Endoscopic Gastrocnemius Release
Endoscopic gastrocnemius release (EGR) is a recently developed procedure that is a reliable option for surgical management of ankle equinus contracture. Comfort with endoscopic equipment and surgical anatomy, especially the sural nerve, is of paramount importance for performing the procedure safely, effectively, and efficiently. The primary advantage of the procedure is improved cosmesis and decreased wound complications of the smaller surgical scars. The current body of literature of clinical outcomes for EGR consists of limited level IV case series with broad variations in study rigor, author training background, and the...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 18, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Joshua N. Tennant, Annunziato Amendola, Phinit Phisitkul Source Type: research

Index
Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type. Abductor hallucis (AbH) tendon transfer (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 19, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
The Gastrocnemius Mark S. Myerson, Editor (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 19, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contents
J. Chris Coetzee Justin Greisberg (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 19, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contributors
MARK S. MYERSON, MD Director, The Institute for Foot and Ankle Reconstruction, Mercy Medical Center, Mercy Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 19, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Nonunion of Fifth Metatarsal Fractures
Metatarsal fractures are those most frequently encountered in the foot. More than half of these are of the 5th metatarsal. The incidence is increasing, along with the activity levels of the general population. Fractures of the 5th metatarsal require careful evaluation and classification to ensure selection of the optimum treatment plan. Distal fractures rarely require fixation, even when displacement is wide. Cases of established nonunion or refracture require fixation. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 21, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Matthew Solan, Mark Davies Source Type: research

The Recurrent Morton Neuroma: What Now?
Interdigital neuromas are a common cause of forefoot pain, and approximately 80% of patients require surgical excision for symptom relief. Although 50% to 85% of patients obtain relief after primary excision, symptoms may recur because of an incorrect diagnosis, inadequate resection, or adherence of pressure on a nerve stump neuroma. The symptom relief rate after reoperation is similar to that after primary excision. A plantar longitudinal incision provides optimal exposure, and transposition of the nerve stump into bone or muscle and avoids traction or pressure on the nerve ending that can result in a painful stump neurom...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 21, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: David R. Richardson, Erin M. Dean Source Type: research

Recurrent Metatarsalgia
Recurrent metatarsalgia has a multifactorial etiology. The analysis of the cause is critical in planning appropriate treatment. Understanding etiology helps understand the mechanism of prevention, which is the best treatment. Recurrent metatarsalgia is often due to poor technique or poor understanding of the underlying problem. In hallux valgus surgery, recurrent metatarsalgia can be a problem of position of the first metatarsal after an inappropriate or poorly done first metatarsal osteotomy or a problem of gastrocnemius tightness not previously recognized. The best treatment is to restore the normal anatomy but that is n...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 21, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Pierre Barouk Source Type: research

The Treatment of Calcaneal Malunion
The surgical treatment of calcaneal malunion is technically very demanding and requires a careful assessment of the exact cause of the problem. A number of different surgeries are available depending on the precise cause of symptoms. The results are reasonable and justify surgery in an otherwise disabled group of patients. Calcaneal malunion surgery should not be performed by the occasional surgeon, as the price of error is usually amputation. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 14, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Roger M. Atkins Source Type: research

Recurrent Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
Recurrence of tarsal tunnel syndrome after surgery may be due to inadequate release, lack of understanding or appreciation of the actual anatomy involved, variations in the anatomy of the nerve(s), failure to execute the release properly, bleeding with subsequent scarring, damage to the nerve and branches, persistent hypersensitivity of the nerves, and preexisting intrinsic damage to the nerve. Approaches include more thorough release, use of barrier materials to decrease adherence of the nerve to surrounding tissues to avoid traction neuritis, excisions of neuromas using conduits, and consideration of nerve stimulators an...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 14, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: John S. Gould Source Type: research

Etiology and Management of Lesser Toe Metatarsophalangeal Joint Instability
The terms crossover toe and lesser metatarsophalangeal joint instability both describe a deterioration of the soft tissue structures that give stability to the lesser MTP joints. Initial treatment regimens focused on indirect repair of the instability without addressing the primary pathology. A staging system of the clinical examination and a grading system of the surgical findings are now available to help surgeons classify and treat the plantar plate insufficiency. Improved imaging techniques and direct surgical repair techniques through a dorsal approach have changed the treatment and possibly the results of this diffic...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 14, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Jesse F. Doty, Michael J. Coughlin, Lowell Weil, Caio Nery, From Saint Alphonsus Coughlin Foot and Ankle Clinic, Boise, Idaho, USA Source Type: research

Iatrogenic Hallux Varus Treatment Algorithm
Iatrogenic hallux varus is a relatively rare complication of corrective hallux valgus surgery that has multiple pathologic facets. It requires a comprehensive assessment that focuses on joint flexibility, joint integrity, soft tissue balance, and bony deformity. A step-wise treatment approach is used to address all elements of the deformity. The literature on hallux varus treatments consists mainly of retrospective case series, with several proposed procedures addressing various degrees of deformity. Comparison of these procedures is a challenging endeavor and each case should be considered on an individual basis. (Source:...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 14, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Matthew D. Crawford, Jaymin Patel, Eric Giza Source Type: research

Pain After Cheilectomy of the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint: Diagnosis and Management
This article outlines the potential causes of ongoing pain, including progression of osteoarthritis, neuralgic symptoms, and transfer metatarsalgia. Management strategies for treating the ongoing symptoms are discussed. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 14, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Matthew Tomlinson Source Type: research

Managing Complications of Foot and Ankle Surgery
This issue of Foot and Ankle Clinics of North America is dedicated to the management of complications in foot and ankle surgery. Complications are never easy to talk about, but it is an integral part of any surgeon’s practice. I am convinced that 90% of the mental energy spent in my practice is worrying about my own patients with complications and trying to figure out how best to deal with the problem at hand. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 14, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: J. Chris Coetzee Source Type: research

Osteomyelitis of the Foot and Ankle: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, and Treatment
Osteomyelitis of the foot and ankle is a common, potentially devastating condition with diagnostic and treatment challenges. Understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of osteomyelitis can raise clinical suspicion and guide testing and treatments. History and physical examination, laboratory studies, vascular studies, histologic and microbiologic analyses, and various imaging modalities contribute to diagnosis and treatment. Treatment including empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics and surgery should take a multidisciplinary approach to optimize patient factors, ensure eradication of the infection, and restore function. ...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 7, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Benjamin J. Lindbloom, Eric R. James, William C. McGarvey Source Type: research

Taking Out the Tarsal Coalition Was Easy: But Now the Foot Is Even Flatter. What Now?
Patients with a preexisting hindfoot deformity, who undergo resection (with or without soft tissue interposition) of a tarsal coalition, may present with recurrent pain and worsening planovalgus deformity. This is due to the secondary effect of soft tissue contractures (lateral ligaments, peroneal tendons, calf muscles) “pulling” the foot into more valgus. Physiotherapy and insoles may help some patients. Depending on the flexibility of the hindfoot and the presence or otherwise of joint degeneration, joint-preserving corrective procedures or corrective joint fusions may be needed. Gastrocnemius, Achilles, and/...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 7, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Nikolaos Gougoulias, Maurice O’Flaherty, Anthony Sakellariou Source Type: research

Ongoing Pain and Deformity After an Excision of the Accessory Navicular
Although a painful accessory navicula and a pes planus often coexist, they are not necessarily causally related, and each condition should be assessed and treated individually. A child or adolescent will notice the rubbing of an accessory navicula against footwear as the foot and boney swelling grows. The cause of persistent local pain such as inadequate bony resection, scar pain, irritation of the tibialis posterior tendon, and so forth should be sought and addressed; management will depend on the specific presentation and previous procedure performed. The cause of the ongoing pain should be investigated. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 7, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Philip Vaughan, Dishan Singh Source Type: research

The Midfoot Is Really Deformed After Hindfoot Arthrodesis: How to Salvage?
Concomitant hindfoot and midfoot deformity is common. Hindfoot fusion is associated with prolonged recovery and significant disability. Further surgery is often required to obtain a plantigrade foot. Understanding normal structural and kinematic relationships between the midfoot and hindfoot, as well as recognizing common combined patterns of midfoot and hindfoot deformity, can minimize the unanticipated consequences of hindfoot fusion. Treatment of residual or resultant midfoot deformity requires a thorough analysis of the deformity and familiarity with a variety of operative techniques for correction. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 7, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Paul T. Fortin Source Type: research

Problems Associated with the Excision of the Hallux Sesamoids
Disorders of the hallux sesamoids can be a source of considerable pain and disability. Inappropriate or inept removal can lead to further disability and pain. Surgical intervention should only follow careful accurate assessment, appropriate investigation, and failure of conservative treatments. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 7, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Clare F. Taylor, Michael Butler, Stephen W. Parsons Source Type: research

Triple Arthrodesis: Tips and Tricks to Navigate Trouble
Triple arthrodesis is a powerful corrector of hindfoot deformity related to trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, and long-standing peritalar subluxation with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. To avoid the common postoperative complications related to triple arthrodesis, one must be meticulous in preoperative evaluation as well as surgical technique. Presented are some tips and tricks to avoid the common complications and provide the patient with a plantigrade, stable foot, as well as some salvage options for triple arthrodesis in a malunited position. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 3, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Nathan J. Kiewiet, Stephen K. Benirschke, Michael E. Brage Source Type: research

Deceptions in Hallux Valgus: What to Look for to Limit Failures
The treatment of hallux valgus depends on multiple factors, including clinical examination, patient considerations, clinical findings, radiographic assessment, and surgeon preference. Appropriate procedure selection and proper technique will usually result in good-to-excellent outcomes. Complications following hallux valgus correction include recurrence, transfer metatarsalgia, avascular necrosis, hallux varus, and nonunion and malunion of metatarsal osteotomies. In order to decrease the risks of complication, a precise and meticulous physical examination should be conducted preoperatively. In addition, a surgeon should se...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 3, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Kyung Tai Lee, Young Uk Park, Hyuk Jegal, Thomas H. Lee Source Type: research

The Failed First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Implant Arthroplasty
Chronic pain in a first metatarsophalangeal implant arthroplasty can be early or late, and may be due to infection or implant failure. Although excisional arthroplasty can be considered, the most predictable result will come from arthrodesis. Conversion of a failed implant arthroplasty to fusion will usually require structural bone graft, with slower healing times than primary fusion. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - July 3, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Justin Greisberg Source Type: research

Index
Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type. Abductors, in hallux valgus, 246 (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Treatment of Shortening Following Hallux Valgus Surgery
Transfer metatarsalgia is a recognized complication following hallux valgus surgery, usually as a result of shortening of the first metatarsal. In this article, the authors present an overview of the incidence, presentation, and treatment strategies employed in its management. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Andrew Goldberg, Dishan Singh Source Type: research

Transfer Metatarsalgia Post Hallux Valgus Surgery
Metatarsalgia, pain around the metatarsophalangeal joints, may arise from mechanical causes spontaneously or iatrogenically. Nonunion or malunion of the first metatarsal can transfer weight-bearing forces and overload the lesser metatarsals. Transfer metatarsalgia after failed hallux valgus surgery is troublesome and more prevalent than would be expected. Clinical examination of the patient allows identifying the type of transfer metatarsalgia and pathomechanics involved. This review focuses on transfer metatarsalgia after hallux valgus surgery and provides a basic understanding of the pathomechanics, clinical examination,...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Ernesto Maceira, Manuel Monteagudo Source Type: research

Pediatric Hallux Valgus
Hallux valgus in children is a relatively uncommon deformity, also known by several other names such as juvenile or adolescent bunion, metatarsus primus varus, and metatarsus primus adductus. The presence of an open growth plate is considered by most to be part of the definition of this condition. However, others include patients up to age 20 years, owing to the plastic nature of the various components of the condition. The presenting complaint is invariably of the bunion and its cosmetic appearance. Treatment should be conservative and surgery avoided till skeletal maturity is achieved due to the high incidence of recurre...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Julian Chell, Sunil Dhar Source Type: research

Rotational and Opening Wedge Basal Osteotomies
This article describes modified techniques with modern fixation of these 2 osteotomies, which offer stable fixation and reproducible results. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Paulo N. Ferrao, Nikiforos P. Saragas Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Osteotomies
As orthopedic surgery continues to head in the direction of less invasive surgical techniques, this article explores the application and evolution of minimally invasive/percutaneous techniques in the surgical correction of hallux valgus deformities. Modern techniques are described and available literature is reviewed. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: David Redfern, Anthony Michael Perera Source Type: research

Management of Primary and Revision Hallux Valgus
Hallux valgus is one of the most common conditions we treat as foot and ankle orthopedic surgeons. It can have significant impact on patients’ lives through effects on stance, walking, sporting activity, and ability to fit into footwear. It represents a large spectrum of pathologic abnormality ranging from the pediatric hallux valgus to the development of secondary arthritic changes. As with all surgery, there are a range of complications, including recurrence, varus, and shortening. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Andy Molloy Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Managing Complications of Foot and Ankle Surgery Chris Coetzee, Editor (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contents
Andy Molloy Andy Molloy and James Widnall (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contributors
MARK S. MYERSON, MD Director, The Institute for Foot and Ankle Reconstruction, Mercy Medical Center, Mercy Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 30, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Recurrence of Hallux Valgus: A Review
This article discusses these challenges, complications, causes, and techniques. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - March 31, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Steven M. Raikin, Adam G. Miller, Joseph Daniel Source Type: research

First Metatarsophalangeal Arthrodesis for Hallux Valgus
Arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is a reliable operation in the treatment of selected cases of hallux valgus. It corrects deformity of hallux valgus and metatarsus primus varus, leading to good functional results with a low complication rate. It is a technique well suited to patients with hallux valgus associated with degenerative changes or severe deformity, and those for whom primary hallux valgus surgery has failed. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - March 24, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Edward V. Wood, Christopher R. Walker, Michael S. Hennessy Source Type: research

The Modified Lapidus Fusion
This article provides an overview of the procedure with special focus on the surgical technique. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - March 24, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Timo Schmid, Fabian Krause Source Type: research

Correction of Moderate and Severe Hallux Valgus Deformity with a Distal Metatarsal Osteotomy Using an Intramedullary Plate
More than 200 surgeries have been described for hallux valgus correction. The distal V-shape chevron-type osteotomy was described with no more than 50% translation of the distal fragment in relation to the metatarsal shaft. This concept of high, powerful correction for distal chevron osteotomy fixed by the Mini MaxLock Extreme ISO gives the surgeon the possibility of a mini-invasive rapid solution. A new technique of fixation is based on the Murawski and Beskin concept, because a powerful correction can be performed with a minimally invasive approach, but, in contrast to other studies, with stable osteotomy fixation. (Sour...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - March 24, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Ezequiel Palmanovich, Mark S. Myerson Source Type: research

Scarf Osteotomy
This article addresses the surgical technique of the scarf osteotomy together with the results and complications of hallux valgus correction. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - March 24, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Andy Molloy, James Widnall Source Type: research

The Treatment of Iatrogenic Hallux Varus
Though uncommon, iatrogenic hallux varus is most often the result of overresection of the medial eminence, overtranslation of an osteotomy, overrelease of the lateral soft tissues, or overtightening of the medial tissues. It is not always symptomatic, as the degree of deformity can be well tolerated. For soft-tissue reconstructions, releases have little role to play unless minor deformity is detected early on and the longevity of tendon transfer and tenodesis remains unknown. For bony reconstruction, arthrodesis is the recommended salvage technique. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - March 13, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Mark B. Davies, Chris M. Blundell Source Type: research

Index
Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type. AAFD. See Adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD). (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - February 18, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Forefoot Tendon Transfers
Flexible forefoot deformities, such as hallux varus, clawed hallux, hammer toes, and angular lesser toe deformities, can be treated effectively with tendon transfers. Based on the presentation of the flexible forefoot deformities, tendon transfers can be used as the primary treatment or as adjuncts to bony procedures when there are components of fixed deformities. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - February 18, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Andrea Veljkovic, Edward Lansang, Johnny Lau Source Type: research

Spastic Foot and Ankle Deformities: Evaluation and Treatment
Spastic foot and ankle deformities can occur from various causes and have profound effects on individuals and society. Presentations can vary clinically and a thorough clinical evaluation, potentially with a dynamic electromyogram, is essential to selecting the most appropriate treatment. Nonoperative treatments, such as orthotics, casting, oral medications, and nerve blocks, can be effective but surgery is indicated if they are no longer effective. Of the various operative procedures to treat this condition, split anterior tibialis tendon transfer and tendo Achilles lengthening are the most commonly performed. Multiple su...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - February 18, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Brandon W. King, David J. Ruta, Todd A. Irwin Source Type: research

Tendon Transfers for the Drop Foot
The paralytic drop foot represents a challenging problem for even the most experienced orthopedic surgeon. Careful patient selection, thorough preoperative examination and planning, and application of tendon transfer biomechanical and physiologic principles outlined in this article can lead to successful results, either through a posterior tibialis tendon transfer, Bridle transfer, or variations on these procedures. Achilles lengthening or gastrocnemius recession may also be needed at the time of tendon transfer. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - February 18, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Karl M. Schweitzer, Carroll P. Jones Source Type: research

Tendon Transfers in the Treatment of the Adult Flatfoot
Tendon transfers are critical to successful surgical correction of adult flexible flatfoot deformity and may be beneficial in correcting rigid deformities as well. Patients with refractory stage I and II deformities often require selective osteotomies in addition to tendon transfer. Patients with stage III and IV deformities typically require hindfoot arthrodesis. One of several tendons can be used for transfer based on surgeon's preference. Flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and flexor hallucis longus (FHL) transfers have been shown to have good results. A peroneus brevis transfer is typically used to supplement smal...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - February 18, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Jonathon D. Backus, Jeremy J. McCormick Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Management of Primary and Revision Hallux Valgus Andy Molloy, Editor (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - February 18, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contents
Bruce E. Cohen Kenneth J. Hunt and Jessica H. Ryu (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - February 18, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contributors
MARK S. MYERSON, MD Director, The Institute for Foot and Ankle Reconstruction, Mercy Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - February 18, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Neuromuscular Problems in Foot and Ankle: Evaluation and Workup
It is essential to determine the functional goals of the patient during the workup and treatment planning stages of neuromuscular disorders involving the foot and ankle. Accurate diagnosis, and informed discussion of treatment options, must be in the context of the patient’s disease, cognition, comorbidities, functional attributes, and family environment. A thorough history and physical examination aid in appropriate diagnostic workup and optimal orthopedic management of each patient. In this article, general considerations in the workup of suspected neuromuscular disorders and issues pertinent to specific congenital...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - December 26, 2013 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Kenneth J. Hunt, Jessica H. Ryu Source Type: research

Hallux Claw Toe
This article describes diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Particular attention is given to surgical techniques such as Jones technique and modified Jones technique. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - December 23, 2013 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Mostafa Abousayed, John Y. Kwon Source Type: research

Tendon Transfers—How Do They Work? Planning and Implementation
The purpose of this article is to update the orthopedic community on the planning and implementation of tendon transfers in the foot and ankle. This information will serve to reinforce those principles and factors that are inherent in successful performance of tendon transfer. In addition, the authors highlight recent updates that impact decision-making for these procedures. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - December 23, 2013 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Thomas Dowd, Eric M. Bluman Source Type: research

Preface
I am very pleased to serve as the guest editor for this issue of Foot and Ankle Clinics of North America. We have a great lineup of authors who have done a fantastic job covering our topic: Tendon Transfers and Treatment Strategies in Foot and Ankle Surgery. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - December 23, 2013 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Bruce E. Cohen Source Type: research