Contents
Mark S. Myerson (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 26, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Arthroscopy and Endoscopy (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 26, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Index
Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 26, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

The Use of Ultrasound to Isolate the Gastrocnemius-Soleus Junction Prior to Gastrocnemius Recession
Gastrocnemius recession has become a popular procedure to release isolated gastrocnemius tightness. Using visual anatomic landmarks alone to plan the incision can be deceiving. The use of ultrasound preoperatively has been highly reproducible in isolating the gastrocnemius-soleus junction in the authors' practice. This provides confidence for incision placement, a smaller incision, and isolated release of the gastrocnemius fascia while leaving the underlying soleus undisturbed. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - October 7, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Eugene P. Toomey, Nicholas R. Seibert Source Type: research

In memoriam Pau Golanó (1965–2014)—Anatomist, Scientist, Artist, Teacher, and Friend
It was a Saturday in April 2004. At 4.00 am, at the Luz de Gas discotheque, we were celebrating our successful 2-day dissection course for my residents. We talked about life. “I will not get old,” he said. And he looked serious, “another 10 years.” Then, we laughed and took another beer. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - October 7, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: C. Niek van Dijk, Angel Calvo, Stefano Zaffagnini Tags: Dedication Source Type: research

Technique, Indications, and Results of Proximal Medial Gastrocnemius Lengthening
Gastrocnemius proximal lengthening was first performed to correct spasticity in children, and was adapted for the patient with no neuromuscular condition in the late 1990s. Since then, the proximal gastrocnemius release has become less invasive and has evolved to include only the fascia overlying the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. The indications for performing this procedure are a clinically demonstrable gastrocnemius contracture that influences a variety of clinical conditions in the forefoot, hindfoot, and ankle. It is a safe and easy procedure that can be performed bilaterally simultaneously, and does not req...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - October 4, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Pierre Barouk Source Type: research

Gastrocnemius Shortening and Heel Pain
Pain and reduced function caused by disorders of either the plantar fascia or the Achilles tendon are common. Although heel pain is not a major public health problem it affects millions of people each year. For most patients, time and first-line treatments allow symptoms to resolve. A proportion of patients have resistant symptoms. Managing these recalcitrant cases is a challenge. Gastrocnemius contracture produces increased strain in both the Achilles tendon and the plantar fascia. This biomechanical feature must be properly assessed otherwise treatment is compromised. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - October 2, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Matthew C. Solan, Andrew Carne, Mark S. Davies Source Type: research

The Effect of Gastrocnemius Tightness on the Pathogenesis of Juvenile Hallux Valgus
This article describes an oblique windlass mechanism that can be a causative or a contributory factor in the pathogenesis of juvenile hallux valgus. This article presents a study of 108 patients who underwent a proximal gastrocnemius release and hallux valgus correction using a scarf osteotomy. We believe that assessment of gastrocnemius tightness in juvenile hallux valgus is important and that gastrocnemius lengthening should be routinely considered as part of the operative strategy. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - October 1, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Louis Samuel Barouk Source Type: research

Introduction to Gastrocnemius Tightness
Looking for a retraction of the gastrocnemius should be an essential part of the foot and ankle examination for practitioners, not just surgeons. Even though the equinus has been recognized for 50 years as having an influence on the foot, only a few practitioners routinely search for it. The proportion of gastrocnemius tightness is high in the normal population, but it is significantly higher in populations that have foot and ankle problems. Why do we have short gastrocs? The evolution of the human race, especially walking at a certain pace and extending the knee, is probably one of the explanations. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - October 1, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Pierre Barouk Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Dedication
Recientemente, nuestro amigo y maestro Pau Golanó se nos fué para siempre y sin avisar. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - October 1, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Jordi Vega Source Type: research

Anatomy of the Triceps Surae
This article describes and discusses the general anatomy of the triceps surae and the surgical anatomy of the gastrocnemius. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Miquel Dalmau-Pastor, Betlem Fargues-Polo, Daniel Casanova-Martínez, Jordi Vega, Pau Golanó Source Type: research

Functional Hallux Rigidus and the Achilles-Calcaneus-Plantar System
Functional hallux rigidus is a clinical condition in which the mobility of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is normal under non-weight-bearing conditions, but its dorsiflexion is blocked when first metatarsal is made to support weight. In mechanical terms, functional hallux rigidus implies a pattern of interfacial contact through rolling, whereas in a normal joint contact by gliding is established. Patients with functional hallux rigidus should only be operated on if the pain or disability makes it necessary. Gastrocnemius release is a beneficial procedure in most patients. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 27, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Ernesto Maceira, Manuel Monteagudo Source Type: research

The Gastrocnemius
A silent gastrocnemius contracture can gradually do so much harm when left undetected and unattended. The calf is a common source of a majority of acquired, nontraumatic adult foot and ankle problems. When it comes to surgical lengthening procedures, whether at the Achilles, at the musculotendinous junction, or more proximal, the search must move on to find the safest, most accurate, and quickest recovery method possible. Addressing the calf contracture as definitive treatment and, better yet, as prevention will no doubt become a mainstay of the treatment of many foot and ankle problems. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 25, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: James Amis Source Type: research

Clinical Diagnosis of Gastrocnemius Tightness
The diagnosis of gastrocnemius tightness is primarily clinical using the Silfverskiold test, which shows an equinus deformity at the ankle with the knee extended but that disappears with the knee flexed. The manner in which the Silfverskiold test is performed must be consistent with respect to the applied strength of the maneuver, correction of a flexible hindfoot valgus deformity while performing the test, and reproducibility. Although this is a diagnosis based on the clinical examination, this article presents additional clinical signs that can help to make the diagnosis when the retraction is not clinically evident. The...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 25, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Pierre Barouk, Louis Samuel Barouk Source Type: research

The Effect of the Gastrocnemius on the Plantar Fascia
This article summarizes past and current literature linking these 2 structures and gives a mechanical explanation based on functional models of the relationship between gastrocnemius tightness and plantar fascia. The effect of gastrocnemius tightness on the sagittal behavior of the foot is also discussed. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 25, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Javier Pascual Huerta Source Type: research

Effects of Gastrocnemius Tightness on Forefoot During Gait
This article discusses these properties combining the major biomechanical topics of anatomy, dynamics, kinetics, and electromyography. This muscle is remarkable in that it has very low energy consumption and very high mechanical efficacy. In addition to the biomechanical features, the consequences of its tightness are discussed. The dysfunction also appears in all the biomechanical topics and clarifies the reasons of the location of symptoms in the midfoot and on the plantar aspect of the forefoot. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 20, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Cyrille Cazeau, Yves Stiglitz Source Type: research

Surgical Techniques of Gastrocnemius Lengthening
This article summarizes the various alternatives for direct gastrocnemius lengthening and elucidates the relative strengths and tradeoffs of each as a means of providing balanced perspective in selecting the appropriate procedure for any given patient. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 20, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Raymond Y. Hsu, Scott VanValkenburg, Altug Tanriover, Christopher W. DiGiovanni Source Type: research

Endoscopic Gastrocnemius Release
Endoscopic gastrocnemius release (EGR) is a recently developed procedure that is a reliable option for surgical management of ankle equinus contracture. Comfort with endoscopic equipment and surgical anatomy, especially the sural nerve, is of paramount importance for performing the procedure safely, effectively, and efficiently. The primary advantage of the procedure is improved cosmesis and decreased wound complications of the smaller surgical scars. The current body of literature of clinical outcomes for EGR consists of limited level IV case series with broad variations in study rigor, author training background, and the...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 18, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Joshua N. Tennant, Annunziato Amendola, Phinit Phisitkul Source Type: research

Index
Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type. Abductor hallucis (AbH) tendon transfer (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 19, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
The Gastrocnemius Mark S. Myerson, Editor (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 19, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contents
J. Chris Coetzee Justin Greisberg (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 19, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contributors
MARK S. MYERSON, MD Director, The Institute for Foot and Ankle Reconstruction, Mercy Medical Center, Mercy Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 19, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Nonunion of Fifth Metatarsal Fractures
Metatarsal fractures are those most frequently encountered in the foot. More than half of these are of the 5th metatarsal. The incidence is increasing, along with the activity levels of the general population. Fractures of the 5th metatarsal require careful evaluation and classification to ensure selection of the optimum treatment plan. Distal fractures rarely require fixation, even when displacement is wide. Cases of established nonunion or refracture require fixation. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 21, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Matthew Solan, Mark Davies Source Type: research

The Recurrent Morton Neuroma: What Now?
Interdigital neuromas are a common cause of forefoot pain, and approximately 80% of patients require surgical excision for symptom relief. Although 50% to 85% of patients obtain relief after primary excision, symptoms may recur because of an incorrect diagnosis, inadequate resection, or adherence of pressure on a nerve stump neuroma. The symptom relief rate after reoperation is similar to that after primary excision. A plantar longitudinal incision provides optimal exposure, and transposition of the nerve stump into bone or muscle and avoids traction or pressure on the nerve ending that can result in a painful stump neurom...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 21, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: David R. Richardson, Erin M. Dean Source Type: research

Recurrent Metatarsalgia
Recurrent metatarsalgia has a multifactorial etiology. The analysis of the cause is critical in planning appropriate treatment. Understanding etiology helps understand the mechanism of prevention, which is the best treatment. Recurrent metatarsalgia is often due to poor technique or poor understanding of the underlying problem. In hallux valgus surgery, recurrent metatarsalgia can be a problem of position of the first metatarsal after an inappropriate or poorly done first metatarsal osteotomy or a problem of gastrocnemius tightness not previously recognized. The best treatment is to restore the normal anatomy but that is n...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 21, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Pierre Barouk Source Type: research

The Treatment of Calcaneal Malunion
The surgical treatment of calcaneal malunion is technically very demanding and requires a careful assessment of the exact cause of the problem. A number of different surgeries are available depending on the precise cause of symptoms. The results are reasonable and justify surgery in an otherwise disabled group of patients. Calcaneal malunion surgery should not be performed by the occasional surgeon, as the price of error is usually amputation. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 14, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Roger M. Atkins Source Type: research

Recurrent Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
Recurrence of tarsal tunnel syndrome after surgery may be due to inadequate release, lack of understanding or appreciation of the actual anatomy involved, variations in the anatomy of the nerve(s), failure to execute the release properly, bleeding with subsequent scarring, damage to the nerve and branches, persistent hypersensitivity of the nerves, and preexisting intrinsic damage to the nerve. Approaches include more thorough release, use of barrier materials to decrease adherence of the nerve to surrounding tissues to avoid traction neuritis, excisions of neuromas using conduits, and consideration of nerve stimulators an...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 14, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: John S. Gould Source Type: research

Etiology and Management of Lesser Toe Metatarsophalangeal Joint Instability
The terms crossover toe and lesser metatarsophalangeal joint instability both describe a deterioration of the soft tissue structures that give stability to the lesser MTP joints. Initial treatment regimens focused on indirect repair of the instability without addressing the primary pathology. A staging system of the clinical examination and a grading system of the surgical findings are now available to help surgeons classify and treat the plantar plate insufficiency. Improved imaging techniques and direct surgical repair techniques through a dorsal approach have changed the treatment and possibly the results of this diffic...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 14, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Jesse F. Doty, Michael J. Coughlin, Lowell Weil, Caio Nery, From Saint Alphonsus Coughlin Foot and Ankle Clinic, Boise, Idaho, USA Source Type: research

Iatrogenic Hallux Varus Treatment Algorithm
Iatrogenic hallux varus is a relatively rare complication of corrective hallux valgus surgery that has multiple pathologic facets. It requires a comprehensive assessment that focuses on joint flexibility, joint integrity, soft tissue balance, and bony deformity. A step-wise treatment approach is used to address all elements of the deformity. The literature on hallux varus treatments consists mainly of retrospective case series, with several proposed procedures addressing various degrees of deformity. Comparison of these procedures is a challenging endeavor and each case should be considered on an individual basis. (Source:...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 14, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Matthew D. Crawford, Jaymin Patel, Eric Giza Source Type: research

Pain After Cheilectomy of the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint: Diagnosis and Management
This article outlines the potential causes of ongoing pain, including progression of osteoarthritis, neuralgic symptoms, and transfer metatarsalgia. Management strategies for treating the ongoing symptoms are discussed. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 14, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Matthew Tomlinson Source Type: research

Managing Complications of Foot and Ankle Surgery
This issue of Foot and Ankle Clinics of North America is dedicated to the management of complications in foot and ankle surgery. Complications are never easy to talk about, but it is an integral part of any surgeon’s practice. I am convinced that 90% of the mental energy spent in my practice is worrying about my own patients with complications and trying to figure out how best to deal with the problem at hand. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 14, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: J. Chris Coetzee Source Type: research

Osteomyelitis of the Foot and Ankle: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, and Treatment
Osteomyelitis of the foot and ankle is a common, potentially devastating condition with diagnostic and treatment challenges. Understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of osteomyelitis can raise clinical suspicion and guide testing and treatments. History and physical examination, laboratory studies, vascular studies, histologic and microbiologic analyses, and various imaging modalities contribute to diagnosis and treatment. Treatment including empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics and surgery should take a multidisciplinary approach to optimize patient factors, ensure eradication of the infection, and restore function. ...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 7, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Benjamin J. Lindbloom, Eric R. James, William C. McGarvey Source Type: research

Taking Out the Tarsal Coalition Was Easy: But Now the Foot Is Even Flatter. What Now?
Patients with a preexisting hindfoot deformity, who undergo resection (with or without soft tissue interposition) of a tarsal coalition, may present with recurrent pain and worsening planovalgus deformity. This is due to the secondary effect of soft tissue contractures (lateral ligaments, peroneal tendons, calf muscles) “pulling” the foot into more valgus. Physiotherapy and insoles may help some patients. Depending on the flexibility of the hindfoot and the presence or otherwise of joint degeneration, joint-preserving corrective procedures or corrective joint fusions may be needed. Gastrocnemius, Achilles, and/...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 7, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Nikolaos Gougoulias, Maurice O’Flaherty, Anthony Sakellariou Source Type: research

Ongoing Pain and Deformity After an Excision of the Accessory Navicular
Although a painful accessory navicula and a pes planus often coexist, they are not necessarily causally related, and each condition should be assessed and treated individually. A child or adolescent will notice the rubbing of an accessory navicula against footwear as the foot and boney swelling grows. The cause of persistent local pain such as inadequate bony resection, scar pain, irritation of the tibialis posterior tendon, and so forth should be sought and addressed; management will depend on the specific presentation and previous procedure performed. The cause of the ongoing pain should be investigated. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 7, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Philip Vaughan, Dishan Singh Source Type: research

The Midfoot Is Really Deformed After Hindfoot Arthrodesis: How to Salvage?
Concomitant hindfoot and midfoot deformity is common. Hindfoot fusion is associated with prolonged recovery and significant disability. Further surgery is often required to obtain a plantigrade foot. Understanding normal structural and kinematic relationships between the midfoot and hindfoot, as well as recognizing common combined patterns of midfoot and hindfoot deformity, can minimize the unanticipated consequences of hindfoot fusion. Treatment of residual or resultant midfoot deformity requires a thorough analysis of the deformity and familiarity with a variety of operative techniques for correction. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 7, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Paul T. Fortin Source Type: research

Problems Associated with the Excision of the Hallux Sesamoids
Disorders of the hallux sesamoids can be a source of considerable pain and disability. Inappropriate or inept removal can lead to further disability and pain. Surgical intervention should only follow careful accurate assessment, appropriate investigation, and failure of conservative treatments. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 7, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Clare F. Taylor, Michael Butler, Stephen W. Parsons Source Type: research

Triple Arthrodesis: Tips and Tricks to Navigate Trouble
Triple arthrodesis is a powerful corrector of hindfoot deformity related to trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, and long-standing peritalar subluxation with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. To avoid the common postoperative complications related to triple arthrodesis, one must be meticulous in preoperative evaluation as well as surgical technique. Presented are some tips and tricks to avoid the common complications and provide the patient with a plantigrade, stable foot, as well as some salvage options for triple arthrodesis in a malunited position. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 3, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Nathan J. Kiewiet, Stephen K. Benirschke, Michael E. Brage Source Type: research

Deceptions in Hallux Valgus: What to Look for to Limit Failures
The treatment of hallux valgus depends on multiple factors, including clinical examination, patient considerations, clinical findings, radiographic assessment, and surgeon preference. Appropriate procedure selection and proper technique will usually result in good-to-excellent outcomes. Complications following hallux valgus correction include recurrence, transfer metatarsalgia, avascular necrosis, hallux varus, and nonunion and malunion of metatarsal osteotomies. In order to decrease the risks of complication, a precise and meticulous physical examination should be conducted preoperatively. In addition, a surgeon should se...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 3, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Kyung Tai Lee, Young Uk Park, Hyuk Jegal, Thomas H. Lee Source Type: research

The Failed First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Implant Arthroplasty
Chronic pain in a first metatarsophalangeal implant arthroplasty can be early or late, and may be due to infection or implant failure. Although excisional arthroplasty can be considered, the most predictable result will come from arthrodesis. Conversion of a failed implant arthroplasty to fusion will usually require structural bone graft, with slower healing times than primary fusion. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 3, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Justin Greisberg Source Type: research

Index
Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type. Abductors, in hallux valgus, 246 (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Treatment of Shortening Following Hallux Valgus Surgery
Transfer metatarsalgia is a recognized complication following hallux valgus surgery, usually as a result of shortening of the first metatarsal. In this article, the authors present an overview of the incidence, presentation, and treatment strategies employed in its management. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Andrew Goldberg, Dishan Singh Source Type: research

Transfer Metatarsalgia Post Hallux Valgus Surgery
Metatarsalgia, pain around the metatarsophalangeal joints, may arise from mechanical causes spontaneously or iatrogenically. Nonunion or malunion of the first metatarsal can transfer weight-bearing forces and overload the lesser metatarsals. Transfer metatarsalgia after failed hallux valgus surgery is troublesome and more prevalent than would be expected. Clinical examination of the patient allows identifying the type of transfer metatarsalgia and pathomechanics involved. This review focuses on transfer metatarsalgia after hallux valgus surgery and provides a basic understanding of the pathomechanics, clinical examination,...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Ernesto Maceira, Manuel Monteagudo Source Type: research

Pediatric Hallux Valgus
Hallux valgus in children is a relatively uncommon deformity, also known by several other names such as juvenile or adolescent bunion, metatarsus primus varus, and metatarsus primus adductus. The presence of an open growth plate is considered by most to be part of the definition of this condition. However, others include patients up to age 20 years, owing to the plastic nature of the various components of the condition. The presenting complaint is invariably of the bunion and its cosmetic appearance. Treatment should be conservative and surgery avoided till skeletal maturity is achieved due to the high incidence of recurre...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Julian Chell, Sunil Dhar Source Type: research

Rotational and Opening Wedge Basal Osteotomies
This article describes modified techniques with modern fixation of these 2 osteotomies, which offer stable fixation and reproducible results. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Paulo N. Ferrao, Nikiforos P. Saragas Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Osteotomies
As orthopedic surgery continues to head in the direction of less invasive surgical techniques, this article explores the application and evolution of minimally invasive/percutaneous techniques in the surgical correction of hallux valgus deformities. Modern techniques are described and available literature is reviewed. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: David Redfern, Anthony Michael Perera Source Type: research

Management of Primary and Revision Hallux Valgus
Hallux valgus is one of the most common conditions we treat as foot and ankle orthopedic surgeons. It can have significant impact on patients’ lives through effects on stance, walking, sporting activity, and ability to fit into footwear. It represents a large spectrum of pathologic abnormality ranging from the pediatric hallux valgus to the development of secondary arthritic changes. As with all surgery, there are a range of complications, including recurrence, varus, and shortening. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Andy Molloy Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Managing Complications of Foot and Ankle Surgery Chris Coetzee, Editor (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contents
Andy Molloy Andy Molloy and James Widnall (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contributors
MARK S. MYERSON, MD Director, The Institute for Foot and Ankle Reconstruction, Mercy Medical Center, Mercy Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Recurrence of Hallux Valgus: A Review
This article discusses these challenges, complications, causes, and techniques. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - March 31, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Steven M. Raikin, Adam G. Miller, Joseph Daniel Source Type: research