Hypoxic regulation of EDN1, EDNRA, EDNRB, and ECE1 gene expressions in ERN1 knockdown U87 glioma cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this investigation demonstrate that ERN1 knockdown significantly increased the expression of endothelin-1 and its receptors as well as ECE1 genes by different mechanisms and that all studied gene expressions were sensitive to hypoxia. It is possible that hypoxic regulation of the expression of these genes is a result of complex interaction of variable ERN1 related transcription and regulatory factors with HIF1A and possibly contributed to the control of glioma growth. PMID: 31734650 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - November 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

The bone hormones and their potential effects on glucose and energy metabolism.
Authors: Addai D, Zarkos J, Tolekova A Abstract The bones form the framework of our body. We know that bones protect our vital organs, regulate calcium and phosphorous homeostasis, and function as a site of erythropoiesis. More recently, however, the identification of bone hormones has allowed us to envision bones as endocrine organs too. Within the last few years, the bone hormones osteocalcin and lipocalin 2 have been implicated with glucose and energy metabolism. We systematically reviewed articles surrounding this subject and found a clear relationship between the osteocalcin levels and glucose tolerance and in...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - November 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Comparing the preventive effect of sodium hydrosulfide, leptin, and curcumin against L-arginine induced acute pancreatitis in rats: role of corticosterone and inducible nitric oxide synthase.
CONCLUSIONS: NaHS was more effective in AP amelioration than the leptin and curcumin. PMID: 31734652 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - November 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Effect of glucose deprivation on the expression of genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor and some related factors in ERN1-knockdown U87 glioma cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study demonstrated that glucose deprivation did not change the expression level of NR3C1 gene but it significantly affected the expression of NR3C2, AHR, NRIP, SGK1, SGK3, and NNT genes in vector-transfected U87 glioma cells in gene specific manner and possibly contributed to the control of glioma growth since the expression of most studied genes in glucose deprivation condition was significantly dependent on the functional activity of IRE1 signaling enzyme. PMID: 31734653 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - November 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

The coexistence of infundibular pituicytoma and Cushing's disease due to pituitary adenoma: A case report.
CONCLUSIONS: Pituicytoma is an uncommon noninvasive tumor of the sellar and suprasellar regions. In this case report, we described a patient with Cushing's disease to whom MRI displayed only an infundibular well-circumscribed lesion, but not any pituitary adenoma. Despite the absence of any sellar lesion, awareness of other undetected possible lesion and exploring hypophysis during the transsphenoidal surgery is mandatory for the correct diagnosis. PMID: 31734654 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - November 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Early postnatal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reduced insulin sensitivity in adult rats.
Authors: Sadeghimahalli F, Zardooz H, Golchoobian R Abstract OBJECTIVE: Early life stress influences the development of metabolic disorders, including functional changes in the developing of pancreas mediated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In the present study, the role of an early postnatal stress on corticosterone, glucose, and insulin levels was investigated during young adulthood. METHODS: Two groups of pups were studied, including control group (pups not receiving foot shock by communication box), and early stress group (pups receiving foot shock by communication box 2 times/day for 5 consecuti...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - November 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Effect of letrozole on spermogram parameters and hormonal profile in infertile men: A clinical trial study.
CONCLUSION: The ratio of testosterone to estradiol levels in infertile men treated with aromatase inhibitor improved and caused changes in sperm parameters. Letrozole may be used to improve sperm parameters in infertile men with low serum testosterone to estradiol ratio. PMID: 31734656 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - November 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Periaqueductal gray and emotions: the complexity of the problem and the light at the end of the tunnel, the magnetic resonance imaging.
Authors: Zelena D, Menant O, Andersson F, Chaillou E Abstract The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is less referred in relationship with emotions than other parts of the brain (e.g. cortex, thalamus, amygdala), most probably because of the difficulty to reach and manipulate this small and deeply lying structure. After defining how to evaluate emotions, we have reviewed the literature and summarized data of the PAG contribution to the feeling of emotions focusing on the behavioral and neurochemical considerations. In humans, emotions can be characterized by three main domains: the physiological changes, the communicative e...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Association between adiponectin rs17300539 and rs266729 gene polymorphisms with serum adiponectin level in an Iranian diabetic/pre-diabetic population.
CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that there is an association between rs17300539 with the increase of T2DM but rs266729 showed no association with the risk of T2DM. Allele A of rs17300539 increased the risk of diabetes. There is no association between adiponectin level and both polymorphisms. PMID: 31517610 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

STAT3 and Nrf2 pathways modulate the protective effect of verapamil on lung injury of diabetic rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Verapamil afforded protection in diabetic lung injury. The protection was mediated by the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of verapamil. PMID: 31517611 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome as a systemic disease with multiple molecular pathways: a narrative review.
Authors: Carvalho LML, Dos Reis FM, Candido AL, Nunes FFC, Ferreira CN, Gomes KB Abstract Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, amenorrhea, and polycystic ovaries. This endocrinopathy is associated with many metabolic disorders such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular complications. Inflammation is likely to play an important role in the promoting these metabolic imbalances, while prothrombotic and pro-oxidative mechanisms further contribute to the cardiovascular risk of these patients. The e...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Effects of short- and long-term regular exercise on reproductive tissue in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male Wistar rats.
CONCLUSIONS: The main result of this research is recommendation of investigating the tissue of interest for diagnosis of diabetes complications, measuring inflammatory mediators of tissue rather than evaluating their serum concentrations, and focusing on vascular complications as a major complication of diabetes. Furthermore, regular exercise could help improve the function of reproductive organs in healthy groups and prevent diabetes infertility complications to an acceptable degree in diabetic groups. PMID: 31517613 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Enhanced intestinal 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose uptake under metformin is not fully suppressed by loperamide.
This study investigated whether the metformin (Met)-induced enhanced intestinal uptake of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) is reduced by loperamide, a long-acting anti-diarrheal agent. METHODS: Mean 18F-FDG uptake in the mouse small intestine and colon with Met exposure was compared with that in control mice. In the Met group, high-dose (1.0 mg/kg body weight) and low-dose (0.1 mg/kg body weight) loperamide were introduced, and 18F-FDG uptake in the small intestine and colon was compared with that of control mice administered high-dose loperamide. The percent injected dose of 18F-FDG per gram of tissue (%ID/g)...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Dampening of neurotransmitter action: molecular similarity within the melatonin structure.
CONCLUSION: Molecular similarity within the melatonin and ligand structures relates to the established effects of melatonin on cell receptors regulated by purine nucleotides in cell signal transduction processes. Pharmacologic receptor promiscuity may contribute to the widespread effects of melatonin. PMID: 31517615 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

One-month of high-intensity exercise did not change the food intake and the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus proopiomelanocortin and neuropeptide Y expression levels in male Wistar rats.
CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate that one-month regular intensive exercise did not alter the levels of NPY and POMC mRNAs expression (as two important factors in the regulation of appetite) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and food intake suggesting that this type of exercise itself is not an appropriate procedure for the body weight reduction. PMID: 31517616 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

The effect of peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY3-36), a selective Y2 receptor agonist on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in albino rats.
CONCLUSION: With respect to the fact of improved insulin release and enhanced insulin sensitivity (an effect that may be mediated via suppressing accumulation of visceral fat and inflammatory markers), in the rats treated with PYY3-36, the PYY3-36 might be considered for the future as a promising therapeutic tool in T2DM. PMID: 31517617 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Neuronal morphology alterations in autism and possible role of oxytocin.
Authors: Falougy HE, Filova B, Ostatnikova D, Bacova Z, Bakos J Abstract Current understanding of the neuroanatomical abnormalities in autism includes gross anatomical changes in several brain areas and microstructural alterations in neuronal cells as well. There are many controversies in the interpretation of the imaging data, evaluation of volume and size of particular brain areas, and their functional translation into a broad autism phenotype. Critical questions of neuronal pathology in autism include the concept of the reversible plasticity of morphological changes, volume alterations of brain areas, and both s...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Lack of association between TCF7L2 gene variants and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Brazilian sample of patients with the risk for cardiovascular disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the TCF7L2 rs12255372 and rs7903146 polymorphisms do not influence T2DM in Brazilian patients with the high risk for CAD. Therefore, we assume that these variants may only be relevant for a specific subgroup of T2DM patients or some particular human population. PMID: 31517619 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Evaluation of ameliorative effect of sodium nitrate in experimental model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in male rats.
Authors: Oghbaei H, Alipour MR, Mohaddes G, Hamidian GR, Keyhanmanesh R Abstract OBJECTIVE: Diabetes induces sensory symptoms of neuropathy as positive (hyperalgesia), negative (hypoalgesia), or both. METHODS: In the present study, fifty male Wistar rats were allocated to five groups: control, control+nitrate, diabetes, diabetes+insulin, and diabetes+nitrate. Thirty days after diabetes confirmation, insulin (2-4 U/day) was injected subcutaneously in diabetes+insulin group and nitrate (100 mg/l) was added into drinking water of the control+nitrate and diabetes+nitrate groups for a period of 2 months. In order to...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Expression of genes encoding IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBPs in blood of obese adolescents with insulin resistance.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this investigation provide evidence that insulin resistance in obese adolescents is associated with gene specific changes in the expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP2, IGFBP5, IGFBP7, and HTRA1 genes and these changes possibly contribute to the development of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. PMID: 31517621 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Insulin resistance in obese adolescents affects the expression of genes associated with immune response.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study provide evidence that obesity affects the expression of the subset of genes related to immune response in the blood and that development of insulin resistance in obese adolescents is associated with strong down-regulation of the expressions of HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB1, HLA-F, and HLA-G genes, which may be contribute to the development of obesity complications. It is possible that transcription factor NFX1 and miR-190b participate in downregulation of HLA-DRA gene expression in the blood of obese adolescents with insulin resistance. PMID: 31517622 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells into male germ-like cells in co-culture with testicular cells.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that mesenchymal stem cells may be differentiated into male germ-like cells and therefore, may be a novel treatment option for men with azoospermia. PMID: 31517623 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Novel insights into genetics and clinics of the HNF1A-MODY.
Authors: Valkovicova T, Skopkova M, Stanik J, Gasperikova D Abstract MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young) is a type of diabetes resulting from a pathogenic effect of gene mutations. Up to date, 13 MODY genes are known. Gene HNF1A is one of the most common causes of MODY diabetes (HNF1A-MODY; MODY3). This gene is polymorphic and more than 1200 pathogenic and non-pathogenic HNF1A variants were described in its UTRs, exons and introns. For HNF1A-MODY, not just gene but also phenotype heterogeneity is typical. Although there are some clinical instructions, HNF1A-MODY patients often do not meet every diagnostic c...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Homeobox B4 gene expression is upregulated by ghrelin through PI3-kinase signaling pathway in rat's bone marrow stromal cells.
Authors: Taherkhani S, Moradi F, Hosseini M, Alipour M, Feizi H Abstract OBJECTIVE: Ghrelin, a 28 amino acid peptide, has diverse physiological roles. Phosphatidylino-sitol-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are involved in some of the recognized actions of ghrelin. It has been shown that ghrelin upregulates HOXB4 gene expression but the real mechanism of this effect is not clear. METHODS: Rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in DMEM. BMSCs were treated with ghrelin (100 μM) for 48 h. Real-time PCR for HOXB4 was performed from Control (untreated BMSCs), BG...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Clozapine impact on FosB/ ΔFosB expression in stress preconditioned rats: response to a novel stressor.
CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that CLZ may modulate the acute as well as novel stress effects on FosB/ΔFosB expression but its effect differs within the individual brain regions. PMID: 31517626 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Exposure to a single immobilization or lipopolysaccharide challenge increases expression of genes implicated in the development of Alzheimer's disease in the mice brain cortex.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that acute exposure to a strong IMO stressor, composed of the combined physical and psychological challenges, induces similar inflammatory and other ADrelated neuropathological changes as the immune LPS treatment. Our data also indicate that cytokines are most likely released from the peripheral immune cells, as we detected myeloid cells activity, without any microglia response. We hypothesize that stress induces innate immune response in the brain that consequently potentiate the expression of genes implicated in the AD-related neuropathology. PMID: 31517627 [PubMed - in process] (Source...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Enkephalinase activity is modified and correlates with fatty acids in frontal cortex depending on fish, olive or coconut oil used in the diet.
Authors: Segarra AB, Prieto I, Martinez-Canamero M, Ruiz-Sanz JI, Ruiz-Larrea MB, De Gasparo M, Banegas I, Zorad S, Ramirez-Sanchez M Abstract OBJECTIVE: Enkephalins are neuropeptides involved in functions such as pain modulation and/ or cognitive processes. It has been reported that dietary fat modifies enkephalins in the brain. Since enkephalins are hydrolyzed by enkephalinases, the study of the influence of dietary fats, differing in their degree of saturation, on brain fatty acids content and enkephalinase activity is important to understand its regulatory role on neuropeptides under different type of diets. ...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of dulaglutide in patients with absolute insulin deficiency.
Authors: Kutoh E, Hayashi J, Kuto AN Abstract OBJECTIVE: While dulaglutide has been approved inpatients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in combination with insulin, it has not been studied in insulin-deficient patients, not whether they have type 1 diabetes (T1DM) or T2DM. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide 0.75 mg/once weekly (QW) in patients with absolute insulin deficiency (n=10). SUBJECTS AND RESULTS: Significant reductions of HbA1c (9.30±1.03% to 8.61±1.21%; p
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Aldosterone rapidly activates p-PKC delta and GPR30 but suppresses p-PKC epsilon protein levels in rat kidney.
Authors: Eiam-Ong S, Chaipipat M, Manotham K, Eiam-Ong S Abstract OBJECTIVES: Aldosterone rapidly enhances protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and beta1 proteins in the rat kidney. The G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30)-mediated PKC pathway is involved in the inhibition of the potassium channel in HEK-239 cells. GPR30 mediates rapid actions of aldosterone in vitro. There are no reports available regarding the aldosterone action on other PKC isoforms and GPR30 proteins in vivo. The aim of the present study was to examine rapid actions of aldosterone on protein levels of phosphorylated PKC (p-PKC) delta, p-PKC epsilon, a...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Sex and salt intake dependent renin-angiotensin plasticity in the liver of the rat.
CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that RAS components expression is compensated differently in males and females. The observed loss of compensatory relationships in RAS between AT1 and Agt and AT1 and MasR in male rats under a salt diet can contribute to the differences observed in human with hypertension associated with an unhealthy diet. PMID: 31517631 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Pheochromocytoma.
Authors: Farrugia FA, Charalampopoulos A Abstract Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors originating in the adrenal medulla. They may be sporadic or in the context of a hereditary syndrome. A considerable number of pheochromocytomas carry germline or somatic gene mutations, which are inherited in the autosomal dominant way. All patients should undergo genetic testing. Symptoms are due to catecholamines over production or to a mass effect. Diagnosis is confirmed by raised plasma or urine metanephrines or normetanephrines. Radiology assists in the tumor location and any local invasion or metastasis. All the patients shoul...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Ulmus minor bark hydro-alcoholic extract ameliorates histological parameters and testosterone level in an experimental model of PCOS rats.
Authors: Hoseinpour MJ, Ghanbari A, Azad N, Zare A, Abdi S, Sajadi E, Abbaszadeh HA, Farahani RM, Abdollahifar MA Abstract OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and multifactorial disease associated with female factor infertility. Ulmus minor bark (UMB) is one of the medicinal plants used in Persian folklore as a fertility enhancer. In the current study, we aimed to elucidate the effect of UMB hydro-alcoholic extract on histological parameters and testosterone condition in an experimental model of PCOS rats. METHODS: Thirty female rats were randomly divided into five groups: (1) control, (2) v...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Spatial relationship between the c-Fos distribution and enkephalinergic, substance P, and tyrosine hydroxylase innervation fields after acute treatment with neuroleptics olanzapine, amisulpride, quetiapine, and aripiprazole in the rat septum.
CONCLUSION: The data of the present study indicate that ENK, SP, and TH innervation fields may influence separate populations of septal cells activated by AMI, OLA, QUE, and ARI and that each of these region-differently innervated cells may be associated with the functional heterogeneity of the individual lateral septal nuclei. PMID: 31517634 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Implantation and pregnancy outcome of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to pirimiphos-methyl.
CONCLUSION: Administration of pirimiphos-methyl resulted in a reduced implantation rate due to decreased uterine receptivity caused by an imbalance in the level of estradiol and progesterone and impaired reproductive outcome during pregnancy. PMID: 31517635 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Unexpected bleeding after Exenatide treatment: a causative relationship or a coincidence?
CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous bleeding probably caused by Exenatide. The exact pathophysiology, by which the drug can cause spontaneous bleeding, is still not clear and has to be revealed. PMID: 31517602 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Salivary cortisol and nitrite concentrations in school teachers: A longitudinal pilot study.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that changes in salivary cortisol levels are accompanied by changes in salivary nitrite levels. This is the first time that such association has been demonstrated. These results encourage further studies aimed to confirm the importance of salivary NO measurement in relation to occupational stress and cardiovascular health. PMID: 31517603 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

LDL and HDL lipoprotein subfractions in multiple sclerosis patients with decreased insulin sensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that changes in lipoprotein profile and subclasses are preceded by insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in patients with newly diagnosed MS. PMID: 31517604 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Administration of ghrelin associated with decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 following normobaric systemic hypoxia in the brain.
Authors: Mohaddes G, Babri S, Hossienzadeh F Abstract OBJECTIVE: According to our previous studies, ghrelin protects blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity and it attenuates hypoxia-induced brain edema in the hypoxic conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Several studies suggest a role for matrix metal-loproteinase-9 (MMP9) in the BBB disruption and cerebral edema formation. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of ghrelin on MMP9 protein expression in the model of acute and chronic systemic hypoxia. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into acute or chro...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

The expression of Drosha, DGCR8, Dicer and Ago-2 genes are upregulated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells under hyperglycemic condition.
CONCLUSION: Our results show that under hyperglycemic condition, expression of genes involved in the miRNA maturation was significantly increased in HUVECs. Upregulation of these genes may have role in diabetic complications through the dysregulation of the miRNA expression. PMID: 31517606 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Importance of methodological details in the measurement of cortisol in human hair.
CONCLUSION: The presented methodology is relatively simple and is likely to provide reliable results with low variability of cortisol concentrations measured in the same sample. PMID: 31517607 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Resistance training alone or combined with leucine supplementation improves the serum lipid profile of diabetic rats, whereas leucine alone does not.
CONCLUSION: The diabetic trained rats demonstrate a protective effect of resistance training on the serum lipid profile. PMID: 31517608 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus after a single treatment with a typical haloperidol and nine atypical antipsychotics: a pilot study.
CONCLUSIONS: The present pilot study revealed c-Fos expression increase predominantly in the PVN medial parvocellular subdivision neurons by action of only several sorts of antipsychotics tested indicating that this structure of the brain does not represent a common extra-striatal target area for all antipsychotics. PMID: 29715183 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - May 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Mutations in SURF1 are important genetic causes of Leigh syndrome in Slovak patients.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified disease-causing mutations in all three probands, which points to the important role of SURF1 gene in etiology of Leigh syndrome in Slovakia. Our data showed that patients with atypical Leigh syndrome phenotype without lesions in basal ganglia may benefit from the whole exome sequencing method. In the case of probands presenting the typical phenotype, Sanger sequencing of the SURF1 gene seems to be an effective method of DNA analysis. PMID: 29715184 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - May 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Darapladib inhibits atherosclerosis development in type 2 diabetes mellitus Sprague-Dawley rat model.
Authors: Wihastuti TA, Heriansyah T, Hanifa H, Andarini S, Sholichah Z, Sulfia YH, Adam AA, Refialdinata J, Lutfiana NC Abstract OBJECTIVE: Increase in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level in diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis is related to lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2). Lp-PLA2 is an enzyme that produces lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) and oxidized nonesterified fatty acids (oxNEFA). LysoPC regulates inflammation mediators, including intra-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Darapladib is known as a Lp-PLA2 specific inhibitor. The aim of this study was to reveal the effect of daraplad...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - May 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Glucometabolic effects of single and repeated exposure to forced-swimming stressor in Sprague-Dawley rats.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, repeated exposure to forced-swimming stressor induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats by disrupting the insulin sensitivity as well as heightening the glycogenolysis in the liver and skeletal muscle. Acute stressor was unable to cause glucose intolerance and insulin resistance but it appears that may have a positive effect on the lipid metabolism. PMID: 29715186 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - May 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Possible association of ghrelin/obestatin balance with cardiometabolic risk in obese subjects with Helicobacter pylori.
CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that ghrelin, obestatin, and leptin are affected by presence of H. pylori seropositivity in obese subjects. The higher ghrelin levels and ghrelin/obestatin ratio with lowered obestatin could be considered as a gastro-protective effect against inflammation induced by H. pylori. PMID: 29715187 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - May 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Possible protective effect of curcumin on the thyroid gland changes induced by sodium fluoride in albino rats: light and electron microscopic study.
CONCLUSIONS: Sodium fluoride affected both the function and structure of the thyroid gland while curcumin was protective against these toxic effects. PMID: 29715188 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - May 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Co-exposure to endocrine disruptors: effect of bisphenol A and soy extract on glucose homeostasis and related metabolic disorders in male mice.
CONCLUSION: Soy extract may protect against some adverse effects of BPA. These findings represent the first report suggesting a potential effect between soy extract and BPA in low doses, however, further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID: 29715189 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - May 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

High dose of histone deacetylase inhibitors affects insulin secretory mechanism of pancreatic beta cell line.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that HDACis caused failure to suppress insulin secretion at low glucose concentrations and enhance insulin secretion at high glucose concentrations. In other words, when these HDACis are used clinically, high doses of HDACis may cause hypoglycemia in the fasting state and hyperglycemia in the fed state. When using HDACis, physicians should, therefore, be aware of the capacity of these drugs to modulate the insulin secretory capacity of pancreatic beta cells. PMID: 29453918 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - February 19, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Genetic and epigenetic differences of benign and malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs).
Authors: Khatami F, Mohammadamoli M, Tavangar SM Abstract Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are tumors arising from the adrenal medulla and sympathetic/parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. According to Th e Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), approximately 40% of PPGLs are due to germ line mutations in one of 16 susceptibility genes, and a further 30% are due to somatic alterations in at least seven main genes (VHL, EPAS1, CSDE1, MAX, HRAS, NF1, RET, and possibly KIF1B). Th e diagnosis of malignant PPGL was straight forward in most cases as it was defined as presence of PPGL in non-chromaffin tissues. Acco...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - February 19, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research