Endocrine approach in the treatment of obesity: Is there any space for the adiponectin action?
Authors: Michalakis KG Abstract Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, exerting many positive effects in the human body. Its action has been widely studied, placing it into the metabolic health beneficial products of the adipose tissue. Nevertheless, adiponectin has been shown to exert some extra beneficial non metabolic actions, as well. Adiponectin levels can be related to reduced incidence of cancer in obese patients. Moreover, adiponectin has been shown to be implicated in the positive fertility outcomes of women. Some new studies have also indicated that adiponectin has a potential effect in the ...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - August 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Expression of IDE and PITRM1 genes in ERN1 knockdown U87 glioma cells: effect of hypoxia and glucose deprivation.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this investigation demonstrate that ERN1 knockdown significantly decreases the expression of IDE and PITRM1 genes by ERN1 protein kinase mediated mechanism. The expression of both studied genes was sensitive to hypoxia as well as glucose deprivation and dependent on ERN1 signaling in gene-specific manner. It is possible that the level of these genes expression under hypoxia and glucose deprivation is a result of complex interaction of variable endoplasmic reticulum stress related and unrelated regulatory factors and contributed to the control of the cell metabolism. PMID: 32857715 [PubMed - as s...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - August 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Determinants of wound healing in patients hospitalized for diabetic foot ulcer: results from the MEDFUN study.
Authors: Ezeani IU, Ugwu ET, Adeleye FO, Gezawa ID, Okpe IO, Enamino MI Abstract OBJECTIVE: The high amputation rates from diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) in Nigeria and prolonged hospitalization due to poor wound healing is a source of concern. Furthermore, factors that affect wound healing of DFUs have not yet been well studied in Nigeria, whereas knowing these factors could improve DFU outcomes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the factors that are associated with the wound healing in patients hospitalized for DFU. METHODS: The Multi-Center Evaluation of Diabetic Foot Ulcer in Nigeria (MEDFU...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - August 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Aldosterone synthase deficiency type II: an unusual presentation of the first Greek case reported with confirmed genetic analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Physicians handling neonates with faltering growth, particularly in the initial six weeks of life, should be suspicious of mineralocorticoid insufficiency either as isolated hypoaldosteronism or in the context of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Essential investigations should be performed and appropriate treatment should be administered promptly without awaiting for the hormonal profile results. Interpretation of the clinical picture and the hormonal profile will guide the analysis of candidate genes. Primary selective hypoaldosteronism is a rare, life threatening disease, but still with an unknown overall pop...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - August 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Cell proliferation and anti-oxidant effects of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors: role of extracellular signal-regulating kinase in astrocyte-like cells.
CONCLUSION: OXT stimulates the growth of astrocyte-like cells acting on OXTR via ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The protection against apoptosis and the antioxidant capacity of OXT may contribute to the observed increase in cell proliferation. Oxytocin and OXTR appear to be fundamental for cell growth and viability of glial cells. PMID: 32857718 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - August 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

ERN1 knockdown modifies the effect of glucose deprivation on homeobox gene expressions in U87 glioma cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this investigation demonstrate that ERN1 knockdown significantly modifies the sensitivity of most studied homeobox gene expressions to glucose deprivation condition and that these changes are a result of complex interaction of variable endoplasmic reticulum stress related and unrelated regulatory factors and contributed to glioma cell growth and possibly to their chemoresistance. PMID: 32857719 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - August 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

The cytochrome 11B2 aldosterone synthase gene rs1799998 single nucleotide polymorphism determines elevated aldosterone, higher blood pressure, and reduced glomerular filtration, especially in diabetic female patients.
Authors: Sydorchuk L, Dzhuryak V, Sydorchuk A, Levytska S, Petrynych V, Knut R, Kshanovska A, Iftoda O, Tkachuk O, Kyfiak P, Popovich A, Khomko O, Sydorchuk R Abstract OBJECTIVE: The cytochrome 11B2 aldosterone synthase gene (CYP11B2) that links to aldosterone synthase enzyme synthesis changes and blood pressure regulation is of particular interest among the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system encoding genes. METHODS: One-hundred hypertensive patients with target-organ damaging (2nd stage), moderate, high or very high cardiovascular risk were involved in the case-control study. Mean age was 59.87±8.02 y...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - August 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Changes in the transcriptional activity of the entero-insular axis genes in streptozotocin-induced diabetes and after the administration of TNF- α non-selective blockers.
CONCLUSIONS: The expression of incretins, glucose transporters, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TNF-α) in immune cells may be used as markers of several autoimmune pathologies progression such as type 1 diabetes due to their effect on the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. PMID: 32857721 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - August 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

c-Fos and FosB/ ΔFosB colocalizations in selected forebrain structures after olanzapine, amisulpride, aripiprazole, and quetiapine single administration in rats preconditioned by two different mild stressors sequences.
CONCLUSION: The present findings indicate that ΔFosB and c-Fos colocalizations occurred in each of the three areas investigated, i.e. seVL, stDL, and shell, in both HDL and CMS preconditioned rats, whereas the parallel occurrence of free c-Fos as well as c-Fos colocalized with ΔFosB might speak out for a possible involvement of the c-Fos activated by antipsychotics applied in dual, i.e. short- and long-lasting, functions. PMID: 32597143 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Relationship between the night shift work and thyroid disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The higher TSH among the night shift workers is attributed to disruption of the circadian rhythm and sleep/wake cycle, with subsequent eating disorders. We proposed that more attention should be paid to the working pattern and the related health consequences. PMID: 32597144 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

The use of ex vivo ovary culture for assessment of alterations in steroidogenesis following neonatal exposure to poly(ethylene glycol)-block-polylactide methyl ether or titanium dioxide nanoparticles in Wistar rats.
Authors: Scsukova S, Mlynarcikova AB, Rollerova E Abstract OBJECTIVES: Rapid development and widespread application of different types of nanoparticles (NPs) may result in increased exposure of humans and animals to NPs. Recently, reproductive toxicity due to NP exposure has become a major component of risk assessment. Current data have suggested that NPs may pose adverse effects on male and female reproductive health by altering normal testis and ovarian structure, and sex hormone levels. To detect possible alterations in steroidogenesis in adult and infantile rats following neonatal exposure to polymeric poly(eth...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Possible ameliorating effects of Glycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice) on the sperm parameters in rats under high fat diet.
CONCLUSION: Glycyrrhiza Glabra extract may exert its ameliorating effects on the sperm parameters through its anti-obesity impact. Both doses of the extract were effective, however, the GC100 was more effective in improving the sperm parameters. PMID: 32597146 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Chronic exposure of adult male Wistar rats to bisphenol A causes testicular oxidative stress: Role of gallic acid.
CONCLUSION: Findings from the present study confirmed the previously reported data and show that the ability of GA, as a potent antioxidant, may protect against BPA-induced alterations in the male reproductive function. Hence, GA protects against testicular oxidative stress in adult male Wistar rats following chronic exposure to BPA. PMID: 32597147 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Silencing of NAMPT leads to up-regulation of insulin receptor substrate 1 gene expression in U87 glioma cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this investigation demonstrated that silencing of NAMPT mRNA with corresponding down-regulation of NAMPT protein and suppression of the glioma cell proliferation affected the expression of IRS1 gene as well as many other genes encoding the proliferation related proteins. It is possible that dysregulation of most of the studied genes in glioma cells after silencing of NAMPT is reflected by a complex of intergenic interactions and that NAMPT is an important factor for genome stability and regulatory mechanisms contributing to the control of glioma cell metabolism and proliferation. PMID: 32597148 ...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

May C-peptide index be a new marker to predict proteinuria in anemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus?
CONCLUSION: The present study sheds light to the association between C-peptide, CPI, and anemic diabetic nephropathy in T2DM patients and indicates that further prospective studies are needed to clarify this issue. PMID: 32597149 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

The role of adipose tissue secretion in the creation and pain level in osteoarthritis.
This study is part of an OA registry in the eastern part of Fars Province, Iran. Overall, 150 patients with OA and 300 sex matched individuals were selected as a control group. They were compared regarding adipokine concentration (leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin), anthropo-metric indices, the Western Ontario and McMaster universities arthritis index score (WOMAC). RESULTS: All adipokine levels were higher among OA patients (p
Source: Endocrine Regulations - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Effect of amisulpride, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole single administration on c-Fos expression in vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic neurons of the rat hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus.
Authors: Kiss A, Osacka J Abstract OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to reveal the impact of four types of atypical antipsychotics including amisulpride (AMI), olanzapine (OLA), quetiapine (QUE), and aripiprazole (ARI), with different receptor-affinity profile and dissociation constant, on the activity of hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic neurons. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats received a single injection of vehicle (VEH) (0.1 ml/100g), AMI (20 mg/kg), OLA (5 mg/kg), QUE (15 mg/kg/) or ARI (10 mg/kg). Ninety min after treatment, the animals were fixed by transcardia...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Nerve impulse transmission pathway-focused genes expression analysis in patients with primary hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that AIT and hypothyroidism can affect the expression of mRNA nerve impulse transmission genes in gene specific manner and that these changes in gene expressions can be playing a role in the development of neurological complications associated with thyroid pathology. Detection of the transcriptional activity of nerve impulse transmission genes in peripheral white blood cells can be used as an important minimally invasive prognostic marker of the risk for developing neurological complications comorbid with thyroid pathology. PMID: 32597152 [PubMed - in process] (Source:...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Involvement of Asc and Nlrp3 inflammasomes in the testes following spinal cord injury.
CONCLUSION: This study provided further evidence of innate immunity activation in testes that could lead to more disruption of spermatogenesis in SCI patients at specific times. PMID: 32597153 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Association between serum adiponectin levels with gestational diabetes mellitus and postpartum metabolic syndrome:A case control study.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study indicate a correlation of low adiponectin concentrations with gestational diabetes, but this association with postpartum metabolic syndrome is uncertain. However, to elucidate the mechanism of adiponectin in predicting gestational diabetes and postpartum metabolic syndrome further studies are required. PMID: 32597154 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

The polypharmacy reduction potential of cinnamic acids and some related compounds in pre- and post-onset management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
CONCLUSIONS: Much of the work has been done in animal models of pre- and post-onset T2DM and non-pre- or post-onset T2DM humans and animals, along with some cell culture and in vitro work. Very little work has been done with human pre- and post-onset T2DM. While there is potential for managing 3 or more members of the cluster with many of these compounds, a definitive answer awaits large pre- and post-T2DM onset clinical trials with humans. PMID: 32597155 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Thyroid fibromatosis: A case report.
Authors: Mehdizadeh B, Gharib M Abstract OBJECTIVES: Fibromatosis is a rare tumor with a prevalence of 2-4 per million per year. Its occur-rence in the thyroid is very rare and to the best of our knowledge only five cases have been reported in the literature.Subject and Results. In this case report, we present a thirty-seven-year-old man without any significant past medical history, who presented with an anterior neck swelling and occasional cough for four months before admission. Sonographic-guided fine needle aspiration cytology studies reported a follicular neoplasm. Microscopic and immunohistochemical evaluatio...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

The altered circadian pattern of basal insulin requirements - an early marker of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes in type 1 diabetes mellitus.
CONCLUSIONS: After exclusion of other causes, the unexplained reoccurring hypoglycemia can be a remarkable feature of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes in immune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus on intensive insulin replacement therapy. PMID: 32597157 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Effects of treatment with haloperidol and clozapine on the plasma concentrations of thyroid hormones in rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Haloperidol and clozapine act via different mechanisms and may have dissociable effects on thyroid hormones. Following treatment with haloperidol, significant changes in T4, but not in T3, serum levels were observed. Haloperidol and clozapine had different effects on the thyroid hormone levels. These results indicate that antipsychotic treatment can contribute to the thyroid dysfunction. Therefore, greater caution should be applied to the antipsychotics use. The thyroid function of the patients should be closely monitored, while using these drugs. PMID: 32597158 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Can troxerutin pretreatment prevent testicular complications in prepubertal diabetic male rats?
CONCLUSION: Troxerutin-pretreatment may play an essential role in the management of the type-1 diabetes-induced testicular disorders by decreasing blood glucose and modulating apoptosis. PMID: 32597159 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Hypoxic regulation of EDN1, EDNRA, EDNRB, and ECE1 gene expressions in ERN1 knockdown U87 glioma cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this investigation demonstrate that ERN1 knockdown significantly increased the expression of endothelin-1 and its receptors as well as ECE1 genes by different mechanisms and that all studied gene expressions were sensitive to hypoxia. It is possible that hypoxic regulation of the expression of these genes is a result of complex interaction of variable ERN1 related transcription and regulatory factors with HIF1A and possibly contributed to the control of glioma growth. PMID: 31734650 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - November 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

The bone hormones and their potential effects on glucose and energy metabolism.
Authors: Addai D, Zarkos J, Tolekova A Abstract The bones form the framework of our body. We know that bones protect our vital organs, regulate calcium and phosphorous homeostasis, and function as a site of erythropoiesis. More recently, however, the identification of bone hormones has allowed us to envision bones as endocrine organs too. Within the last few years, the bone hormones osteocalcin and lipocalin 2 have been implicated with glucose and energy metabolism. We systematically reviewed articles surrounding this subject and found a clear relationship between the osteocalcin levels and glucose tolerance and in...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - November 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Comparing the preventive effect of sodium hydrosulfide, leptin, and curcumin against L-arginine induced acute pancreatitis in rats: role of corticosterone and inducible nitric oxide synthase.
CONCLUSIONS: NaHS was more effective in AP amelioration than the leptin and curcumin. PMID: 31734652 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - November 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Effect of glucose deprivation on the expression of genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor and some related factors in ERN1-knockdown U87 glioma cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study demonstrated that glucose deprivation did not change the expression level of NR3C1 gene but it significantly affected the expression of NR3C2, AHR, NRIP, SGK1, SGK3, and NNT genes in vector-transfected U87 glioma cells in gene specific manner and possibly contributed to the control of glioma growth since the expression of most studied genes in glucose deprivation condition was significantly dependent on the functional activity of IRE1 signaling enzyme. PMID: 31734653 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - November 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

The coexistence of infundibular pituicytoma and Cushing's disease due to pituitary adenoma: A case report.
CONCLUSIONS: Pituicytoma is an uncommon noninvasive tumor of the sellar and suprasellar regions. In this case report, we described a patient with Cushing's disease to whom MRI displayed only an infundibular well-circumscribed lesion, but not any pituitary adenoma. Despite the absence of any sellar lesion, awareness of other undetected possible lesion and exploring hypophysis during the transsphenoidal surgery is mandatory for the correct diagnosis. PMID: 31734654 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - November 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Early postnatal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reduced insulin sensitivity in adult rats.
Authors: Sadeghimahalli F, Zardooz H, Golchoobian R Abstract OBJECTIVE: Early life stress influences the development of metabolic disorders, including functional changes in the developing of pancreas mediated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In the present study, the role of an early postnatal stress on corticosterone, glucose, and insulin levels was investigated during young adulthood. METHODS: Two groups of pups were studied, including control group (pups not receiving foot shock by communication box), and early stress group (pups receiving foot shock by communication box 2 times/day for 5 consecuti...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - November 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Effect of letrozole on spermogram parameters and hormonal profile in infertile men: A clinical trial study.
CONCLUSION: The ratio of testosterone to estradiol levels in infertile men treated with aromatase inhibitor improved and caused changes in sperm parameters. Letrozole may be used to improve sperm parameters in infertile men with low serum testosterone to estradiol ratio. PMID: 31734656 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - November 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Periaqueductal gray and emotions: the complexity of the problem and the light at the end of the tunnel, the magnetic resonance imaging.
Authors: Zelena D, Menant O, Andersson F, Chaillou E Abstract The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is less referred in relationship with emotions than other parts of the brain (e.g. cortex, thalamus, amygdala), most probably because of the difficulty to reach and manipulate this small and deeply lying structure. After defining how to evaluate emotions, we have reviewed the literature and summarized data of the PAG contribution to the feeling of emotions focusing on the behavioral and neurochemical considerations. In humans, emotions can be characterized by three main domains: the physiological changes, the communicative e...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Association between adiponectin rs17300539 and rs266729 gene polymorphisms with serum adiponectin level in an Iranian diabetic/pre-diabetic population.
CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that there is an association between rs17300539 with the increase of T2DM but rs266729 showed no association with the risk of T2DM. Allele A of rs17300539 increased the risk of diabetes. There is no association between adiponectin level and both polymorphisms. PMID: 31517610 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

STAT3 and Nrf2 pathways modulate the protective effect of verapamil on lung injury of diabetic rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Verapamil afforded protection in diabetic lung injury. The protection was mediated by the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of verapamil. PMID: 31517611 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome as a systemic disease with multiple molecular pathways: a narrative review.
Authors: Carvalho LML, Dos Reis FM, Candido AL, Nunes FFC, Ferreira CN, Gomes KB Abstract Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, amenorrhea, and polycystic ovaries. This endocrinopathy is associated with many metabolic disorders such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular complications. Inflammation is likely to play an important role in the promoting these metabolic imbalances, while prothrombotic and pro-oxidative mechanisms further contribute to the cardiovascular risk of these patients. The e...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Effects of short- and long-term regular exercise on reproductive tissue in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male Wistar rats.
CONCLUSIONS: The main result of this research is recommendation of investigating the tissue of interest for diagnosis of diabetes complications, measuring inflammatory mediators of tissue rather than evaluating their serum concentrations, and focusing on vascular complications as a major complication of diabetes. Furthermore, regular exercise could help improve the function of reproductive organs in healthy groups and prevent diabetes infertility complications to an acceptable degree in diabetic groups. PMID: 31517613 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Enhanced intestinal 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose uptake under metformin is not fully suppressed by loperamide.
This study investigated whether the metformin (Met)-induced enhanced intestinal uptake of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) is reduced by loperamide, a long-acting anti-diarrheal agent. METHODS: Mean 18F-FDG uptake in the mouse small intestine and colon with Met exposure was compared with that in control mice. In the Met group, high-dose (1.0 mg/kg body weight) and low-dose (0.1 mg/kg body weight) loperamide were introduced, and 18F-FDG uptake in the small intestine and colon was compared with that of control mice administered high-dose loperamide. The percent injected dose of 18F-FDG per gram of tissue (%ID/g)...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Dampening of neurotransmitter action: molecular similarity within the melatonin structure.
CONCLUSION: Molecular similarity within the melatonin and ligand structures relates to the established effects of melatonin on cell receptors regulated by purine nucleotides in cell signal transduction processes. Pharmacologic receptor promiscuity may contribute to the widespread effects of melatonin. PMID: 31517615 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

One-month of high-intensity exercise did not change the food intake and the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus proopiomelanocortin and neuropeptide Y expression levels in male Wistar rats.
CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate that one-month regular intensive exercise did not alter the levels of NPY and POMC mRNAs expression (as two important factors in the regulation of appetite) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and food intake suggesting that this type of exercise itself is not an appropriate procedure for the body weight reduction. PMID: 31517616 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

The effect of peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY3-36), a selective Y2 receptor agonist on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in albino rats.
CONCLUSION: With respect to the fact of improved insulin release and enhanced insulin sensitivity (an effect that may be mediated via suppressing accumulation of visceral fat and inflammatory markers), in the rats treated with PYY3-36, the PYY3-36 might be considered for the future as a promising therapeutic tool in T2DM. PMID: 31517617 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Neuronal morphology alterations in autism and possible role of oxytocin.
Authors: Falougy HE, Filova B, Ostatnikova D, Bacova Z, Bakos J Abstract Current understanding of the neuroanatomical abnormalities in autism includes gross anatomical changes in several brain areas and microstructural alterations in neuronal cells as well. There are many controversies in the interpretation of the imaging data, evaluation of volume and size of particular brain areas, and their functional translation into a broad autism phenotype. Critical questions of neuronal pathology in autism include the concept of the reversible plasticity of morphological changes, volume alterations of brain areas, and both s...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Lack of association between TCF7L2 gene variants and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Brazilian sample of patients with the risk for cardiovascular disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the TCF7L2 rs12255372 and rs7903146 polymorphisms do not influence T2DM in Brazilian patients with the high risk for CAD. Therefore, we assume that these variants may only be relevant for a specific subgroup of T2DM patients or some particular human population. PMID: 31517619 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Evaluation of ameliorative effect of sodium nitrate in experimental model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in male rats.
Authors: Oghbaei H, Alipour MR, Mohaddes G, Hamidian GR, Keyhanmanesh R Abstract OBJECTIVE: Diabetes induces sensory symptoms of neuropathy as positive (hyperalgesia), negative (hypoalgesia), or both. METHODS: In the present study, fifty male Wistar rats were allocated to five groups: control, control+nitrate, diabetes, diabetes+insulin, and diabetes+nitrate. Thirty days after diabetes confirmation, insulin (2-4 U/day) was injected subcutaneously in diabetes+insulin group and nitrate (100 mg/l) was added into drinking water of the control+nitrate and diabetes+nitrate groups for a period of 2 months. In order to...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Expression of genes encoding IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBPs in blood of obese adolescents with insulin resistance.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this investigation provide evidence that insulin resistance in obese adolescents is associated with gene specific changes in the expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP2, IGFBP5, IGFBP7, and HTRA1 genes and these changes possibly contribute to the development of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. PMID: 31517621 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Insulin resistance in obese adolescents affects the expression of genes associated with immune response.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study provide evidence that obesity affects the expression of the subset of genes related to immune response in the blood and that development of insulin resistance in obese adolescents is associated with strong down-regulation of the expressions of HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB1, HLA-F, and HLA-G genes, which may be contribute to the development of obesity complications. It is possible that transcription factor NFX1 and miR-190b participate in downregulation of HLA-DRA gene expression in the blood of obese adolescents with insulin resistance. PMID: 31517622 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells into male germ-like cells in co-culture with testicular cells.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that mesenchymal stem cells may be differentiated into male germ-like cells and therefore, may be a novel treatment option for men with azoospermia. PMID: 31517623 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Novel insights into genetics and clinics of the HNF1A-MODY.
Authors: Valkovicova T, Skopkova M, Stanik J, Gasperikova D Abstract MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young) is a type of diabetes resulting from a pathogenic effect of gene mutations. Up to date, 13 MODY genes are known. Gene HNF1A is one of the most common causes of MODY diabetes (HNF1A-MODY; MODY3). This gene is polymorphic and more than 1200 pathogenic and non-pathogenic HNF1A variants were described in its UTRs, exons and introns. For HNF1A-MODY, not just gene but also phenotype heterogeneity is typical. Although there are some clinical instructions, HNF1A-MODY patients often do not meet every diagnostic c...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Homeobox B4 gene expression is upregulated by ghrelin through PI3-kinase signaling pathway in rat's bone marrow stromal cells.
Authors: Taherkhani S, Moradi F, Hosseini M, Alipour M, Feizi H Abstract OBJECTIVE: Ghrelin, a 28 amino acid peptide, has diverse physiological roles. Phosphatidylino-sitol-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are involved in some of the recognized actions of ghrelin. It has been shown that ghrelin upregulates HOXB4 gene expression but the real mechanism of this effect is not clear. METHODS: Rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in DMEM. BMSCs were treated with ghrelin (100 μM) for 48 h. Real-time PCR for HOXB4 was performed from Control (untreated BMSCs), BG...
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research

Clozapine impact on FosB/ ΔFosB expression in stress preconditioned rats: response to a novel stressor.
CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that CLZ may modulate the acute as well as novel stress effects on FosB/ΔFosB expression but its effect differs within the individual brain regions. PMID: 31517626 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Regulations)
Source: Endocrine Regulations - September 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research