Autologous Bone Graft in Foot and Ankle Surgery
Bone graft is a common adjunct procedure in orthopedic surgery used for fusions, fracture repair, and the reconstruction of skeletal defects in the foot and ankle. Autologous graft, or autograft, involves the transport of bone from a donor site to another location in the same patient. It is considered by many to be the gold standard of bone grafting, as it is provides all biologic factors required for functional graft. Further, autograft is 100% histocompatible with no risk of disease transmission. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Christopher P. Miller, Christopher P. Chiodo Source Type: research

Efficacy of a Cellular Allogeneic Bone Graft in Foot and Ankle Arthrodesis Procedures
This study explores the utility and efficacy of MAP3 in foot and ankle arthrodesis procedures. Map3 is a cellular allogeneic bone graft that contains osteogenic, osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and angiogenic properties. A total of 23 mostly high-risk patients were included in this study. The overall fusion rate was 83%. Univariate analysis demonstrated diabetic patients remain at risk of recurrent nonunion (P (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Travis J. Dekker, Peter White, Samuel B. Adams Source Type: research

Vancouver Experience of Recombinant Human Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
Joint arthrodesis utilizing autogenous bone graft remains the gold standard of treatment in fusion procedures of the foot and ankle. Graft harvest, however, has been associated with increased morbidity to patients as well as increased costs. With this in mind, multiple clinical studies have evaluated the efficacy of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rh-PDGF-BB) with beta-tricalcium phosphate (B-TCP) to augment in foot and ankle arthrodesis with favorable results. These factors have led to the increased use of rh-PDGF-BB with B-TCP in Vancouver with good clinical results. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Alistair Younger, Murray Penner, Harvey E. Montijo Source Type: research

Platelet-Rich Plasma and Concentrated Bone Marrow Aspirate in Surgical Treatment for Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and concentrated bone marrow aspirate (CBMA) have the potential to improve the quality of cartilage repair in osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT). In this review, we describe the basic science and clinical evidence that has been published on the topic of PRP and CBMA on 2 commonly used surgical techniques for the treatment of OLT: bone marrow stimulation and osteochondral autograft transfer. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Youichi Yasui, Andrew W. Ross, John G. Kennedy Source Type: research

The Use of Allostem in Subtalar Fusions
This article covers the use of adipose-derived stem cells as an adjunct or alternative to autologous or other bone grafting materials. Promising development and encouraging data exist with respect to the use of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for bone arthrodesis, which is discussed in more detail in the article. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: J. Chris Coetzee, Mark S. Myerson, John G. Anderson Source Type: research

The Science Behind Surgical Innovations of the Forefoot
One of the areas of foot and ankle surgery that has had particular attention over the last 5  years has been forefoot surgery. Common procedures include correction of the lessor metatarsophalangeal joints and hammertoe deformities, specifically metatarsal shortening osteotomies and proximal interphalangeal joint fusions. The goals of these surgeries are to improve patient function and allo w patients to fit into shoes more comfortably in metatarsal shortening and hammertoe. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Judith F. Baumhauer, Michele Marcolongo Source Type: research

Injectable Recombinant Human Platelet-derived Growth Factor in Collagen Carrier for Hindfoot Fusion
This article provides a review of the role of rhPDGF in hindfoot fusions, and the surgical technique for performing an rhPDGF enhanced double-arthrodesis through a medial approach. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Andrew Dodd, Timothy R. Daniels Source Type: research

B2A Polypeptide in Foot and Ankle Fusion
Foot and ankle fusion procedures often incorporate autogenous bone graft to help achieve bony union. Pain and morbidity associated with graft harvest have resulted in decreased autograft use as alternative bone graft substitutes have become available. Recently B2A peptide-coated ceramic granules have been developed and investigated. B2A, a bioactive synthetic multi-domain peptide acting on bone morphogenetic protein receptors of osteoblast precursor cells, amplifies the cell response to bone morphogenetic proteins. Use of B2A-granule has the additional benefit of eliminating autogenous bone graft donor site morbidity. The ...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Mark Glazebrook, Diana S. Young Source Type: research

Mesenchymal Stem Cell –Bearing Sutures for Tendon Repair and Healing in the Foot and Ankle
Improving the quality and strength of soft tissue repairs remains an important area of orthopedic research and innovation. The need for immobilization and early motion is an important balance essential for the successful treatment of tendon repair and reconstruction. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) –bearing sutures represent an emerging biological augmentation to traditional suture repair. Two previous large studies using stem cell sutures in rat Achilles tendon models have demonstrated early increased biomechanical strength and significantly increased ultimate failure strength. The MSCs see m to remain locally at the re...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Eric W. Tan, Lew C. Schon Source Type: research

Orthobiologics in the Foot and Ankle
Many allogeneic biologic materials, by themselves or in combination with cells or cell products, may be transformative in healing or regeneration of musculoskeletal bone and soft tissues. By reconfiguring the size, shape, and methods of tissue preparation to improve deliverability and storage, unique iterations of traditional tissue scaffolds have emerged. These new iterations, combined with new cell technologies, have shaped an exciting platform of regenerative products that are effective and provide a bridge to newer and better methods of providing care for orthopedic foot and ankle patients. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: H. Thomas Temple, Theodore I. Malinin Source Type: research

The Biology of Bone and Ligament Healing
This review describes the normal healing process for bone, ligaments, and tendons, including primary and secondary healing as well as bone-to-bone fusion. It depicts the important mediators and cell types involved in the inflammatory, reparative, and remodeling stages of each healing process. It also describes the main challenges for clinicians when trying to repair bone, ligaments, and tendons with a specific emphasis on Charcot neuropathy, fifth metatarsal fractures, arthrodesis, and tendon sheath and adhesions. Current treatment options and research areas are also reviewed. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Jessica A. Cottrell, Jessica Cardenas Turner, Treena Livingston Arinzeh, J. Patrick O ’Connor Source Type: research

Orthobiologic in Foot Ankle
Significant advances continue to be made in the field of foot and ankle; especially in the treatment of arthrodesis and fracture healing, specifically addressing the complications of delayed union and nonunion. The triad concept of cellularity, critical growth factors, and matrix augmentation has ushered in a new clinical era and excitement. Despite these advances, we continue to see nonunion rates after elective arthrodesis between 7% and 10%, and of the estimated 8 million fractures in the United States, 5% to 10% continue to have issues in healing. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Sheldon S. Lin Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Bone Grafts, Bone Graft Substitutes, and Biologics in Foot and Ankle Surgery
FOOT AND ANKLE CLINICS (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Sheldon S. Lin Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contributors
MARK S. MYERSON, MD (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contents
Sheldon Lin (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Current Controversies in Foot and Ankle Trauma (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Index
Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - November 19, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Percutaneous Surgery for Mild to Moderate Hallux Valgus
This article describes the surgery technique, including reduction of the first metatarsal head after translation, accurate positioning of the proximal first metatarsal fixation screw, and removal of the dorsomedial prominence of the first metatarsal head. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 13, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Peter Lam, Moses Lee, Jerry Xing, Martin Di Nallo Source Type: research

Percutaneous Surgery for Severe Hallux Valgus
Severe hallux valgus is a challenge to treat. If the basal osteotomy is a well known surgery for severe deformity, the chevron osteotomy is usually used in mild to moderate deformity. With a accurent fixation the chevron can also be used in severe deformity. Both techniques can be performed percutaneously and offer reliable techniques. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 13, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Joel Vernois, David J. Redfern Source Type: research

Percutaneous Surgery for Metatarsalgia and the Lesser Toes
The traditional open surgical options for the treatment of metatarsalgia and lesser toe deformities are limited and often result in unintentional stiffness. The use of percutaneous techniques for the treatment of metatarsalgia and lesser toe deformities allows a more versatile and tailor-made approach to the individual deformities. As with all percutaneous techniques, it is vital the surgeon engage in cadaveric training from surgeons experienced in these techniques before introducing them into his/her clinical practice. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 13, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: David J. Redfern, Joel Vernois Source Type: research

A Proposed Staging Classification for Minimally Invasive Management of Haglund's Syndrome with Percutaneous and Endoscopic Surgery
Haglund ’s syndrome encompasses several different pathologies, including Haglund’s deformity, insertional Achilles tendonopathy, retrocalcaneal bursitis, and superficial bursitis. Traditionally treated with open surgery, there is increasing interest in a more minimally invasive approach to this difficul t region to reduce complications and improve the rate and ease of recovery. We review the evidence available for 2 of these techniques: the endoscopic calcaneoplasty and percutaneous Zadek’s calcaneal osteotomy (also known as Keck and Kelly’s osteotomy). The senior author’s classification for m...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 13, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Turab Arshad Syed, Anthony Perera Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Osteotomies of the Calcaneus
Osteotomies of the calcaneus are powerful surgical tools, representing a critical component of the surgical reconstruction of pes planus and pes cavus deformity. Modern minimally invasive calcaneal osteotomies can be performed safely with a burr through a lateral incision. Although greater kerf is generated with the burr, the effect is modest, can be minimized, and is compatible with many fixation techniques. A hinged jig renders the procedure more reproducible and accessible. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 13, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Gregory P. Guyton Source Type: research

Percutaneous Hindfoot and Midfoot Fusion
Hindfoot and midfoot fusions can be performed with percutaneous techniques. Preliminary results of these procedures are encouraging because they provide similar results than those obtained with open techniques with less morbidity and quick recovery. The best indications are probably fusions for mild-to-moderate reducible hindfoot and midfoot deformities in fragile patients with general or local bad conditions. The main limit is linked to the surgeon ’s experience in percutaneous foot surgery because a learning curve with the specific tools is necessary before doing these procedures. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 13, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Thomas Bauer Source Type: research

Endoscopic Ankle Lateral Ligament Graft Anatomic Reconstruction
This article describes an endoscopic technique, using a step-by-step approach, to reconstruct the ATFL and CFL with a gracilis graft. The endoscopic technique is reproducible and safe with regard to the surrounding anatomic structures. Short and midterm results confirm the benefits of this technique. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 13, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Frederick Michels, Guillaume Cordier, St éphane Guillo, Filip Stockmans, ESKKA-AFAS Ankle Instability Group Source Type: research

Managing Complications of Percutaneous Surgery of the First Metatarsal
The percutaneous osteotomy based on a Hohmanntype first metatarsal subcapital linear osteotomy was introduced into Mainland China in the late 1980s. No internal fixation is used for stabilization of the osteotomy, leading unfortunately to unpredictable results. Despite its high acceptance by patients and enthusiasm by surgeons at present, the clinical outcomes of percutaneous surgery have not been promising. The authors have no experience of performing this osteotomy and report only on their management of the complications of this technique and their recommended treatment algorithm. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 13, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Shu-Yuan Li, Jian-Zhong Zhang, Yong-Tao Zhang Source Type: research

Neuropathic Minimally Invasive Surgeries (NEMESIS):
Patients with peripheral neuropathy associated with ulceration are the nemesis of the orthopedic foot and ankle surgeon. Diabetic foot syndrome is the leading cause of peripheral neuropathy, and its prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate. Poor wound healing, nonunion, infection, and risk of amputation contribute to the understandable caution toward this patient group. Significant metalwork is required to hold these technically challenging deformities. Neuropathic Minimally Invasive Surgeries is an addition to the toolbox of management of the diabetic foot. It may potentially reduce the risk associated with la...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 13, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Roslyn J. Miller Source Type: research

Arthroscopic Subtalar, Double, and Triple Fusion
Arthroscopic approaches to subtalar, double, and triple arthrodesis allow relative preservation of the soft tissue envelope compared with traditional open approaches. The surgical technique involving the use of a 4.5-mm 30 ° arthroscope via sinus tarsi portals is described. All 3 joints of the triple joint can be prepared for fusion with motorized burrs. Rigid fixation is achieved with cannulated screws. High union rates and low complication rates have been reported. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 13, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Richard Walter, Stephen Parsons, Ian Winson Source Type: research

Advances in Minimally Invasive Surgery of the Foot and Ankle —Percutaneous, Arthroscopic, and Endoscopic Operative Techniques
The development in our understanding of the foot and ankle over the last 20 years has given us a very good idea of what needs to be changed in order to correct most conditions. In addition, over the last 10 years, there has been a major focus on advances in implant technology and options to the extent that the reliability of achieving and maintaining that correction has also greatly improved. However, in contrast to other fields, for instance, trauma surgery where minimizing the approach is an important driver of change, little has changed with regard to the surgical approach in the foot and ankle. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 13, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Anthony Perera Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Surgery in the Foot and Ankle
FOOT AND ANKLE CLINICS (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 13, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Anthony Perera Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 13, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contributors
MARK S. MYERSON, MD (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 13, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contents
Anthony Perera (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 13, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Bone Grafts, Bone Graft Substitutes, and Biologics in Foot and Ankle Surgery (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 13, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Index
Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - August 13, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Percutaneous Pediatric Foot and Ankle Surgery
The techniques for performing percutaneous osteotomies in treating deformities of the foot in children are presented along with a detailed description of the operative details. The author ’s use of minimal-access surgery for tibial, os calcis, and midfoot osteotomies is described using a cooled side-cutting burr that has not previously been described for use in the child’s foot. The cancellous nature of the bones in the child are easily cut with the burr and the adjacent soft tis sues are not damaged. The early experience of the healing times are not impaired and the complications associated with percutaneous s...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - June 28, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Michael G. Uglow Source Type: research

Percutaneous Pediatric Foot and Ankle Surgery
The techniques for performing percutaneous osteotomies in treating deformities of the foot in children are presented along with a detailed description of the operative details. The author’s use of minimal-access surgery for tibial, os calcis, and midfoot osteotomies is described using a cooled side-cutting burr that has not previously been described for use in the child’s foot. The cancellous nature of the bones in the child are easily cut with the burr and the adjacent soft tissues are not damaged. The early experience of the healing times are not impaired and the complications associated with percutaneous sca...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - June 28, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Michael G. Uglow Source Type: research

Total Toe Replacement in the United States
This article reviews the literature for implants currently available and describes the surgical techniques. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 31, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Michael D. Johnson, Michael E. Brage Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Forefoot Surgery in France
The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 31, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tristan Meusnier, Prikesht Mukish Source Type: research

State-of-the-Art in Ankle Fracture Management in Chile
The ankle represents the most commonly injured weightbearing joint in the human body. They are typically the result of low-energy, rotational injury mechanisms. However, ankle fractures represent a spectrum of injury patterns from simple to very complex, with varying incidence of posttraumatic arthritis. Stable injury patterns can be treated nonoperatively; unstable injury patterns are typically treated operatively given that they could lead to severe arthritis if not properly addressed. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 31, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Cristián A. Ortiz, Pablo Wagner, Emilio Wagner Source Type: research

Recent Advances in Egypt for Treatment of Talar Osteochondral Lesions
This article highlights current state-of-the-art techniques and reviews recent advances in the literature about articular cartilage repair using various novel tissue engineering approaches, including various scaffolds, growth factors, and cell niches; which include chondrocytes and culture-expanded bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 31, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Amgad M. Haleem, Mostafa M. AbouSayed, Mohammed Gomaa Source Type: research

Total Ankle Arthroplasty
Total ankle arthroplasty use has increased across Canada over the last two decades. Multiple implant designs are readily available and implanted across Canada. Although arthrodesis is a reliable procedure for treating end-stage ankle arthritis, ankle replacement is often the preferred surgical treatment by patients. A recent prospective study evaluated intermediate-term outcomes of ankle replacement and arthrodesis at multiple centers across Canada, with variability in prosthesis type, surgeon, and surgical technique. Intermediate-term clinical outcomes of total ankle replacement and ankle arthrodesis were comparable ...
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 31, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Warren C.W. Latham, Johnny T.C. Lau Source Type: research

My Experience as a Foot and Ankle Trauma Surgeon in Montreal, Canada
This article outlines numerous techniques and tricks that are not always mentioned in classic textbooks. It focuses on ankle, talus, calcaneus, and midfoot fractures, and discusses numerous techniques and aids to avoid potential problems that may be encountered intraoperatively. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 31, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Stéphane Leduc, Marie-Lyne Nault, Dominique M. Rouleau, Jonah Hebert-Davies Source Type: research

Preface
Today’s world disseminates information at a rapid rate, with the Internet and social media bringing current events, in real time, into our homes. Progress occurs at a much faster pace than many of us are accustomed to. Innovation in health care is not only driven by technology, it is also driven by ideas. In this information age, the rapid spread of data allows all of us access to the same ideas and technology, regardless of nationality or location. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 31, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: John G. Anderson, Donald R. Bohay Source Type: research

New Ideas and Techniques in Foot and Ankle Surgery: A Global Perspective
FOOT AND ANKLE CLINICS (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 31, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: John G. Anderson, Donald R. Bohay Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 31, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contributors
MARK S. MYERSON, MD (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 31, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Contents
John G. Anderson and Donald R. Bohay (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 31, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Minimally Invasive Surgery in the Foot and Ankle (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 31, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Index
Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type. (Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics)
Source: Foot and Ankle Clinics - May 31, 2016 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research