clue to understanding host-Chlamydia interactions, especially the apoptosis repression by Chlamydia infection. PMID: 29760350 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 16, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Detection of active sorbitol-6-phosphate phosphatase in the haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolase superfamily.
Authors: Chin T, Ikeuchi M Abstract Sorbitol-6-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.50) catalyzes sorbitol production from sorbitol-6-phosphate in certain organisms, but has not been identified unequivocally. We screened the activity of the haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolases (HAD) superfamily and identified four HAD proteins from Escherichia coli as sorbitol-6-phosphatase. Of these proteins, HAD2 (YfbT) exhibited catalytic activity (kcat/Km) that was better than that of the previously reported "preferred" substrate. HAD1 (YniC) and HAD2 exhibited higher sorbitol-6-phosphatase activity than that of HAD12 (YbiV) and HA...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 12, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Deletion of uncharacterized domain from α-1,3-glucanase of Bacillus circulans KA-304 enhances heterologous enzyme production in Escherichia coli.
In this study, UCD deletion mutant (AglΔUCD) was constructed, and its properties were compared with those of Agl-KA. α-1,3-Glucan hydrolyzing, α-1,3-glucan binding, and protoplast-forming activities of AglΔUCD were almost the same as those of Agl-KA. kcat/Km values of AgΔUCD and Agl-KA were 11.4 and 11.1 s-1 mg-1 mL, respectively. AglΔUCD and Agl-KA exhibited similar characteristics, such as optimal pH, pH stability, optimal temperature, and thermostability. These results suggest that UCD is not α-1,3-glucan-binding and flexible linker domain, and that deletion of UCD does not affe...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 12, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Enzymatic and molecular characterization of an acidic and thermostable chitinase 1 from Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF 3-3.
In this study, Chi1 was purified from the bacterium Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF 3-3, and its properties were carefully characterized. The molecular mass of Chi1 was estimated to be approximately 46 kDa and, through sequencing, its N-terminal amino acid sequence was identified as ADSGKVKL. Although the optimal operating temperature and pH for Chi1 were determined to be 65°C and pH 5.5, respectively, the purified enzyme was stable over wide pH (1.5-9) and temperature ranges. Moreover, Chi1 retained 87% of its activity in the presence of 15% NaCl. While Chi1 activity was inhibited by Ag+ and Mn2+, other chemicals te...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization of mycosporine-like amino acids in the cyanobacterium Nostoc verrucosum.
In this study, water-soluble sunscreen pigments of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were characterized in N. verrucosum, and the mysABCD genes responsible for MAA biosynthesis in N. verrucosum and N. commune were compared. N. verrucosum produced porphyra-334 and shinorine, with porphyra-334 accounting for>90% of the total MAAs. Interestingly, porphyra-334 is an atypical cyanobacteial MAA, whereas shinorine is known as a common and dominant MAA in cyanobacteria. Porphyra-334 from N. verrucosum showed little or no radical scavenging activity in vitro, although the glycosylated derivatives of porphyra-334 from N. commun...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - May 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Enhanced delignification of lignocellulosic substrates by Pichia GS115 expressed recombinant laccase.
Authors: Kumar VP, Kolte AP, Dhali A, Naik C, Sridhar M Abstract Utilization of energy-rich crop residues by ruminants is restricted by the presence of lignin, which is recalcitrant to digestion. Application of lignin degrading enzymes on the lignocellulosic biomass exposes the cellulose for easy digestion by ruminants. Laccases have been found to be considerably effective in improving the digestibility by way of delignification. However, laccase yields from natural hosts are not sufficient for industrial scale applications, which restricts their use. A viable option would be to express the laccase gene in compatib...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - April 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

A high-throughput method for screening of L-tyrosine high-yield strains by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Authors: Mao J, Liu Q, Li Y, Yang J, Song X, Liu X, Xu H, Qiao M Abstract A biosensor screening assay based on the synthesis of betaxanthin was applied to relatively high throughput screening of the L-tyrosine mutant library. In the assays, fluorescence output showed a linear relationship between extracellular L-tyrosine content and yellow pigment formation. In addition, the yellow pigment accumulation of the L-tyrosine high-yield strain can be easily distinguished with the naked eye compared with the wild-type strain. As a result, numerous mutants that exhibited significantly increased coloration, were screened ou...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - April 28, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

A highly efficient targeted recombination system for engineering linear chromosomes of industrial bacteria Streptomyces.
Authors: Pan HY, Chen CW, Huang CH Abstract Soil bacteria Streptomyces are the most important producers of secondary metabolites, including most known antibiotics. These bacteria and their close relatives are unique in possessing linear chromosomes, which typically harbor 20 to 30 biosynthetic gene clusters of tens to hundreds of kb in length. Many Streptomyces chromosomes are accompanied by linear plasmids with sizes ranging from several to several hundred kb. The large linear plasmids also often contain biosynthetic gene clusters. We have developed a targeted recombination procedure for arm exchanges between a li...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - April 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Aciduricity and acid tolerance mechanisms of Streptococcus anginosus.
Authors: Sasaki M, Kodama Y, Shimoyama Y, Ishikawa T, Kimura S Abstract Although Streptococcus anginosus constitutes a proportion of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal and genital tracts, and the oral cavity, it has been reported that S. anginosus infection could be closely associated with abscesses at various body sites, infective endocarditis, and upper gastrointestinal cancers. The colonization in an acidic environment due to the aciduricity of S. anginosus could be the etiology of the systemic infection of the bacteria. To elucidate the aciduricity and acid tolerance mechanisms of the microbe, we examined...
Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology - April 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: J Gen Appl Microbiol Source Type: research