Differential utility of teacher and parent –teacher combined information in the assessment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms
ConclusionsParent and teacher-INFAs provide different kinds of information, while both are useful. Teacher-INFA and the ‘and-rule’ provide a more accurate index of severity than an additive symptom count. Parent-INFA and the ‘or-rule’ are more sensitive for detecting cases with milder ADHD. (Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - April 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Associations between road traffic noise exposure at home and school and ADHD in school-aged children: the TRAILS study
AbstractEnvironmental noise may play a role in the manifestation and severity of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, but evidence is limited. We investigated the cross-sectional associations between residential and school road traffic noise exposure and ADHD symptoms and diagnosis. The sample includedn = 1710, 10–12-year-old children from the TRAILS study in The Netherlands. ADHD symptoms were measured using a DSM-IV based subscale from the Child Behavior Checklist. Children with diagnosed ADHD originated from the clinic-referred cohort. Road traffic noise (Lden) was estimated at t...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - April 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prenatal and perinatal factors associated with ADHD risk in schoolchildren: EPINED epidemiological study
In conclusion, metabolic disorder in the pregnancy, dif ficulties in childbirth and specific family phenotype were related to ADHD, specifically with hyperactive–impulsive presentation, but not in subclinical ADHD. (Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - April 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sustained remission of child depression despite drift in parent emotion management skills 18 weeks following Parent Child Interaction Therapy: emotion development
AbstractWhether effects of psychotherapies for depression are sustained after treatment is an important clinical issue. In older depressed children and adolescents such treatments have been shown to be sustained for several months. Rates of remission ranged from 62 –69% at 3 months–1 year in one large scale study. To date there has been no data to inform whether the effects of earlier interventions for depression in the preschool period are sustained. To address this, we used data from a randomized controlled trial of a novel early intervention for depre ssion called “Parent Child Interaction Th...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - April 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Tailoring treatments for adolescents with nonsuicidal self-injury
AbstractNonsuicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) in adolescence is highly prevalent and seems to be on the rise. To deliver evidence-based treatments to a large and growing number of adolescents, it is crucial to provide scaleable, manualized interventions that have the potential to fit into a stepped-care approach. The work by Kaess et al. (2019) was able to show a reduction of NSSI both by the brief intervention"Cutting Down", as well as by regular psychotherapeutic treatment. Future treatment strategies for NSSI should tailor treatment approaches to fit adolescents ´ needs (Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ten-year changes in the psychosocial well-being, psychopathology, substance use, suicidality, bullying, and sense of coherence of 18-year-old males: a Finnish population-based time-trend study
AbstractWe studied Finnish 18-year-old males attending obligatory military call-up assessments in 1999 (n = 2340) and 2009 (n = 4309) on time-trend changes in psychosocial well-being, psychopathology, substance use, suicidality, bullying, and sense of coherence. Subjects filled in questionnaires, including the Young Adult Self-Report (YASR) for psychopathology and the Orientation to Life Questionnaire (SOC-13) for sen se of coherence. The prevalence of minor mental health problems in the last 6 months decreased from 22.3% in 1999 to 18.6% in 2009 (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7–0.9), whereas seve...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

What makes adolescents psychologically distressed? Life events as risk factors for depression and suicide
This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the distribution of major stress-causing factors and their correlates in a large population of adolescents. A computerized self-report questionnaire was completed by 291,110 participating adolescents over a 4-year period using a cross-sectional study design. The questionnaire included items assessing demographic variables, major stressors, severity of perceived stress, and mental health outcomes such as depressed mood, suicidal ideation, and attempts. Among the major stressors, schoolwork/career was the most predominant (54.7%). However, the odds ratios for depressed mood and...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Omega-3 supplementation, child antisocial behavior, and psychopathic personality: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, parallel group trial
This study examines whether omega-3 supplementation reduces antisocial behavior, and whether any treatment effects are a function of gender and psychopathy. Three hundred and twenty-four schoolchildren with a mean age of 11.9  years were randomized into 3 groups: omega-3 (N = 108), placebo (N = 110), and no-treatment controls (N = 106). Parent and child reports of child antisocial and aggressive behavior and psychopathic-like personality were collected at 0 months (baseline), 6 months (end of treatment), and 12 months (6 months post-treatment). A group&thin...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sensory processing related to attention in children with ASD, ADHD, or typical development: results from the ELENA cohort
AbstractAutism-spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are early neurodevelopmental conditions that share clinical characteristics, raising important issues in clinical diagnosis. We aimed to compare (1) sensory processing in four groups of children: ASD alone, ASD  + ADHD, ADHD alone, and typical development (TD) and (2) the association between sensory processing and attention in the three groups with neurodevelopmental disorders. Our sample included 120 children aged from 6 to 12 years divided into four groups: ASD alone (N = 43), ASD + AD...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A supportive school environment may reduce the risk of non-medical prescription opioid use due to impaired mental health among students
AbstractCanada is in the midst of an ongoing, escalating opioid crisis, with significant impacts on adolescents and young adults. Accordingly, mental health impairment was examined as a risk factor for non-medical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) among high school students. In addition, the moderating effects of the school environment, in terms of the availability of mental health services and substance use policies, were characterized. Self-reported, cross-sectional data were obtained from the COMPASS study, including 61,239 students (grades 9 –12) in 121 secondary schools across Canada. Current and lifetime NMPOU we...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Involvement of fear, incompleteness, and disgust during symptoms of pediatric obsessive –compulsive disorder
AbstractFear has been assigned a central role in models of obsessive –compulsive disorder (OCD), but empirical investigations into the emotions that underpin OCD symptoms are few, especially in pediatric samples. Using validated, clinician-led structured interviews, 124 youth with OCD reported on the presence and severity of symptoms across the main symptom dimensi ons of OCD (aggressive, symmetry, contamination) and the degree to which fear, incompleteness, and disgust accompanied these symptoms. For comparison purposes, the degree of fear, incompleteness, and disgust during symptoms was obtained also from youth wit...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Association between the change of total cholesterol during adolescence and depressive symptoms in early adulthood
AbstractIncreasing evidence suggests that serum lipids are associated with depressive symptoms. However, previous studies have mostly employed a cross-sectional design and assessed middle-aged or older adult populations, making it difficult to discern the impact of lipid changes early in life on the development of depression. Accordingly, we sought to investigate changes in blood cholesterol levels during adolescence and the development of depressive symptoms in early adulthood. This prospective cohort study included participants aged 15 –16 years from the JS High School Study (JSHS), with an average follow-up o...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The forest, the trees, and the leaves in preterm children: the impact of prematurity on a visual search task containing three-level hierarchical stimuli
AbstractVery preterm (VPT;  
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Help-seeking attitudes and intentions for generalised anxiety disorder in adolescents: the role of anxiety literacy and stigma
AbstractHelp seeking for anxiety tends to be low in adolescents. Identifying modifiable factors that may facilitate help seeking is important. The aim of the current study is to test the effects of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) literacy and stigma (personal and perceived) on attitudes and intentions toward seeking help from professionals and key adult sources. 1767 adolescents aged 12 –18 years participated in the current study and completed measures of GAD literacy, GAD stigma, professional help-seeking attitudes, and intentions to seek help from a range of sources. The results of the study found that part...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems among Chinese school children and adolescents aged 6 –16: a national survey
AbstractImproving the mental health of children and adolescents is a critical priority in China. However, only minimal information is available concerning the prevalence of mental disorders. In the present study, a two-stage national survey has been completed in five regions of China. In the first stage, data from the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were collected for each participant to identify the prevalence of the behavioral and emotional problems in China. A multistage cluster stratified random sampling design was used, and a total of 71,929 individuals aged 6 –16 years were collected. In this lar...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviors in gender non-conforming youths: a meta-analysis
AbstractGender identity represents a topic of growing interest in mental health research. People with non-conforming gender identity are prone to suffer from stigmatization and bullying and often present psychiatric issues, which may in turn lead to a high prevalence of suicidal ideation and behaviors. The present meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviors in gender non-conforming children, adolescents and young adults. A systematic search was performed in Web of Science and PsycINFO from inception to December 2018. We selected cross-sectional and cohort studies including you...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Online sexual harassment and negative mood in Croatian female adolescents
This study sought to explore the role of resilience in explaining the association between online sexual harassment (OSH) and negative mood (i.e., depression and anxiety symptoms) among female adolescents. Using data from a panel sample of 477 female Croatian adolescents (age at baseline  = 15.8 years; SD = 0.48) and two-wave cross-lagged path analysis, we investigated OSH, changes in depression/anxiety symptoms, association between OSH and negative mood, and the role of resilience. During the 26-month period under observation, OSH and negative mood were associated cross-se ctionally, but no...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Predicting the risk of depression among adolescents in Nepal using a model developed in Brazil: the IDEA Project
AbstractThe burden of adolescent depression is high in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet research into prevention is lacking. Development and validation of models to predict individualized risk of depression among adolescents in LMICs is rare but crucial to ensure appropriate targeting of preventive interventions. We assessed the ability of a model developed in Brazil, a middle-income country, to predict depression in an existing culturally different adolescent cohort from Nepal, a low-income country with a large youth population with high rates of depression. Data were utilized from the longitudinal study of 2...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: Repeating a suicide attempt during adolescence: risk and protective factors 12  months after hospitalization
In the original article, incorrect Table  1 was published. The correct Table 1 is given below. (Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Task-related motivation and academic achievement in children and adolescents with ADHD
AbstractAcademic impairment in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is in part due to reduced motivation for academic tasks, which is likely to vary as a function of task characteristics. The current study employed a new questionnaire —the Child and Adolescent Motivational Profile (CHAMP)—to examine; (1) which task characteristic participants with ADHD perceive as most motivating relative to typically developing peers (TDP) and (2) whether these differences mediate academic functioning. 34 participants with ADHD and 435 TDP ( 8–16 years) completed the CHAMP. Academic achie...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A dual perspective on first-session therapeutic alliance: strong predictor of youth mental health and addiction treatment outcome
AbstractWe investigated the potential role of first-session therapeutic alliance ratings to serve as an early marker of treatment outcome in youth mental health and addiction treatment. The present study is among the first to incorporate both a youths ’ and a therapists’ perspective of the therapeutic alliance in order to maximize predictive value of the alliance for treatment outcome. One hundred and twenty-seven adolescents participated in a multi-site prospective naturalistic clinical cohort study, with assessments at baseline and at 4 mo nths post-baseline. Main outcome measure was favorable or unfavor...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Clinical high risk for psychosis model in children and adolescents: a joint position statement of ESCAP Clinical Division and Research Academy
(Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Lifetime psychopathology in child and adolescent offspring of parents diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder: a 2-year follow-up study
This study included 41 offspring of parents with schizophrenia, 90 offspring of parents with bipolar disorder, and 107 offspring of controls (mean age 11.7  ± 3.2 at baseline and 13.9 ± 3.2 at follow-up). The prevalence of psychopathology and comorbidity was higher in offspring of parents with schizophrenia and offspring of parents with bipolar disorder than in offspring of controls at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Interestingly, mood dis orders were more prevalent in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder and disruptive disorders were more prevalent in offspring of parents...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prevalence of mental illness among parents of children receiving treatment within child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS): a scoping review
AbstractPeople affected by mental illness often come from families with patterns of mental illness that span across generations. Hence, child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) likely provide treatment to many children with parents who also experience mental illness. The aim of this scoping review was to: (1) identify the prevalence of mental illness among parents of children in CAMHS; (2) identify and appraise the methodologies that have been implemented to assess the prevalence of parental mental illness in CAMHS; (3) identify additional circumstances associated with families where both parent and child experi...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - March 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effectiveness of current psychological interventions to improve emotion regulation in youth: a meta-analysis
AbstractBackgroundResearch investigating the role of emotion regulation (ER) in the development and treatment of psychopathology has increased in recent years. Evidence suggests that an increased focus on ER in treatment can improve existing interventions. Most ER research has neglected young people, therefore the present meta-analysis summarizes the evidence for existing psychosocial intervention and their effectiveness to improve ER in youth. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Twenty-one randomized-control-trials (RCTs) assessed changes in ER following a psychological ...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

You are what you eat or you eat what you are?
(Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Early non-social behavioural indicators of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in siblings at elevated likelihood for ASD: a systematic review
AbstractWe aimed at identifying early non-social behavioural indicators that predict later ASD. Likewise, we were interested in the moment in which non-social signs discriminate between children at elevated likelihood for ASD with a later diagnosis of ASD, and children at elevated likelihood for ASD with a typical developmental outcome. In addition, we intended to explore the developmental evolution of children ’s symptomatology over time. A systematic literature search was conducted for longitudinal studies on early non-social behavioural indicators among siblings at elevated likelihood for ASD. The following databa...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Do the socioeconomic context and the European geographical area modify parental influences on smoking experimentation among adolescents?
AbstractAdolescent smoking is a major public health problem. While the socioeconomic status (SES) of the neighbourhood and that of the family are known to play a role in smoking onset and progression, it is not clear whether it modifies the association between parental influences and adolescent behaviour. The purpose of this study is to investigate family correlates of adolescent smoking experimentation and to explore the modifying role of socioeconomic context and European geographical area in a sample of European adolescents. This is a secondary analysis of the baseline survey of the European Drug Addiction Prevention (E...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

How well are DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ASD represented in standardized diagnostic instruments?
This study aimed to: (1) establish the content validity of these three DSM-5-adapted algorithms, and (2) identify problems with the operationalization of DSM-5 diagnostic criteria in measurable and observable behaviors. Algorithm items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule —Second Edition (ADOS-2), Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview (3di) and Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders—11th edition (DISCO-11) were mapped onto DSM-5 sub-criteria. The development and decision-making rules integrated in their algorithms were then comp ared with DSM-5. Results demonstrated s...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effectiveness comparisons of various psychosocial therapies for children and adolescents with depression: a Bayesian network meta-analysis
This study may provide an excellent resource for future endeavors to utilize psychosocial interventions and may also serve as a springboard for creative undertakings as yet unknown. (Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Risk factors for obsessive –compulsive symptoms. Follow-up of a community-based youth cohort
AbstractEnvironmental factors are at least as important as genetic factors for the development of obsessive –compulsive symptoms (OCS), but the identification of such factors remain a research priority. Our study aimed to investigate the association between a broad scope of potential risk factors and OCS in a large community cohort of children and adolescents. We evaluated 1877 participants and their ca regivers at baseline and after 3 years to assess various demographic, prenatal, perinatal, childhood adversity, and psychopathological factors. Mean age at baseline was 10.2 years (SD 1.9) and mean age at fo...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Trajectories of depressive symptoms through adolescence and young adulthood: social and health outcomes
This study aimed to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood, assessing the association with social and health outcomes at young adulthood. Adolescents born in 1990, enrolled in schools of Porto, Portugal, in 2003 –2004 (EPITeen study) completed the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) at 13, 17 and 21 years. Mixed models and model-based clustering were used to describe the trajectories in the BDI-II score (n = 2010). Outcomes were assessed at age 21 years with self-administered questionnaires and face-to-face interviews (n = 1594). Odds r...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Comparison of suicide risk and other outcomes among boys and girls who self-harm
AbstractLittle is known about sex differences in outcomes of self-harm, and there are inconclusive results concerning the association between sex, self-harm, and suicide attempts. The aim of this study was to explore sex differences in outcomes of self-harm in adolescence. In this cohort study, all individuals (0 –17 years) enrolled at the child- and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in Stockholm between 2001 and 2015 (N = 110,072) were followed in national registers from their last contact with the CAMHS, until end of 2015. Exposure was self-harm as reason for contact, outcome measures wer...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Familial aggregation analysis of cognitive performance in early-onset bipolar disorder
AbstractWe analysed the familial aggregation (familiality) of cognitive dimensions and explored their role as liability markers for early-onset bipolar disorder (EOBD). The sample comprised 99 subjects from 26 families, each with an offspring diagnosed with EOBD. Four cognitive dimensions were assessed: reasoning skills; attention and working memory; memory; and executive functions. Their familiality was investigated in the total sample and in a subset of healthy relatives. The intra-family resemblance score (IRS), a family-based index of the similarity of cognitive performance among family members, was calculated. Familia...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Repeating a suicide attempt during adolescence: risk and protective factors 12  months after hospitalization
AbstractSuicide attempts (SAs) are a public health concern in adolescence. A brief hospitalization is recommended, but access to inpatient wards is often not available. In addition, numerous risk factors for SA recurrence have been identified, but few studies have explored protective factors. Here, we aimed to assess the role of both risk and protective factors on SA relapse in a context of free access to inpatient services. We performed a prospective follow-up study of 320 adolescents who were hospitalized for an SA between January 2011 and December 2014 in France. Assessments at baseline included socio-demographics, clin...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prescribing antipsychotics in child and adolescent psychiatry: guideline adherence
AbstractAntipsychotics are often prescribed to children and adolescents, mostly off-label. We aimed to assess adherence to recommendations of guidelines for antipsychotic prescription. We reviewed 436 medical records from 155 clinicians from 26 clinics within three Dutch child and adolescent psychiatry organizations (n = 398 outpatient,n = 38 inpatient care). We assessed target symptoms, diagnostic process, prior and concomitant treatment, and consideration of contra-indications. Multiple logistic regression assessed the role of age, sex, and psychiatric diagnosis on adherence to three main reco...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Negative and disorganized symptoms mediate the relationship between verbal learning and global functioning in adolescents with early-onset psychosis
AbstractNeurocognitive deficits are associated with impaired global functioning and psychotic symptoms. However, whether symptoms can mediate the relationship between neurocognition and global functioning in adolescent psychosis is unclear. Here, we investigated if symptoms assessed with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), mediated the relationship between neurocognitive performance and global functioning in adolescents with non-affective early-onset psychotic disorders (EOP). Sixty-one adolescent EOP patients (age 12 –18 years) from 2 Norwegian clinical cohorts were included. Linear regression mod...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Emotional scene processing in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review
Abstract“Impairments in emotional information processing are frequently reported in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at a voluntary, explicit level (e.g., emotion recognition) and at an involuntary, implicit level (e.g., emotional interference). Most of previous studies have used faces with emotional expressions, rarely examining other important sources of information usually co-occurring with faces in our every day experience. Here, we examined how the emotional content of an entire visual scene depicting real-world environments and situations is processed in ADHD. We systematically reviewed in PubMed...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Influence of coping strategies on the efficacy of YAM (Youth Aware of Mental Health): a universal school-based suicide preventive program
AbstractThe school-based mental health promotion and suicide prevention universal program Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM) significantly reduces incident suicide attempts and severe suicidal ideation. This paper aims at elucidating psychological mechanisms underlying YAM ’s efficacy. Our hypothesis is that YAM operates through interactions with coping strategies (CS) on the reduction of suicidal ideation (SI). In the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study, five coping strategies were assessed at baseline (T0) and 12-month follow-up (T12): “lea rning”, “help-seeking”, &ldqu...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Investigating the association between family connectedness and self-control in adolescence in a genetically sensitive design
AbstractFamily connectedness is key for the development of self-control in early and middle childhood. But is family connectedness still important during the transitional phase of adolescence, when adolescents demand more independence from their parents and rely more on their peers? The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between family connectedness and self-control, and whether it still holds in adolescence using a genetically sensitive design. Data were used from a large sample of twins aged 14 (N = 11,260) and aged 16 (N = 8175), all enrolled in the Netherlands Twin R...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Transitions between socio-emotional and cognitive vulnerability profiles from early to middle childhood: a population study using multi-agency administrative records
AbstractAdult psychosocial difficulties, including psychiatric disorders, are often preceded by childhood psychosocial vulnerabilities, presenting critical windows of opportunity for preventative intervention. The present study aimed to identify longitudinal patterns (representing transitions between profiles) of childhood socio-emotional and cognitive vulnerability in the general population from early to middle childhood, in relation to key risk factors (e.g. parental mental illness and offending). Data were drawn from the New South Wales Child Development Study, which combines intergenerational multi-agency administrativ...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Subjective experience of social cognition in adolescents at ultra-high risk of psychosis: findings from a 24-month follow-up study
AbstractDeficits in social cognition have been reported in people at ultra-high risk (UHR) of psychosis exclusively using socio-cognitive tasks and in adolescent and young adult mixed population. Aim of this study was (1) to assess subjective experience of social cognition in adolescent help-seekers identified through UHR criteria, (2) to explore its significant correlations with psychopathology and functioning in UHR individuals; and (3) to monitor longitudinally its stability after a 24-month follow-up period. Participants [51 UHR, 91 first-episode psychosis (FEP), and 48 non-UHR/FEP patients], aged 13 –18 yea...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Individual prediction of symptomatic converters in youth offspring of bipolar parents using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy
In this study, we used support vector machine (SVM) to characterize the potential of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in predicting the first mood episode in youth bipolar offspring. From a longitudinal neuroimaging study, 19 at-risk youth who developed their first mood episode (converters), and 19 without mood episodes during follow-up (non-converters) were selected and matched for age, sex and follow-up time. Baseline1H-MRS data were obtained from anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). Glutamate (Glu), myo-inositol (mI), choline (Cho),N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Co-occurring obsessive –compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorder in young people: prevalence, clinical characteristics and outcomes
This study examined the prevalence, clinical correlates and outcomes of paediatric OCD co-occurring with ASD (OCD + ASD) in a large clinical cohort. Data were extracted from electronic clinical records of young people aged 4–17 years who had attended a mental health trust in South London, United Kingdom. We identified young people with diagnoses of O CD + ASD (n = 335), OCD without ASD (n = 1010), and ASD without OCD (n = 6577). 25% of youth with OCD had a diagnosis of ASD, while 5% of those with ASD had a diagnosis of OCD. At diagnosis, youth...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Can auditory warning signals normalize eye movements in children with ADHD?
We examined 71 children, of which 1/3 had a diagnosis of ADHD, using both dimensional analyses and group comparisons. Previously reported findings of reduced saccadic latency and increased latency variability were replicated. Importantly, saccadic latency was normalized by auditory warning signals. Analyses of pupil dilation, a physiological index of arousal and locus coeruleus-noradrenergic activity, confirmed that warning signals led to enhanced arousal. Our findings are novel and contribute to our understanding of arousal and attention in ADHD and have implications for treatment and interventions. (Source: European Chil...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - February 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Characteristics of child psychiatric outpatients with slow processing speed and potential mechanisms of academic impact
AbstractWhile slow processing speed (PS) is well documented in youth with ADHD, growing evidence suggests that this difficulty affects children with other neuropsychiatric conditions. Clarifying the relationship between slow PS and different forms of psychopathology is important clinically, given the potential impact of PS on academic functioning, and conceptually. In 751 youth, ages 6 –21, consecutively referred for neuropsychiatric evaluation, we examined the association between slow PS (i.e., Wechsler PS Index 
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - January 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The pitfalls of universalism in child and adolescent psychiatry
(Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - January 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Why do children and adolescents (not) seek and access professional help for their mental health problems? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies
AbstractMental health disorders in children and adolescents are highly prevalent yet undertreated. A detailed understanding of the reasons for not seeking or accessing help as perceived by young people is crucial to address this gap. We conducted a systematic review (PROSPERO 42018088591) of quantitative and qualitative studies reporting barriers and facilitators to children and adolescents seeking and accessing professional help for mental health problems. We identified 53 eligible studies; 22 provided quantitative data, 30 provided qualitative data, and one provided both. Four main barrier/facilitator themes were identif...
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - January 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Correction to: The child and adolescent psychiatry: study of training in Europe (CAP ‑STATE)
The original article has been corrected. (Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - January 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A short note on the reliability of perceptual timing tasks as commonly used in research on developmental disorders
ConclusionsOur findings call for more frequent use of the time estimation paradigm in studies of perceptual timing in ADHD. The time reproduction paradigm should be re-considered, avoiding pooling of a wide range of time intervals (2 –48 s). The accuracy coefficient score is the more reliable and the more intuitive dependent variable and should be preferred in future timing research. To increase the reliability of the timing measurement, each experimental session should be performed twice, if possible. (Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - January 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research