Is the Rotational Deformity Important in Our Decision-Making Process for Correction of  Hallux Valgus Deformity?
Rotational deformity in hallux valgus is a recognized component and a demonstrated recurrence factor in patients who have undergone surgery. More than 20  years ago, publications started reporting metatarsal pronation as part of the hallux valgus pathology. Identifying metatarsal pronation should be part of the preoperative angular measurements. The proximal metatarsal rotational osteotomy and Lapidus fusion are some of the few techniques that relia bly correct metatarsal pronation. They have good results, with more nonunions reported for the Lapidus. The authors present their hallux valgus treatment algorithm that in...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - March 9, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Pablo Wagner, Emilio Wagner Source Type: research

Hallux Valgus Deformity and Treatment
In a hallux valgus deformity, the problem is deviation of the hallux at the metatarsophalangeal joint and of the first metatarsal at the tarsometatarsal joint. Although anterior-posterior radiograph findings have been prioritized, deviation in the other planes can substantially change visible cues. The Lapiplasty procedure, uses all 3 planes to evaluate and correct the deformity, making radiographic measurements less useful. Using a triplane framework and focusing on the apex of the deformity, all bunions become the same. Lapiplasty can be performed regardless of the degree of deformity, always includes triplane correction...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - March 9, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Robert D. Santrock, Bret Smith Source Type: research

Using the Center of Rotation of Angulation Concept in Hallux Valgus Correction
Many different surgeries have been proposed for hallux valgus treatment, osteotomies being the currently recommended ones. Because of high recurrence rates, distal, diaphyseal and proximal osteotomies have been used to improve alignment and sesamoid reduction. The center of rotation of angulation (CORA) concept applies to any deformity and helps to completely realign 2 bone segments. When used with proximal osteotomies, bone displacement and angulation is performed obtaining complete deformity correction. The proximal oblique sliding closing wedge (POSCOW) osteotomy follows the CORA concept and permits preoperative plannin...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - March 8, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Emilio Wagner, Cristian Ortiz, Pablo Wagner Source Type: research

Proximal Supination Osteotomy of the First Metatarsal for Hallux Valgus
Postoperative recurrence of hallux valgus is a relatively common complication and is associated with unsatisfactory surgical outcomes. Risk factors for postoperative recurrence include a round lateral edge of the first metatarsal head (a positive round sign) and incomplete reduction of the sesamoids. These risk factors may relate to residual pronation of the first metatarsal following surgery. A novel technique of a proximal supination osteotomy, in which varus and pronation of the first metatarsal can be corrected simultaneously, can achieve significant correction in moderate or severe hallux valgus deformity and a low ra...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - March 8, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Ryuzo Okuda Source Type: research

Using the Center of Rotation of Angulation Concept in Hallux Valgus Correction
Many different surgeries have been proposed for hallux valgus treatment, osteotomies being the currently recommended ones. Because of high recurrence rates, distal, diaphyseal and proximal osteotomies have been used to improve alignment and sesamoid reduction. The center of rotation of angulation (CORA) concept applies to any deformity and helps to completely realign 2 bone segments. When used with proximal osteotomies, bone displacement and angulation is performed obtaining complete deformity correction. The proximal oblique sliding closing wedge (POSCOW) osteotomy follows the CORA concept and permits preoperative plannin...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - March 8, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Emilio Wagner, Cristian Ortiz, Pablo Wagner Source Type: research

Proximal Supination Osteotomy of the First Metatarsal for Hallux Valgus
Postoperative recurrence of hallux valgus is a relatively common complication and is associated with unsatisfactory surgical outcomes. Risk factors for postoperative recurrence include a round lateral edge of the first metatarsal head (a positive round sign) and incomplete reduction of the sesamoids. These risk factors may relate to residual pronation of the first metatarsal following surgery. A novel technique of a proximal supination osteotomy, in which varus and pronation of the first metatarsal can be corrected simultaneously, can achieve significant correction in moderate or severe hallux valgus deformity and a low ra...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - March 8, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Ryuzo Okuda Source Type: research

Introduction: Why Are There so Many Different Surgeries for Hallux Valgus?
This article discusses the etiologies associated with hallux valgus and describes a few of the surgeries commonly used to treat the deformity. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - March 5, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Niall A. Smyth, Amiethab A. Aiyer Source Type: research

Treatment of Metatarsalgia with Proximal Osteotomies
Metatarsalgia is among the most common sources of forefoot pain. Proximal metatarsal osteotomies are an important technique in the armamentarium of the surgeon treating metatarsalgia that has failed nonoperative management. Proximal osteotomies can provide powerful deformity correction with precise control to both shorten and elevate the metatarsal head. However, they can be technically challenging, difficult to attain satisfactory fixation, require increased postoperative immobilization, and can result in transfer lesions. There are numerous described techniques with little supporting evidence and more research is needed ...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - January 22, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Emily C. Vafek, Simon Lee Source Type: research

Gastrocnemius Recession for Metatarsalgia
Metatarsalgia is a common cause of plantar forefoot pain. Causes of metatarsalgia include foot anatomy, gait mechanics, and foot and ankle deformity. One specific cause, mechanical metatarsalgia, occurs because of gastrocnemius muscle contracture, which overloads the forefoot. Muscular imbalance of the gastrocnemius complex alters gait mechanics, which increases recruitment of the toe extensor musculature, thereby altering forefoot pressure. Patients with concomitant metatarsalgia and gastrocnemius contracture demonstrate ankle equinus and a positive Silfverskiold test. Nonoperative therapeutic modalities are mainstays of ...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - January 22, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Rose E. Cortina, Brandon L. Morris, Bryan G. Vopat Source Type: research

Treatment of Rigid Hammer-Toe Deformity
Hammer-toe deformities that fail nonoperative treatment can be successfully addressed with proximal interphalangeal joint resection arthroplasty or fusion. The goal of surgery is to eliminate the deformity and rigidly fix the toe in a well-aligned position. Hammer-toe correction procedures can be performed with temporary Kirschner wire (K-wire) fixation for 3 to 6  weeks with high success rates. Pain relief with successful hammer-toe correction approaches 90%; patient satisfaction rates approximate 84%. Although complication rates are rare in most series, there remains a concern regarding exposed temporary K-wire fixa...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - January 22, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Jesse F. Doty, Jason A. Fogleman Source Type: research

Lesser Metatarsophalangeal Joint Instability
Complex digital deformities and metatarsophalangeal joint instability encompass a wide range of pathology, and we must identify the different degrees of ligamentous disruption. It is important to address a combination of procedures to treat gross deformities of the lesser toes. Surgical treatment should be individualized and requires a sequential process for adequate reduction and deformity correction. There is no gold standard procedure for every deformity. Although residual stiffness can result from tendon transfer, overall patient satisfaction levels remain high when it is performed under the proper indications and conc...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - January 22, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Caio Nery, Daniel Baumfeld Source Type: research

Treatment of Freiberg Disease
This article reviews the current surgical treatment options for Freiberg disease. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - January 22, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Jeffrey D. Seybold, Jacob R. Zide Source Type: research

Management of Metatarsalgia and Painful Lesser Toe Deformities
FOOT AND ANKLE CLINICS (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - January 22, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Todd A. Irwin Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - January 22, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contributors
MARK S. MYERSON, MD (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - January 22, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Editorial Advisory Board
J. Kent Ellington, MD, MS (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - January 22, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contents
Todd A. Irwin (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - January 22, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Hallux Valgus Deformity and Treatment: A Three-Dimensional Approach (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - January 22, 2018 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Treatment of Flexible Lesser Toe Deformities
This article first describes modern classification of lesser toe deformities, and then presents the different treatments and procedures available for those flexible deformities. In addition, this article proposes an algorithm based on clinical/radiological evaluation and step-by-st ep surgical decision making. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - December 12, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Solenne Frey-Ollivier, Fernanda Catena, Marianne H élix-Giordanino, Barbara Piclet-Legré Source Type: research

Treatment of Metatarsalgia with Distal Osteotomies
Many different distal metatarsal osteotomies have been described in the surgical treatment of metatarsalgia. The surgeon should use such osteotomies judiciously, and indeed, in the author ’s experience, they are infrequently required and are certainly not a first port of call. In cases where nonoperative treatments have failed, a thorough understanding of the causes of metatarsalgia and a detailed clinical assessment of the patient are essential if good surgical outcomes are to be achieved. If using distal metatarsal osteotomies as part of the surgical plan, then the author favors extra-articular percutaneous osteoto...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 28, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: David Redfern Source Type: research

Managing Complications of Lesser Toe and Metatarsophalangeal Joint Surgery
This article discusses a wide array of tactics to manage common complications in lesser toe surgery. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 28, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Phinit Phisitkul Source Type: research

Management of Metatarsalgia and Lesser Toe Deformities
The forefoot, and in particular, the lesser toes, can present challenging problems for both patients and surgeons alike. As a frequent source of pain and dysfunction, patients seek solutions for the discomfort, deformity, and shoe-wear issues that go along with forefoot problems. These solutions range from simple offloading inserts to complex reconstructive surgery. As with most orthopedic issues, careful diagnostic evaluation is critical for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 21, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Todd A. Irwin Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Metatarsal Osteotomies
Metatarsal osteotomies can be divided into proximal and distal. The proximal osteotomies, such as the oblique, segmental, set cut, and Barouk –Rippstein–Toullec (BRT) osteotomy, all provide the ability to significantly change the position of the metatarsal head without violating the joint. These osteotomies, however, have a high rate of nonunion when done without internal fixation and can lead to transfer metatarsalgia when done witho ut regard to the parabola of metatarsal head position. Distal osteotomies such as the Weil and Helal offer superior healing but have an increased incidence of recurrent metatarsal...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 20, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Veerabhadra “Babu” Reddy Source Type: research

Anatomy and Physiology of the Lesser Metatarsophalangeal Joints
Knowledge and command of anatomy is paramount to effectively treating disorders of the lesser metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints. The osseous structures consist of the proximal phalanx of the toe and the metatarsal head. The soft tissues on the dorsum of the MTP joint include the joint capsule and the tendons of extensor digitorum longus and extensor digitorum brevis. The proper and accessory collateral ligaments form the medial and lateral walls and contribute to stability in the coronal and sagittal planes. The plantar plate forms the plantar border of the MTP joint and stabilizes the MTP joint against hyperextension and d...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 16, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Fred T. Finney, Ezequiel Cata, James R. Holmes, Paul G. Talusan Source Type: research

Lesser Metatarsophalangeal Joint Instability
The plantar plate and associated collateral ligaments are the main stabilizers of each of the lesser metatarsophalangeal joints. Although clinical examination and plain radiographs are usually sufficient to establish the diagnosis of a plantar plate tear, MRI or fluoroscopic arthrograms may help in specific cases. Recent results with a dorsal approach to plantar plate repair are promising with respect to pain relief and patient satisfaction. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 16, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Raymond Y. Hsu, Alexej Barg, Florian Nickisch Source Type: research

Conservative Management of Metatarsalgia and Lesser Toe Deformities
There are several forefoot conditions that can result in metatarsal head pain. Various points of the gait cycle can predispose the metatarsal heads to pain based on intrinsic and extrinsic imbalances. Metatarsalgia can further be classified according to primary, secondary, or iatrogenic etiologies. Within these groups, conservative management is the first line of treatment and can often obviate surgical intervention. Depending on the cause of pain, proper shoewear, orthoses, and inserts coupled with targeted physical therapy can alleviate most symptoms of metatarsalgia and lesser toe deformities. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 10, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Andrew E. Federer, David M. Tainter, Samuel B. Adams, Karl M. Schweitzer Source Type: research

Presentation, Diagnosis, and Nonsurgical Treatment Options of the Anterior Tibial Tendon, Posterior Tibial Tendon, Peroneals, and Achilles
Disorders of the anterior tibial tendon (ATT) are rare, and relatively few series have been described in the literature. Ruptures of the ATT are more common than tendinopathies of the ATT. For those patients with a tendinopathy, initial treatment may include activity and shoe-wear modifications. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - October 25, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: David Pedowitz, David Beck Source Type: research

Acute Peroneal Injury
A high clinical suspicion and greater understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology of lateral ankle injuries have enabled early diagnosis and treatment-improving outcomes of acute peroneal tendon tears. Multiple conditions can be the cause of lateral ankle pain attributed to the peroneal tendons: tenosynovitis, tendinosis, subluxation and dislocation, stenosing tenosynovitis, abnormality related to the os peroneum, as well as tears of the peroneal tendons. It is imperative for the clinician to maintain a high suspicion for peroneal tendon abnormality when evaluating patients with lateral ankle pain. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - October 25, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: James W. Brodsky, Jacob R. Zide, Justin M. Kane Source Type: research

All Those Worms
Dating back to the time of Homer, man has been intrigued by tendons. Achilles, the most popular and well known of the lot, has been a hot topic of debate for years. Treatment of acute to chronic issues, nonop versus surgical care, open versus percutaneous, the use of adjunctive treatments or not, and so much more have been argued. Many countries are not afforded the luxury of fancy tools that allow surgeons to help our patients. In this issue, we touch on the current state of many of these topics and have authors who discuss their implant-free methods of handling these issues in their own country. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - October 25, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Selene G. Parekh Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Treatment of Acute and Chronic Tendon Rupture and Tendinopathy
FOOT AND ANKLE CLINICS (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - October 25, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Selene G. Parekh Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - October 25, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contributors
MARK S. MYERSON, MD (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - October 25, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Editorial Advisory Board
J. Kent Ellington, MD, MS (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - October 25, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contents
Selene G. Parekh (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - October 25, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Management of Metatarsalgia and Painful Lesser Toe Deformities (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - October 25, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Noninsertional Tendinopathy of the Achilles
Noninsertional Achilles tendinosis is differentiated from insertional Achilles tendinosis based on anatomic location. Tendinosis, as opposed to tendonitis, is primarily a degenerative process and the role of inflammation is believed limited. The etiology of Achilles tendinopathy may include overuse leading to repetitive microtrauma, poor vascularity of the tissue, mechanical imbalances of the extremity, or combination of these elements. There is evidence to support eccentric exercise nonoperative management for patients with noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy. Operative treatment options include percutaneous longitudinal...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 26, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Avreeta Singh, Arash Calafi, Chris Diefenbach, Chris Kreulen, Eric Giza Source Type: research

Using Arthroscopic Techniques for Achilles Pathology
Endoscopically assisted procedures have been established to provide the surgeon with minimally invasive techniques to address common Achilles conditions. Modifications to some of these techniques as well as improvements in instrumentation have allowed these procedures to provide similar clinical results to the traditional open surgeries while reducing wound complications and accelerating patient ’s recoveries. The available literature on these techniques reports consistently good outcomes with few complications, making them appealing for surgeons to adopt. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 26, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Rebecca Cerrato, Paul Switaj Source Type: research

What Do You Do With The Achilles if You Have No Fancy Toys?
Surgical management of Achilles disorders warrants excision of the degenerated tendon and removal of impinging bone. Resulting defects can be bridged by various methods. Although FHL is the most commonly used tendon for transfer, large defects in cases of chronic Achilles ruptures may be bridged by use of a distant donor tendon. Bony anchorage of a lengthened or transferred tendon into the calcaneus can be done with suture anchors or with interference screws. In developing countries, such implants may not be available or affordable, necessitating the adoption of innovative ways to anchor tendons into the calcaneus. (Source...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 26, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Rajiv Shah, Sampat Dumbre Patil Source Type: research

Treatment of Acute and Chronic Tibialis Anterior Tendon Rupture and Tendinopathy
This article reviews the current literature on TA tendinosis and acute and chronic ruptures. It discusses the patient presentation, physical examination, nonoperative management, surgical treatment options, and outcomes. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 26, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Elizabeth Harkin, Michael Pinzur, Adam Schiff Source Type: research

Treatment of Neglected Achilles Tendon Ruptures with Interpositional Allograft
Although most astute clinicians can diagnose Achilles tendon ruptures by physical examination alone, more than 20% are not accurately diagnosed in a timely fashion. The definition of a “chronic” Achilles tendon rupture in foot and ankle literature varies widely: from 4 to 10 weeks status after injury. Neglected or chronic Achilles tendon ruptures can be significantly disabling to patients if the muscle-tendon unit is stretched beyond its normal passive limit. There are a vari ety of treatment options that all have valid uses but have not been proven to be superior to one another. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 26, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Christopher E. Gross, James A. Nunley Source Type: research

Chronic Rupture of the Peroneal Tendons
Chronic rupture of the peroneal tendons can be a functionally limiting condition with a multitude of causes. Conservative and operative interventions are heterogenous and tailored to the functional demands of the patient. Surgical plans are based on muscle viability, patient preference, and surgeon expertise. Clinical outcomes evidence remains limited in this domain, and further well-designed studies are warranted to guide treatment. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 26, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Kamran S. Hamid, Annunziato Amendola Source Type: research

Tendonitis and Tendinopathy
The development of tendinitis and tendinopathy is often multifactorial and the result of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors include anatomic factors, age-related factors, and systemic factors, whereas extrinsic factors include mechanical overload and improper form and equipment. Although tendinitis and tendinopathy are often incorrectly used interchangeably, they are in 2 distinct pathologies. Due to their chronicity and high prevalence in tendons about the ankle, including the Achilles tendon, the posterior tibialis tendon, and the peroneal tendons, tendinitis and tendinopathies cause significant morb...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 25, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Andrew E. Federer, John R. Steele, Travis J. Dekker, Jordan L. Liles, Samuel B. Adams Source Type: research

Insertional Tendinopathy of the Achilles
Insertional Achilles tendinopathy is a degenerative enthesopathy associated with pain and dysfunction. Nonsurgical management is first attempted for a period of 3 to 6  months and may consist of physical therapy with eccentric training and other modalities. Surgical treatment can be successful with a variety of approaches. A thorough debridement through a midline tendon-splitting approach is associated with high satisfaction rates. Flexor hallucis longus transfer to augment the repair is considered in older, heavier patients or if more than 50% of the tendon was debrided. Early functional rehabilitation is associated ...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 25, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Rachel J. Shakked, Steven M. Raikin Source Type: research

The Acute Injury of the Achilles
Achilles tendon rupture is a common lower extremity injury seen in the active population. Although reruptures rates have improved with nonoperative functional management, surgical treatment is still preferred by the authors. Minimally invasive techniques allow optimal Achilles tendon rupture apposition and tensioning, with a reduced risk of soft tissue complications associated with the traditional open repair. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 20, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Oliver Schipper, Bruce Cohen Source Type: research

The Missed Achilles Tear
This article reviews the principles of diagnosis, treatment options, and clinical outcomes, and outlines the authors’ preferred techniques. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 20, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Brian D. Steginsky, Bryan Van Dyke, Gregory C. Berlet Source Type: research

Understanding the Anatomy and Biomechanics of Ankle Tendons
The tendons that cross the ankle are complex and sophisticated structures that enable standing and forward propulsion and the ability to accommodate uneven ground. Understanding the biomechanics and local anatomy of these tendons is essential to the treatment of disorders of the foot and ankle, whether it be in formulating an appropriate physical therapy regimen or planning a reconstructive surgical procedure. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - September 19, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Christopher P. Chiodo Source Type: research

Is This My Ankle or My Foot?
This article poses the question, is there a subset of patients with “flatfoot” that has little to do with the foot and is all about the ankle? (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 3, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: William Hodges Davis Source Type: research

The Flatfoot: Even After Decades of Work, We Still Need Help Understanding It
The flatfoot condition is a very common problem, seen daily in the foot and ankle surgeon ’s office. Many patients can be treated nonoperatively. If conservative treatment fails, many surgical options exist. Choosing the correct procedure for the correct patient is not as easy as a textbook algorithm may suggest. The identical deformity in one patient may be treated in an entirely diff erent way in another patient. Following flatfoot correction, patients may still have ongoing issues. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 3, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: J. Kent Ellington Tags: Preface Source Type: research

The Flatfoot: Pearls and Pitfalls
FOOT AND ANKLE CLINICS (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 3, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: J. Kent Ellington Source Type: research