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Changes in Mental Health Providers ’ Recovery Attitudes and Strengths Model Implementation Following Training and Supervision
AbstractThe strengths model (SM) is a recovery-oriented model of mental health care. Historically, training alone has been insufficient to ensure implementation of SM skills in practice. The aim of the current study was to determine whether improvements in recovery attitudes and attendance at Strength-Based Group Supervision (SBGS) following training are associated with greater skill implementation in practice. Mental health providers (N = 76) were trained in SM interventions and surveyed immediately before and after training and at a 6-month follow-up on various recovery attitude measures and SBGS attendance...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - February 20, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Maladaptive Pursuit of Consumption: the Impact of Materialism, Pain of Paying, Social Anxiety, Social Support, and Loneliness on Compulsive Buying
AbstractThe current research examined the capability of materialism, pain of paying, social anxiety, social support, and loneliness to predict compulsive buying. A sample of students attending a public university located in the northeast USA were surveyed. A multiple regression indicated materialism, pain of paying, anhedonia, coping with substances, and social support received from family were predictors of compulsive buying. Pain of paying was the strongest predictor of compulsive buying. Understanding factors that affect compulsive buying aids the identification of compulsive buying and informs the treatment of compulsi...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - February 15, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Chinese Immigrant Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities: Stressors and Social Support
AbstractThis qualitative study examined Chinese immigrant mothers of children with developmental disabilities (DDs) about their experiences of stressors, social support, and traditional cultural beliefs in Canada. Fifteen mothers were recruited from Toronto through one community organization. One-on-one semi-structured in-depth interviews on mothers in Mandarin were used in private settings. A descriptive qualitative approach was applied (Sandelowski,Research in Nursing& Health,23, 334 –340,2000,Research Nursing Health,33(1), 77 –84,2010). Analyses were guided by House ’s (1981) classification of soci...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - February 15, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Alcohol Use in Context: a Psychosocial Investigation of Drinking Behaviors in a Diverse Community Sample in the United States
AbstractPersonality characteristics, psychopathology, and other individual factors (e.g., motivation) are strongly associated with problematic drinking, but the extent to which these predict drinking behavior in a naturalistic setting, or how social aspects contribute to drinking behaviors in a diverse sample, is less understood. We sought to identify psychosocial variables linked to problematic alcohol use and examined real-time alcohol-related decision making in a naturalistic setting in a 2-day study involving a structured clinical interview, self-report measures, and an ad-lib social drinking task (following a 15-min m...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - February 13, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Treatment Fears: Barriers to Young Psychotropic Substance Abusers Receiving Residential Drug Rehabilitation Treatment
This study examined the treatment fears about the residential drug treatment among 303 young male substance abusers from non-government treatment agencies in Hong Kong. Treatment fears including early treatment fears and anticipated discharge fears were assessed by an indigenous 35-item Early Treatment Fears Scale (ETF) and a 39-item Anticipated Discharge Fears Scale (ADF). Reliability analyses showed that both scales were internally consistent. Regarding dimensionality of the two scales, seven factors (maladaptation, social problems, criminal justice concerns, loss of autonomy, intimacy concern, family issues, and other f...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - February 5, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Survey on Drug Use Among People Living with HIV in Hong Kong
This study investigated the prevalence of drug use and the drug use behavior among people living with HIV in Hong Kong. In this cross-sectional survey, subjects were recruited by convenience sampling from the out-patient clinic of a HIV treatment center. A total of 500 subjects completed the questionnaire between January and May 2017. About one third (31.4%,n = 157) participants reported drug use behavior. Common substances used included methamphetamine (65%), rush poppers (59.2%), gamma-hydroxybutyrate (56.7%), ketamine (49%), ecstasy (45.9%), cannabis (34.4%), cocaine (18.5%), cough medicine (15.3%), and he...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - February 2, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Internet Gaming Disorder Behaviors in Emergent Adulthood: a Pilot Study Examining the Interplay Between Anxiety and Family Cohesion
AbstractUnderstanding risk and protective factors associated with Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been highlighted as a research priority by the American Psychiatric Association, (2013). The present study focused on the potential IGD risk effect of anxiety and the buffering role of family cohesion on this association. A sample of emerging adults all of whom were massively multiplayer online (MMO) gamers (18 –29 years) residing in Australia were assessed longitudinally (face-to-face:N = 61, Mage = 23.02 years, SD = 3.43) and cross-sectionally (online:N =&th...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 30, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Motivation Types and Mental Health of UK Hospitality Workers
AbstractThe primary purposes of this study were to (i) assess levels of different types of work motivation in a sample of UK hospitality workers and make a cross-cultural comparison with Chinese counterparts and (ii) identify how work motivation and shame-based attitudes towards mental health explain the variance in mental health problems in UK hospitality workers. One hundred three UK hospitality workers completed self-report measures, and correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify significant relationships. Findings demonstrate that internal and external motivation levels were higher in UK ve...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 30, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Role of Passion in Exercise Addiction, Exercise Volume, and Exercise Intensity in Long-term Exercisers
AbstractRecent studies have shown a relationship between the risk for exercise addiction (REA) and passion. This research examined whether levels of REA, volume of exercise (in weekly hours), and self-reported exercise intensities yield differences in obsessive passion and harmonious passion among individuals with long history of exercise. Respondents (n = 360) completed the Exercise Addiction Inventory, Passion Scale, and Borg Scale (assessing their usual exercise intensity), and reported their volume of exercise (hours per week). Regression analysis demonstrated that exercise intensity, obsessive passion, a...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 23, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Substance Abuse Among American Indians and Alaska Natives: An Integrative Cultural Framework for Advancing Research
AbstractResearch consistently highlights the high prevalence of substance-related psychopathology in the American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) population. Recent epidemiological literature suggests that these trends are not diminishing, despite decades of etiological work and prevention programs. The aim of this article was to examine the literature on risk and protective factors for substance-related psychopathology in the AIAN population from the perspective of Betancourt ’s integrative model of culture, psychological processes, and behavior (Betancourt et al.1993,2010,2011). This model specifies the structure of re...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 19, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Counselor and Drug Detox Inpatient Verbal Behaviors in a Single Session of Motivational Interviewing and Subsequent Substance Use-Related Patient Outcomes
AbstractEffects of counselor and client verbal behaviors, in a single motivational interviewing (MI) session during inpatient detoxification, were evaluated in relation to 17 study participants ’ self-reported drug use 3 months later. Also, counselor-to-client transitions in the single MI session were explored for 24 participants, using the Motivational Interviewing Sequential Code for Observing Process Exchanges (MI-SCOPE) coding instrument. Surprisingly, counselor neutral/double-sided reflections predicted lower levels of drug use (r  = − 0.42), higher treatment interest (r  =...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 18, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Discourses on Addiction among Gamblers and Drug Users in Treatment. An Analysis of the Interviews through Constrained Correspondence Analysis
AbstractIn this paper, a study on 40 semi-structured interviews with users of the Italian health services and self-help groups is presented to gain a deeper insight on how members describe, understand, and face their problems with substance or behavioral addiction. A simple correspondence analysis (CA) was applied to the transcripts of the interviews to detect the main dimensions of sense which organize the users ’ discourse about their problem and their request for help. In addition, constraint correspondence analysis (CCA) was applied to evaluate whether these dimensions are affected by the kind of help context the...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 17, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Adolescent Problem Video Gaming in Urban and Non-urban Regions
AbstractThe purpose of this paper is to explore the differences in adolescent problem video gaming in a large urban area (Toronto) compared to a non-urban region of Ontario (Northern Ontario). The results of this study showed that 76.6% of adolescents in the urban region and 80.3% of adolescents in the non-urban region played video games in the past year (n = 2175). Adolescents in the urban region were significantly more likely than adolescents in the non-urban region to experience problem video gaming (16.7 and 8.8%, respectively). Males and those reporting poorer mental health were more likely to experience...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 17, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Internet-Based Structural Characteristics of Sports Betting and Problem Gambling Severity: Is There a Relationship?
This study aims to explore the association between the use of new structural characteristics of online betting and gambling severity. Five characteristics are examined here: (i) live in-play betting; (ii) cash out feature use (as example of in-play betting in-built features); (iii) fantasy sports gaming; (iv) location of betting; and (v) device or platform used to make bets. A cohort (N = 659) of Spanish gamblers who had bet on sports during the previous year was recruited through an online survey. The results suggested that those bettors scoring higher on gambling problems also utilized more often such new s...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 16, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Role of Individual and Social Mediators in the Association Between Drug Consumption and Mental Health Among Adolescents in Barcelona
This study aims to analyze whether there is an association between poor mental health and high-risk cannabis and alcohol use in adolescents attending secondary schools in the city of Barcelona, and to analyze which individual and/or contextual variables mediate this association. Prevalence of risk of poor mental health, binge drinking, high-risk cannabis use, and comorbidity were stratified by sex. To analyze the association between poor mental health and high-risk cannabis and alcohol use, multilevel linear regression models were constructed, obtaining regression coefficients and confidence intervals at 95%. Poor mental h...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 16, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Misuse and Abuse of Ophthalmic Preparations: a Scoping Review of Clinical Case Presentations and Extant Literature
AbstractThe emergent trend of misuse and abuse of ophthalmic drugs is a public health concern. Common ophthalmic preparations contain anticholinergics, antihistamines, decongestants, anesthetics, and vasoconstrictive and topically applied nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Misuse and abuse relates to their effect in causing euphoria, relaxation, hallucination, and reduction of depression symptoms. A scoping review of literature was conducted using Arskey and O ’Malley (International Journal of Social Research Methodology 8(1):9–32,2005) framework for mapping extant literature on the current knowledge of the ...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 12, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Exercise Addiction: Preliminary Evidence on the Role of Psychological Inflexibility
The objective of this study was to look at the influence of psychological inflexibility on exercise addiction. Three hundred and ninety-eight recreational endurance exercisers (381 men and 17 women) aged between 18 and 60  years (M = 35.62,SD = 9.43) completed a self-reported questionnaire. A structural equation model was tested. After controlling for the effects of age (β = − .34,p 
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 12, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Social Media Addiction in Geopolitically At-Risk Youth
AbstractThe concept of an addictive process related to social media use, specifically for youth, has been explored in several venues including the attempt to identify factors of vulnerability in predicting excessive or maladaptive use of social media. While the focus has been on personal characteristics, there are also clear environmental stressors or situational variables that affect particular populations that might contribute to patterns of addictive social media use, such as limited social and recreational outlets, restricted movement, and access to in-person socialization with peers, as well as stress related to local...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 11, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Identifying Alcohol Problems and Selected Individual and Contextual Risk Factors Among Adults in South Africa: Findings from the International Alcohol Control Study
AbstractMany drinkers globally are at risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD). The study aimed to identify the extent of AUDs and associated individual and societal-level risk factors or vulnerabilities among adult drinkers in a country with high levels of heavy episodic drinking. A household survey was conducted in the Tshwane Metro, South Africa, using multistage stratified cluster random sampling. Complete data were available on 949 adult drinkers. Half (49%) reported symptoms of alcohol problems, as a proxy for AUDs, as measured using the RAPS4. Gender and age were not associated with symptoms of alcohol probl...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 9, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Effects of Personal Susceptibility and Social Support on Internet Addiction: an Application of Adler ’s Theory of Individual Psychology
In this study, 207 medical students completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Young ’s Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet addiction. Participants were recruited via simple random sampling technique. Personal susceptibility variables such as loneliness, academic stress due to other expectations, and academic stress due to self-expectations were significantly positively correlat ed to, and all domains of social support were significantly negatively correlated to, Internet addiction. After adjusting for demographic ...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 8, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Effects of Recovery High School Attendance on Students ’ Mental Health Symptoms
AbstractRecovery high schools are one form of continuing care support for adolescents with substance use or other co-occurring disorders. Using a controlled quasi-experimental design, we compared mental health symptom outcomes at 6  months for adolescents who attended recovery high schools vs. non-recovery high schools (e.g., traditional or alternative schools). The propensity score balanced sample included 194 adolescents (134 in recovery schools, 60 in non-recovery schools) enrolled in schools in MN, WI, or TX (average age  = 16; 86% White; 51% female). Baseline data indicated that this is a dually dia...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 8, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Facebook Addiction and Subjective Well-Being: a Study of the Mediating Role of Shyness and Loneliness
AbstractWithin the rise of social networking sites, Facebook has gained a huge amount of popularity and Facebook has been matched with an expanding body of research. Nevertheless, research examining the complex relationships between Facebook addiction and well-being is still insufficient. Previous studies have focused on the direct relationships between Facebook addiction, shyness, loneliness, and subjective well-being. However, no empirical study has dealt with the mediating effect of shyness and loneliness on the relationship between Facebook addiction and subjective well-being. Thus, the present study has examined wheth...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 3, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Prevalence of Primary and Secondary Exercise Dependence and Its Correlation with Drive for Thinness in Practitioners of Different Sports and Physical Activities
In this study, we measured the prevalence of EXD and its correlation with drive for thinness (DT) in four different categories of sports and exercise. Participants were 427 people engaging in endurance sports, esthetic sports, team sports, or fitness activities. The Exercise Dependence Scale was adopted to measure EXD; the Drive for Thinness scale was used to measure DT and to distinguish between primary and secondary EXD. Results suggested that none of the considered sport categories seems to be more at risk for EXD than the other ones. A correlation between EXD and DT was found in the fitness group, suggesting, together ...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 3, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Digital Traces of Behaviour Within Addiction: Response to Griffiths (2017)
AbstractGriffiths ’ (2017) response to the recent commentary piece by Ryding and Kaye (2017) on “Internet Addiction: A conceptual minefield” provided a useful critique and extension of some key issues. We take this opportunity to further build upon on one of these issues to provide some further insight into how the field of “internet addiction” (IA) or technological addictions more gen erally, may benefit from capitalising on behavioural data. As such, this response extends Griffiths’ (2007) points surrounding the efficacy of behavioural data previously used in studies on problematic gam...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - January 3, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Determinants of Anxiety and Depression Among University Students of Lahore
AbstractBenefits from an improved understanding of mental health of young adults, particularly students, affecting their academic performance are likely to be numerous. Thus, we aimed at evaluating anxiety and depression among annual and semester university students of Lahore, Pakistan. A cross-sectional study of 7  months duration was designed by enrolling a total of 404 students from two private and two public sector universities of Lahore. We found significant differences in frequency distribution with regard to age (p = 0.003), marital status (p = 0.01), living status (p =&thinsp...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - December 29, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Locus of Control and Trait Anxiety in Aged Adults: the Mediating Effect of Intolerance of Uncertainty
This study aimed to examine the mediating effect of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) on the relationship between locus of control and trait anxiety. Three hundred seventeen aged adults completed measures of IU, locus of control, and trait anxiety. Results demonstrated significant positive associations among all variables. SEM analysis was adopted to test the mediating effect. Bootstrap method was used to test the significance of the indirect effect. According to the results, both locus of control and IU can predicate trait anxiety significantly. Additionally, IU partially mediated the effect of locus of control on trait anx...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - December 29, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Engagement of Non-substance-Related Pleasant Activities Is Associated with Decreased Levels of Alcohol Consumption in University Students
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between activity engagement in terms of pleasant substance related and non-substance activities (SRA/non-SRA) and levels of alcohol consumption among university students. A study involving 286 students looked specifically at levels of alcohol consumption and non-SRA/SRA. Levels of alcohol consumption were strongly and positively correlated with SRA (r = 0.69), but also with non-SRA (r = 0.28). A finer-grained analysis showed that the relationship between positive SRA and level of alcohol consumption is weakened by the inclusion of non-S...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - December 27, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Correlation between Methadone Dosages among Pairs of Heroin Users in Romantic Relationships and among Pairs of Heroin Users Who Are Siblings
This study explores whether an individual ’s methadone dose is influenced by the level of another individual’s dose as a function of their relationship. Thirty-four subjects were recruited in this study; 16 subjects were in a partner relationship and 18 subjects were siblings. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the dose of one m ember of the dyad was a predictor of the dose of the other member of the dyad. Mean difference in dose was negatively associated with the correlation coefficient in sibling dyads but not partner dyads. Analysis of the dose curves showed that all partner dyads demonstrated a &ldq...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - December 27, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Sensitivity and Specificity of the SRQ-20 and the EPDS in Diagnosing Major Depression Ante- and Postnatally in a South African Birth Cohort Study
AbstractWe assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), against the major depression module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Data were utilised from antenatal (n = 296) and postnatal participants (n = 366) in the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS), a multidisciplinary birth cohort investigating the determinants of child health. Mothers were interviewed using the SRQ-20, the EPDS and the MINI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed in order to ...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - December 20, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Self-Injuring Behavior and Mental Illness in Opioid-Dependent Patients Treated with Implant Naltrexone, Methadone, and Buprenorphine in Western Australia
This study aims to compare rates of intentional self-harm (ISH) and other mental illness events in opioid-dependent patients treated implant naltrexone, with those treated with methadone or buprenorphine. Patients treated between 2001 and 2010 were linked with hospital, emergency (ED), outpatient mental health, and mortality records. Rates of health events were compared between the three groups using survival analysis and generalized estimating equations. Rates of suicide and ISH in patients treated with naltrexone were comparable to patients treated with methadone or buprenorphine. Rates of mental health and psychiatric h...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - December 20, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Comprehensive Women-Centered Treatment for Psychoactive Substance Use in the Republic of Georgia: Outcomes of a Randomized Clinical Trial
This study aimed to assess the impact of a culturally sensitive, comprehensive women-centered intervention on psychoactive substance use among women in the Republic of Georgia. Study participants included 128 women who had injected psychoactive substance(s) in the past 30  days and had enrolled in a randomized controlled trial that compared Reinforcement-Based Treatment and the Women’s CoOp (RBT+WC) to usual care (UC). RBT+WC provided a structured 12-session intervention designed to reduce HIV/HCV risk and psychoactive substance and alcohol use, and to improve men tal and physical health, whereas UC provided inf...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - December 18, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Health and Social Problems Associated with Recent Novel Psychoactive Substance (NPS) Use Amongst Marginalised, Nightlife and Online Users in Six European Countries
AbstractContinued diversification and use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) across Europe remains a public health challenge. The study describes health and social consequences of recent NPS use as reported in a survey of marginalised, nightlife and online NPS users in the Netherlands, Hungary, Portugal, Ireland, Germany and Poland (n = 3023). Some respondents were unable to categorise NPS they had used. Use of ‘herbal blends’ and ‘synthetic cannabinoids obtained pure’ was most reported in Germany, Poland and Hungary, and use of ‘branded stimulants’ and ‘stimulants/empa...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - December 7, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Experience and Meaning of Problematic ‘G’ (GHB/GBL) Use in an Irish Context: an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
This study supports the interactive role of community, self-identity, personal vulnerability and substance effects in the develop ment, maintenance and recovery from problematic G use. Findings are discussed in the context of gay community health, the role of chemsex in problematic substance use and the need for public health providers to engage with novel psychoactive substance use and the health and well-being effects of che msex. (Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction)
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - December 7, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Design and Methods of the New Zealand National Gambling Study, a Prospective Cohort Study of Gambling and Health: 2012 –2019
AbstractThis paper describes the design, sampling, recruitment, and data analysis of the prospective, nationally representative New Zealand National Gambling Study. Particular aspects of the study were critical for its success as a longitudinal epidemiologic study, making its methodology beneficial for replication in other jurisdictions. At baseline (2012), 6251 adults were interviewed and followed-up in 2013, 2014, and 2015. An additional cohort of 106 moderate-risk/problem gamblers interviewed at baseline (2014 –2015) and follow-up (2015–2016) increased the number of these groups in the study. Measures includ...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - December 6, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Internet Gaming Disorder Treatment: A Case Study Evaluation of Four Different Types of Adolescent Problematic Gamers
AbstractResearch examining Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has grown markedly in recent years. However, research on its psychological treatment is still scarce, especially with respect to efficacy of specific programs. The PIPATIC (Programa Individualizado Psicoterap éutico para la Adicción a las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación) program is a 22-session specialized treatment for adolescents with IGD. The present paper briefly outlines the cases of four treatment-seeking male adolescents aged between 13 and 18 years with different clinical IG D profiles undergoing the tr...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - December 5, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Negative Experiences of Non-Drinking College Students in Great Britain: an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
This study was designed to gain an in-depth understanding of the lived experiences of female, first year UK undergraduates, who do not drink alcohol. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight participants. Narratives were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA; by Smith and Osborn (Sage 51-80,2003). Three superordinate themes were identified: “managing the feeling that you don’t belong” highlights the importance of managing social interactions as a non-drinker; “experiencing social exclusion” recognises the impact on social bonding as a result of insufficient s...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - December 4, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Impact of Animal-Assisted Intervention on Staff in a Seniors Residential Care Facility
AbstractAs with any protocol involving both humans and animals, there were inherent risks with this research. These risks were minimized through the participant screening process which assessed for animal allergies and fears for particular animal species. Participants were selected for their interest in animals which reduced the risk for the participant to experience stress during the intervention. Interaction with animals poses a risk of zoonoses. Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted to humans from animals. To minimize this risk, all therapy animals were under veterinary care, were thoroughly groomed, and were re...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - December 4, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Beyond Reno: a Critical Commentary on Hancock and Smith
This article provides commentary on Hancock and Smith ’s examination of the Reno Model of responsible gambling (RG). Hancock and Smith (2017) contend that the model, intended to provide consumer protection and reduce gambling-related harm, serves as a major impediment to implementation of effective RG policies. This impediment is in large part attributed to the model ’s long domination of the ‘international RG policy landscape’ and its emphasis on individual responsibility and problem gamblers. Hancock and Smith also examine other barriers to the introduction of more effective policies. They propose...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - December 1, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Are Poker Players Aware of the Change in Their Poker Habits? Point of View of the Players and the PGSI
This study highlights how difficult it is for gamblers to be aware of the changes in their gambling and the importance to develop tools for responsible gambling. These tools would allow gamblers to become aware of their current gambling habits and their evolution. (Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction)
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - December 1, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Concurrent Tobacco Use and Binge Drinking Among University Students in 30 Countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean
AbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate concurrent tobacco use and binge drinking and the co-occurrence risks of each substance among university students in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. A cross-sectional survey of 24,753 university students, 58.6% women and 41.4% men, mean age of 20.8  years (SD = 2.6) from 30 countries, was conducted in 2013–2015. Five percent of the university students had engaged in concurrent tobacco use and binge drinking, 17.7% in binge drinking only, and 8.0% in current tobacco use only. Overall, among past month tobacco users, 32.1% were frequent...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - December 1, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Computer Gaming Disorder and ADHD in Young Children —a Population-Based Study
AbstractAs new mass media has become a common activity already in nursery school, this study aimed to analyze computer game playing, addiction, and ADHD in a representative population-based sample of young children. Parents filled out a standardized questionnaire including items for ADHD, media use, and computer gaming disorder. The response rate was 83.2% (N = 1271). The mean age was 5.8 years (SD 0.38). Boys play computer games more often and longer than girls. In consequence, boys were rated more often to be at risk or to have a computer gaming disorder than girls. Children with elevated ADHD scores s...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - November 30, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Replacing the Reno Model with a Robust Public Health Approach to “Responsible Gambling”: Hancock and Smith’s Response to Commentaries on Our Original Reno Model Critique
AbstractThis paper responds to commentaries from the Reno Model authors and other international researchers who reviewed our earlier paper in this volume. We take a considered view of the Reno Model and find it to be wanting as a responsible gambling (RG) tool because it fails to address the depth and diversity of harms so evident in today ’s gambling environment. We propose a new consumer protection paradigm that prioritizes operator duty of care, integrity of operations, and consumer protection, along with independent regulation and research. We discuss the rebuttal of our Reno critique by Shaffer et al. along with...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - November 29, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Comparison of Online Versus Offline Gambling Harm in Portuguese Pathological Gamblers: An Empirical Study
AbstractOver the past decade, gambling has become a very popular activity across Europe including the growth of Internet gambling. Portugal is one of the few European countries where little research has been carried out. Given the lack of studies, a Portuguese sample (N = 1,599) was surveyed concerning their online and offline gambling habits. More specifically, the aim of this study was to identify and compare from the total sample, online pathological gamblers (PGON) (n = 171) and offline pathological gamblers’ (PGOF) (n = 171) characteristics, and eventual risk factors for...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - November 29, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

An Exploratory Study of “Selfitis” and the Development of the Selfitis Behavior Scale
AbstractIn 2014, stories appeared in national and international media claiming that the condition of “selfitis” (the obsessive taking of selfies) was to be classed as a mental disorder by the American Psychiatric Association and that the condition could be borderline, acute, or chronic. However, the stories were a hoax but this did not stop empirical research being carried out into the concept. The present study empirically explored the concept and collected data on the existence of selfitis with respect to the three alleged levels (borderline, acute, and chronic) and developed the Selfitis Behavior Scale (SBS)...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - November 29, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Inspiration or Thinspiration: the Association Among Problematic Internet Use, Exercise Dependence, and Eating Disorder Risk
AbstractProblematic Internet use (PIU) has been associated with eating disorder (ED) risk factors and pathological patterns of exercise (e.g., exercise dependence (EXD)). Few studies have empirically examined the co-occurrence and relationship among PIU, EXD, and EDs simultaneously. Thus, the primary purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and co-occurrence of PIU, EXD, and ED in a population-based sample of women. The secondary purpose was to categorically examine the relationship of negative affect with PIU, EXD, and ED symptom scores while controlling for negative affect. A sample of 898 women (M age &thinsp...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - November 28, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Alcohol Text Messages: A Developmental Study
This study developed 30 SMS text messages about alcohol for fathers who drink at risky levels. The text messages were developed using two motivational styles: messages presented in a second person voice and the same messages presented in a child ’s voice. Fifty-one fathers were recruited through social media to complete an online survey rating the SMS text messages for message importance and likelihood of seeking further information and measuring risky alcohol use and psychosocial distress. Seventeen participants then participated in a se mi-structured qualitative interview. Fathers rated the text messages presented ...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - November 28, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Persistence in Crime in Young Adults with a History of Juvenile Delinquency: the Role of Mental Health and Psychosocial Problems
This study examined the role of mental health and psychosocial problems in criminal indicators among young adults with a history of juvenile delinquency. The protocol was administered in 2014/2015 to young adults with records of juvenile delinquency in 2010/2011, evaluating a set of mental health, psychosocial, and criminal indicators. The results showed that their current psychological distress and drug consumption are related to criminal indicators. Our findings suggest that mental health might play a major role in criminal behavior. Recommendations for the juvenile justice system and social welfare policies are provided...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - November 28, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Patient and Caregiver Perspectives on Ethical Issues in Mental Health Care: an Exploratory Study from India
This study aimed to ascertain the perspectives of patients and caregivers on ethical issues in mental health care. This vignette-based study included patients with psychiatric disorders and their caregivers. Patients were included if they were in clinical remission determined by psychiatric rating scales. Caregivers were included if they resided with the patient for the last 1  year. Both patients and caregivers were in the adult age group. The vignettes pertained to confidentiality and coercive care and elicited a yes or no type of responses. Ten short vignettes were presented to the patient caregiver dyad. The types...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - November 28, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Educational Services for Youth with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Caregivers ’ Perspectives
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to identify services that caregivers of youth with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder believe would help youth with FASD succeed in school. Sixteen caregivers participated in telephone interviews that included the question: “What services would help youth be successful in school?” A concept mapping technique was employed, in which responses were grouped together by participants and the grouping data was analyzed using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. Six concepts emerged from the question about servic es, including the following: (1) being heard by educators, (2)...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - November 28, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Do Addictive Behaviors Matter for College Students ’ Depression and Suicidal Ideation?
This study examined (1) the association between depression and suicidal ideation using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and five selected items from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), and (2) the moderating roles of alcohol use and problem gambling using Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). We collected data from full-time students (n = 870) enrolled at 14 universities throughout South Korea using a self-reported paper-pencil survey conducted on college campuses. More than half of the total sample (52.3%,n = ...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - November 28, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research